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17 and 20, as also from 2 Chron. xi. 22, it is clear, bable to rest upon. Upon the heroes of David, that it was regarded as the right of the reigning comp. 2 Sam. xxiii. 8 sq., and 1 Chron. xi. 10 sq. king to determine who amongst his sons should Adonijah, like Absalom (2 Sam. xv. 8, 12), presucceed him. He could transmit the kingdom to his pared a great feast, which was ostensibly also first-born or to his eldest son, but he was not obliged sacrificial, in order to impart to the transaction a (2 Chron. xxi. 3) thereto. Adonijah was not at all religious coloring. The well, i. e., the sources of first-born, but only the fourth son. He himself Rogel (Jos. xv. 7; xviii. 16), lay, according to does not tako his age into the account, and appeals, 2 Sam. xvii. 17, southeasterly from Jerusalem, in in chap. ii. 13 sq., not to this, but to the voice of the loveliest, most fruitful plain; according to the people who had shown themselves favorably Josephus, in Bacinexõ Tapadelow; according to disposed towards him. David's designation of Schulz (Jerus., s. 79), "even now a place of recre. Solomon as his successor, has its reason in the ation for the inhabitants of Jerusalem." Thenius promise in 2 Sam. vii. 12–16; xii. 24 sq.; 1 Chron. derives the name Zoheleth from Sot, to crawlxxii. 9, 10; he regarded him as the one who, according to the prescript touching a king in Deut. a rock which one must climb with difficulty. This xvii. 15, was chosen by Jehovah. Of a formal place was in every respect suited for a public fes"right" to the throne, possessed by Adonijah, tivity. (Comp. Robinson, Palestine, vol. i. p. 333 which he thought to "assure " himself of (Thenius), Boston, 1868.) there can be no discussion. That he knew well Vers. 11-14. Wherefore Nathan spake unto the will of his father, by virtue of which Solomon Bath-sheba, &c. According to the custom prewas to be his successor, is clear from the circum- vailing anciently in the East, on the occasion of stance that he invited all his brothers, and the the forcible seizure of the throne, of murdering men who were employed in the royal service, to the dethroned ruler, or the opposing pretenders to feast prepared by him. Solomon only, and the the crown, with all their nearest relations (Judg. more confidential friends of David, were not in- ix. 5; 1 Kings xv. 29; 2 Kings x. 6, 13; xi. 1), in vited. His design was to render null the purpose the event of the success of Adonijah's undertakof his father, and to possess himself of the throne, ing, there was very much to fear for the life both by conspiracy and force, in opposition to his wish. of Solomon and of his mother. That David knew His undertaking was a formal usurpation, and nothing of the plans of Adonijah, and that Nathan like that of Absalom, to which the whole narrative was first informed of them only at the moment of manifestly points. Upon this account also the their execution, shows how secretly the affair had text says: "he exalted himself," i, e., he over- been managed. This would have been unnecesexalted himself-made himself somewhat that did sary had Adonijah a recognized right to the not become him (Xeyy used here as in Prov. xxx. throne, and had his own conscience been right 32; Numb. xvi. 3), with this result, that his in the premises. David, moreover, would not have father left him to iis will (1927a means from his, The prophet Nathan also deemed it his duty to pre
been so very much surprised at his undertaking. Adonijah's days, and is not, with Seb. Schmidt, to vent, as far as possible, a repetition of the history be understood first of his attempt at royal of Absalom. With great wisdom and prudence, sovereignty). The moral infirmity of the royal he addressed himself to the mother of Solomon, father, coupled now with bodily weakness, in- who was especially beloved of David, begging her duced Adonijah to enter upon his guilty enter to apply to the king, with whom rested the right prise. Just as Absalom had done (2 Sam. xv. 1), to designate his successor, to represent to him the he provided himself with what, according to mortal peril which threatened both her son and 1 Sam. viii. 11, is designated as the first "royal herself, and to remind him of his promise to her. prerogative," chariots, riders, and body-guardsmen, When David's mind should first, by this means, i. e., a brilliant court, in order thereby to impose become aroused, than he (the prophet) would, in upon the multitude.
the name of Jehovah, appear before the king, and Vers. 7–10. And he conferred with Joab, place before him his given word (1 Chron. &c. Through the commander-in-chief, Adonijah xxviii. 5), in order to incite him to immediate hopes to win over the army, and through the action. “When David first promised Bath-sheba, high-priest, to secure also the priesthood. Not the upon his oath, that her son Solomon should beconviction " that he had right on his side" come king, is not known. Obviously it was after (Thenius), induced both men to enter into his the promise he had received in 2 Sam. vii." plans. Joab had observed that he was sunken in (Keil). the good graces of David (chap. ii. 5), and conse Vers. 15-27. And Bath-sheba went in unto quently could not hope for much for himself from the king, &c. The statement that king David Solomon; but from Adonijah he could hope, espe- was old, &c. (ver. 1), explains the words: " into cially if made king by his assistance. Abiathar the chamber" (ver. 15), and means he was so feeble seems to have felt himself set aside by David for that he could not leave his sick-room, and needed Zadok, which priest was at the tabernacle with constant attention.-From ver. 20, comp. 27, it is the ark of the covenant at Zion (see on vers. 33 most explicit, once more, that no one entertained and 39), and to have feared that the high-priestly the thought that Adonijah, as the eldest surviving family of Eleazar, to which Zadok belonged, son of the king, had a right to the succession; but would supplant his own, viz.: the family of that the right to decide whether of his sons should Ithamar. Upon Benaiah, comp. 2 Sam. viii. 18 and be king, remained rather with the king, and that xxiii. 20 sq.; upon Nathan, see 2 Sam. vii. and xii. his decision was anxiously waited for.-I and my Shimei is mentioned in chap. iv. 18: Josephus son Solomon shall be counted offenders, i. e., Dames Rei ó Aavidov oímos. Doubtless these latter we shall be treated as traitors and offenders guilty filled high offices. That they were the only sur- of death. After these words Bath-sheba retired, and viving brothers of David (Ewald), has nothing pro- Nathan, informed in the meanwhile, went unto the
king. While the former addressed her statement to in ver. 39, we are not to understand the taber the king directly, as a mother, the latter, as proph- nacle of the covenant, but the tent erected by Da et, begins with a question in which, upon the one vid upon Zion for the ark of the covenant (2 Sam side, a slight reproach was conveyed that David vi. 17; 1 Chron. xv. 1; xvi. 1). David expressly should not have put a stop sooner to the design gave order for the anointing of Solomon. so that of Adonijah, and have exposed his own friends to nothing appertaining to the investiture of the king great danger, and on the other side it expressed should be wanting. The supposition that anointing the confidence that the king would hold to his took place only with those kings "who were not onth, and carry it out forth with.-Under "the free from exceptions, or who had no historic captains of the host,” ver. 25, the servants of the right to the throne" (Winer and Grotius, after the king (the mighty men) in ver. 10 are included. rabbins), is unfounded, for David, who here ordered Kings used to be saluted by the people with the the anointing, regarded Solomon in no respect as salutation, Live the king! (1 Sam. x. 24; 2 Sam. xvi. an exceptional successor. From the fact that he 16; 2 Kings xi. 12; 2 Chron. xxiii. 31.) The order wished this done not simply by the high-priest, of names in ver. 26 contains a climax in which but also by the prophet, we learn the high signifi. Solomon, as the highest personage, is named last. cance he attributed to the prophetic office in Israel. Nathan's words are anything else than the expres. He says purposely, ruler over Israel aad over Juulih. sion of wounded vanity – they simply exhibit He had himself, for some time, been ruler only over Adonijah's hostile sentiment towards the friends Judah: then he had conquered Ephraim, which of the king, and also the fate in store for them named itself Israel, and had united it again with should Adonijah become sovereign.
Judah. The old disunion had again exhibited Vers. 28–38. Then king David answered, itself on the revolt of Absalom (2 Sam. xix. 40 sq.); &c. The quick and firm resolution of David shows hence, with Adonijah's like undertaking in view. how strong he was vet in mind and will, notwith- ; he deemed it necessary to declare expressly tha: standing all his bodily weakness. He repeats his Solomon should be ruler over Israel and Judat. oath, not, however, employing merely the usual for Benaiah, as the person upon whom the execution mula, as Jehovah liveth! but adding most signifi- of the order devolved, answered David, and decantly, who hath red-emod my soul out of all distress. clared himself ready to carry it out, - not, as i. e., to the God who has been true to me, and deliver-Thenius supposes, to flatter the paternal vanity, ed me wonderfully out of so many and great dangers, but, in the coa viction that the king's command was will I also remain true unto the end. His oath, in conformity vith the will of Jehovah, he wished coming from deep emotion, is likewise a praise and that the divine blessing might rest upon the gove thanksgiving unto Jehovah. Had Adonijah an
ernment of Solomon. actual formal right to the throne, such an oath
Ver. 38. So Zadok the priest, &c. By the would have been the greatest sin, in so far as David, Cherethites and Pelethites we must understand the while appealing to the divine mercy and grace, royal body-guard (Josephus, owuatopilakes). On would have knowingly trodden under foot the the other hand, the modern interpreters are not
agreed whether both expressions are to be under right of his son. The added Dļus, ver. 31, exhibits stood ethnographically or appellatively. They the vivacity of the thought. Amongst the Persian who urge the former, appeal to 1 Sam. xxx. 14, kings it appears to have been customary (Dan. iii. and hold inna for the designation of the parent9; v. 10; vi. 22 ; Neh. ii. 3).
stem of the Philistines, which had migrated from Vers
. 33–37. The king also said unto them, Crete, and that onbe, too, is the same with meina. Take with you the servants of your lord, &e. As no one but the king himself dared ride David, who for a long while had remained amongst his mule, the command to let Solomon “ride" the Philistines, had collected his body-guard thereon was an actual declaration that he was from amongst foreigners and not from his own king (Esth. vi. 8, 9). Gihon is a place near Jeru- people, and afterwards the appellative remained salem, on the west side, with a spring of water (Movers, Hitzig, Bertheau, Ewald). Others derive (2 Chron. xxxii. 30; xxxiii. 14). The valley here situated bears still this name " (Robinson, Palest., mod from 173, and one from the Arabic, cogvol. i., p. 346). It was proper for the anointing to nate with DS2, &c., understanding by the former, take place at a spot where a large assemblage lictors, the royal executioners of the punishment could be gathered, and whence a solemn entrance of death, and by the latter, runners who, like the into the city, which had no open public square, could ayyapol of the Persians, had to carry commands to be made. Gihon, moreover, was considerably dis- remote places (2 Chron. xxx. 6). We hold to this tant from the rock Zoheleth, which was on the latter view, along with Gesenius, Keil, and southeasterly side of Jerusalem, where Adonijah Thenius, for although the plural form _ instead of had gathered together his adherents, so that a collision would be avoided. According to the account D'- for appellations is certainly unusual, we canof the rabbins, kings were anointed only at places not perceive why two designations should be emabounding in water, and upon that account also ployed side by side, for one and the same people. much frequented. But they erroneously identify (We do not say Britons and Englishmen.) So, Gihon with Siloam, which spring lies southeast of then, later the royal body-guard were called Jerusalem. Thenius prefers the reading jiyas to pina, "77? 7.30 (comp. 2 Kings xi. 4 sq.), i. e., execu
tioners and runners. because the tabernacle was there, from which,
And last of all, it is highly according to ver. 39, Zadok took the "horn of oil." improbable that David, who was perpetually at But the three hours' distance of Gibeon from Jeru- war with the Philistines, would have selected his
body-guards from thein.—The hom of oil out of salem is conclusive against this. Besides, by Siats, the tabernacle (ver. 39). T} e "oil of holy oint
ment” (Ex. xxx. 23 sq.) was preserved in the pears to have been made use of by persons who tabernacle in which the ark of the covenant was feared punishment by death. Solomon regarded kept (1 Chron. xv. 1). The pouring of this oil upon Adonijah's flight to the horns of tho altár as a the head symbolized the communication of the confession of his guilt and repentance, and he Spirit (1177) of Jehovah (1 Sam. xvi. 13). By exercised an act of clemency which could only anointing, the royal office with which Solomon produce the most favorable impression upon the was to be invested was set forth as essentially Go to thine
house, i. e., not: Do not come into my
Yet he adds a warning in the words : theocratic. The king of Israel was, upon this account, absolutely the anointed of the Lord (1 Sam. presence (2 Sam. xiv. 24), but: Keep thyself quiet, ii
. 10, 35; xxiv. 7). The taking of the horn from live as a private person, then not the least harm the “ tabernacle " does not force us to the conclu- shall befall thee. sion that the act of anointing took place before or at it and at the same time, also at Gibeon, as Thenius maintains. The great joy and jubilation of the whole
HISTORICAL AND ETHICAL. people shows that they knew nothing of Adonijah's right to the throne, but that they rather accepted
1. The entire first chapter turns upon the elevaDavid's decision, who alone had the right to de- tion of Solomon to the throne, which is narrated so cide. They saw in Solomon's elevation a victory circumstantially with its immediate occasion and over the unauthorized usurper. Flutes were used all the attending circumstances, because, as has at festivals, especially at the feast of tabernacles already been shown in the Introduction, $ 3, it (Isai. v. 12; xxx. 29; Winer, R.- W.-B., ii. s. 123).
constitutes in the highest degree a weighty moVer. 40. The earth rent. So according to the ment in the development of the history of the Old Chald., which explains ypan by nys. The Sept. Testament theocracy. With it begins the period
of a blooming of the kingdom of Israel which it has ixne; the Vulg. insonuit. Thenius reads never had before, and which never came again. upan, the earth was struck = quaked, which Solomon thereby became elevated to the type of a seems unnecessary.
great, mighty, wise, and prosperous king, which Vers. 41-48. And Adonijah .... heard it, he passes for even to this day in the Orient. The &c. While the assembled guests heard the noise prophets even depict the glory and happiness of and th cry in the city, the experienced soldier the Messianic kingdom with expressions which Joab caught the sound of the trumpets especially, are borrowed from the description of the kingdom and concluded, from this warlike token, nothing of Israel under Solomon. (Comp. Mich. iv. 4, and good. Jonathan, the son of Abiathar, who here, Zach. iii. 10, with 1 Kings v. 5.) He is, according as in 2 Sam. xv. 36 and xvii
. 17 appears as the to his name, the prince of peace, Kat' xoxír, and bringer of news, was probably left behind in the the beloved of God (2 Sam. xii. 25), designatione city designedly to observe what was going on. which by the prophets and in the New Testament Although scarcely himself a witness of what trans- are applied, in like manner, to the Messiah the son pired in the royal palace, he could, nevertheless, of David in the most eminent sense (Is. ix. 5, 6; as Solomon had already made his entrance, be Eph. i. 6; ii. 14;, Col. i. 13). The reception of well informed by eye and ear witnesses. Joab The Song of Solomon" into the Old Testament named him a valiant man, i. e., a person whose re
canon shows that to the Jewish synagogue the
typical relation was not unknown, and in the port could be trusted.
The annual at the end of Christian Church it has always been maintained. Ver. 47, as David was lying upon his bed, certainly
2. The brief introductory narrative, vers. 1-4, cannot mean that he fell upon his knees; still less has been found in many respects very scandalous. is a thankful bow in return to those who were This has arisen from the wholly false presupposicongratulating him meant (Thenius). The king
tion that it treats of the gratification of the lustbowed himself with his body as far as he could, be-fulness of a worn-out old man by means of a confore his Lord and God, and spake: Blessed, &c. The cubine. But of this the text declares so little, that Day at the beginning of ver. 48 does not indicate a it rather states explicitly, David did not know Abi
shag. The means which the physicians-not he new, different action, but simply states that besides himself-selected to restore to him his lost natural his bowing, he spake also the words which follow. warmth, were, if not unheard of, at least morally
Vers. 49–53. And all the guests . ... were questionable, yea, from a Christian point of view, afraid, &c. The panic which forthwith seized decidedly objectionable. That they did not hesi. Adonijah and his followers, shows that their con- tate to recommend it, has indeed its ground, not science was not upright iv their undertaking, i. e., in conscious immorality and frivolity, but in the that they themselves were not convinced of the perverted views prevalent throughout the entire righteousness of Adonijah's claims, otherwise they ancient Orient upon the relation of the sexes, or would, with Joab at their head, liave made a stand, in the deeply-rooted lack of chastity, which even and not scattered at once. To save his life, which the stern lawgiver Moses was not able to put an ne, as a usurper of the throne, believed he had end to. Hence polygamy was not only permitted, forfeited, Adonijah fled to the altar, which stood but it was regarded by kings as somewhat belongbefore the tabernacle upon Zion (chap. iii. 15; ing to their royal estate, and it never occurred to 2 Sam, vi. 17). Ile laid hold of the horns of the any one to object to them upon that account aitar, as did Joab afterwards (chap. ii. 28), and appealed thereby to the pardoning power and grace the above as a caption. It is not a translation of the au
* [The translators, after some hesitation, have adopted of Jehovah (comp. upon the significance of the act, thor's heading. lie has it " heilsgeschichtliche," which esmy Symbolik des Mos. Cult., i. s. 473 sq.) This presses the conception of the historical process of healing asylum was ordained originally for unintentional or salvation. It is a term for which we 'hav: no available
equivalent in English, although the thouzul embodied by man-slayers (Exod. xxi. 12 sq); but later on it ap- the word is clear enough.]
(Comp. 2 Sam. v. 13; 1 Kings xi. 3; 2 Chron. xi. | spirited interference there would have been for 21; Judges vii. 30.) Th's explains the reason why Israel no Solomon-era, no glorious age of the theDavid did not reject the medical advice, and why ocratic house. He proceeded in the matter with the matter did not cause any scandal among the great wisdom and circumspection. First he allows people, why even Bath-sheba herself did not feel the mother of Solomon to prepare the way, con aggrieved (ver. 15). Whatsoever the narrative has ciliating the infirm and feeble king, then he enteri which is repulsive to us, does not adhere to a par- before him himself, with all deference indeed, nev. ticular person nor to this particular instance, but ertheless at the same time earnestly reminding and to the general lack of conjugal chastity in the Old slightly reproving him, and calls upon him as a Testament.
man and servant of God to fulfil the promise he 3. Adonijah's undertaking, in which there is so had given unto the Lord. unmistakably a reference to Absalom's, is to be 5. The conduct of David, when he learns what understood throughout as blameworthy. He knew is going on, corresponds fully with the divine will that the decision upon the succession to the throne and with his great calling as the founder of the depended upon his father, and that he had already theocratic kingdom, and of the new dynasty which selected Solomon. He knew also the tragical end is to sit forever upon the throne of Israel. He does of Absalom's attempt. Nevertheless, he would not stagger irresolutely hither and thither, like a not be warned by it, but set himself up in the way sick, feeble old man without any will of his own, but, of self over-estimation, making boast of his beau- as if he were still the strong hero, the undismayed, tiful figure. King will he be at any cost. He determined, energetic man, such as in his best makes his preparations without his father's con- years he had so often shown himself amid dangers sent, takes advantage of his infirmity and weak- and in critical situations, he raises himself from ness, and secretly enters into combinations with his sick-bed, swears to observe his word, issues the most influential men who belonged, more his orders, and puts them into immediate execu. or less, to the class of malcontents. He allows tion. This resolution and firmness could not have himself to become impatient through his lust proceeded possibly from their opposite, from an for ruling, and to rush into a measure in every re- inward infirmity, i. e., from compliance with the spect premature. Upon the first intelligence, nev- supplication of a wife, nor from dislike of Adoni. ertheless, of Solomon's accession, a shameful panic jah, whom he had never interfered with (ver. 6), seizes him. All courage to risk the least thing for but had heretofore always indulged too much. It his cause fails him. The whole crowd of his fol- is to be explained only by his faith in the promise lowers scatters like dust, and he himself, in a cow- of Jehovah, by liis firm certainty and assurance ardly way, seeks to save only his life. He anx- that Solomon was appointed by Jehovah to be nis iously flies to a place of refuge, clings to it, calls successor, and that through him as well his own himself Solomon's " servant,” and salutes him as "house," as the house of Jehovah, which it was king. But, scarcely is the danger past, he breaks permitted sunself no longer to take care of, should his pledged word to behave quietly, and starts be built up (2 Sam. vii. 11-13). Upon this account anew in secret machinations to reach his goal. He also the Epistle to the Hebrews mentions him flatters the mother of Solomon with hypocritical expressly in the list of the men who have held humility, and seeks to move the heart of the wife the faith and obtained the promise (chap. xi. (see on chap. ii. 13 sq.). Rightly does Ewald say 32). How could he have sworn by Him who had of him : "A man who, according to all the known "redeemed his soul out of all distress," and features of our memorial of him, has much that then, in deep humility, have praised and glorified resembles Absalom, fine form, airy, and ambitious Him, had he been conscious of any injustice toof power, yet inwardly scarcely fit for governing; wards Adonijah, and had not, in the prosperous of an obdurate mind, and yet afraid to venture issue of his commands, beheld a gracious guidance upon open battle. That he was no proper sov- of the God of Israel? It is clear that under such ereign for such a kingdom as Israel then was, a man as Adonijah, who was lacking in all the must be obvious to intelligent men."
qualities requisite for the head of the theocracy, 4. Nathan here, as always (2 Sam. vii., xii.), ap- the kingdom never would have reached the bloom pears right genuinely as prophet. When there is an which it reached under Solomon. It would have atteinpt to bring to completion human self-willed been the greatest misfortune for Israel had he asbeginnings over-against the counsel and will of God, cended the throne, while, viewed apart from the where the safety and well-being of the chosen peo- promise, the high and extraordinary endowment ple were at stake, then it was the calling of the of Solomon was a clear indication of Providence prophet to interfere, counselling and reminding, that he alone of all his brothers was titted to prewarning and punishing. It was not so much per serve, indeed to increase, what David had acquired sonal friendship for David, and love for his pupil with indescribable toil and great conflict, under Solomon, as rather, and before all, the known will the visible assistance of God. David did not deof Jehovalı, which had determined that the latter prive Adonijalı of what rightly belonged to him, should be king, that induced him to take the step he only did not bestow upon him what he craved which would have had the most disastrous conse in his foolish arrogance and ambition, to the det. quences for himself, yea, might have cost him his riment of the kingdom. life, had Adonijah become king. It was not Za 6. Of Solomon himself we learn here only this dok, nor Benaiak, nor any of the other friends of one thing, that he instantly allowed Adonijah to David, who brought to nought the ill-starred en- go free, who, by his flight to a place of refuge, terprise. But the same prophet, through whom the was self-convicted of guilt, and, according to the great promise had been made to David in respect custom in such cases, feared punishment by death. of the si.ccession, by the providence of God, His first act as king was significantly an act of averted also that which interfered with the fulfil- magnanimity and grace, which appears all the ment of the promise. And without his prompt, I more worthy of admiration when we remember
" that Adonijah, had ho won, would certainly have many a cross, and sorrow, and anxiety, expend destroyed his brother and all his chief support- their bodily powers, should be all the more pa. ers" (Ewald), as both Nathan and Bath-sheba tient, and console themselves here with the exam. undoubtedly expected (vers, 12, 21).
ple of David, and know that among the saints of 7. The new historic criticism sees "in our nar- God, also, feebleness of body is found.—We may, rative, distinctly, the fully natural machinery of and should, follow advice for the relief of our dis. human actions (Thenius), a “court-cabal," the tress and the preservation of our life, in so far as "astute manager” of which is Nathan (Köster). it does not misitate against the commands of God; " Bath-sheba sought to secure the crown for her for the Lord says, “it is better," &c. (Matt. xviii
. son Solomon, although, after Absalom's death, it 8).-Old and sick people should, and it is expected devolved upon the fourth son of David, Adonijah, of them as a work well pleasing to God that they whom Hagith had borne to him. One of the two bear this with a willing heart, with patience, selfpriests at the ark of the covenant, Zadok, sup- denial, and sacrificing love.-Vers. 5–10. Adoni. ported Bath-sheba's designs, just as Nathan the jah's attempt to obtain the crown: (a) the ground prophet.
Both could expect from the upon which it rests (upon self-assertion, pride, lust young Solomon a greater complaisance towards of power, ver. 5, but God resisteth the proud, and priestly influence than from the more independent a haughty spirit goeth before a fall: izpon outward Adonijah, especially if they helped the young man, qualities, age, and beautiful person, ver. 6, but I against right, to the throne. It was characteristic Sam. xvi. 7; Ps. cxlvii. 10, 11); (b) the means of Bath-sheba to induce David to swear by Jeho- which he employed (he seeks to impose upon the vah that Solomon, instead of Adonijah, should be people by chariots and horsemen, but Ps. xx. 8; his successor. But Adonijah was resolved not to he conspires with false and faithless men, but they allow himself to be robbed of his good right forsake him in the hour of danger, ver. 49; Ps. ci. through an intrigue of the harem. As Da-6, 7; he prepares for appearance sake a religious vid was sinking upon his death-bed, Adonijah be- festival, ver. 9, but 2 Mos. xx. 7).- Ver. 5. The eflieved that he must anticipate his enemies," &c. fort after high things (Rom. xii. 16).—How many (Duncker, Geschichte des Alterthums, i. s. 385). No- a person thinks: I will become a great personage, thing is more certain than that the biblical author a man of authority and influence, and then scru. did not look upon the matter in such light. This ples at nothing in order to attain his goal. But whole exposition is a distinct example of the mode that which is written in 1 Cor. vii. 20, 24 applies to of treating biblical history already described in the individual as well as to entire classes. -WÜRT. the Introduction, $ 5. It abandons the stand- SUMM.: Let no one attempt to take an office against point of the narrator, arranges the history man- God and His will; " and no man taketh this honor fashion, and then, as is the case here, perverts it unto himself but he that is called of God” (Hleb. into its opposite. The divine promise becomes a v. 4).-Ver. 6. The father who allows his son to fine-spin harem intrigue, the great prophet," as go on in his pride and in worldly or sinful conduct, Ewald also calls him, becomes the intriguing man- and shuts his eyes, not to trouble him, must exager of a court-cabal, the true priest is reduced pect that the son will trouble him and embitter the to the level of a self-seeker, the firm believing evening of his life. It is the right and duty of king, the man after God's heart, the play-ball of a every father to speak to his son about his conduct woman and of a court-party, the greatest and wis- even when he is no longer a child, and to ask, est king of Israel is a throne-robber, and on the Why dost thou so? A perverted parental love other hand the airy, incapable, deceitful, and cow- is self-punished, Prov. xxix. 17; Sir. xxx. 9.–Ver. ardly usurper Adonijah becomes a martyr of the 7. High personages always find people for the exeright and the unfortunate victim of impure machi-cution of their sinful plans, who, from subservi. nations. This entire perverted interpretation rests ency or desire of reward, from ambition or revenge, upon the presupposition, already sufficiently proved will act as counsellors and agents; but they have groundless, that Adonijah was “the rightful heir,” their reward, and for the most part end with terand falls to pieces with it.
ror.–Ver. 8. With those who are meditating trea8. [It is true that Adonijah was David's eld- son and destruction we should never make common est son now remaining, and therefore might seem cause (Prov. xxiv. 21, 22).—Vers. 9, 10. Seilea: He to challenge the justest title to the crown; but the who will not abide his time until God himself shall kingdom of Israel, in so late an erection, had not elevate him, will fall even when he attempts to yet known the right of succession. God himself, rise. He who gives the crowd wherewith to eat that had ordained the government, was as yet the and to drink, who prepares for them festivities and immediate elector; He fetched Saul from among pleasures (panem et circenses), makes himself poputhe stuff, and David from the sheep-fold, and has lar and beloved for the moment; but all who al. now appointed Solomon from the ferule to the low themselves to be gained in such way, to-day sceptre."—Bp. Hall, Contemplations, Bk. xvii., Con- shout Hosanna! and to-morrow, Crucify! By not templation i.-E. H.]
inviting Solomon, Adonijah betrayed his plans, and himself gave the occasion for their frustration
(Ps. lxix. 23; Rom. xi. 9). It is a rule of the HOMILETICAL AND PRACTICAL.
divine world-government that the cause of God, through that whereby its enemies seek to thwari
and liinder it, is only so much the more pro. Vers. 1-4. Weakness and infirmity in old age are: moted. (a) the universal human lot to which we must all Vers. 11–27. Nathan, the type of a true prophet: consider ourselves appointed (Ps. xc. 10); (b) they (a) through his watchfulness and fidelity (Ezek. should loosen the bands which hold us to the tem- xxxiii. 7), he is not silent when it was his duty to poral and perishable, and ripen us for eternity (2 open his mouth (Is. Ivi. 10); (b) through his wis. Cor. iv. 1789.).-WüRT. SUMM. They who, through I dom and gentleness (Matt. X. 16); (c) through his