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say, he did

NA does not mean exactly the "guard-room,” but had shown himself in Shechem at the commenceany place where the runners were staying. The also to have been under the influence of his idol

ment of his reigri (chap. xii. 5-9, 18, 21); he seems costly golden shields which Solomon had made were in the house of the forest of Lebanon (chap. atrous mother (see on ver. 31) and wife (chap. x. 17), but it is donbtful whether the brazen w. 13), and of his many wives (2 Chron. xi. 21). shields of Rehoboam were only kept in the ma, wrong in referring, in his superficial way,

Menzel (Staats- und Rel.-Gesch., 8. 236) is wholly being considered as “of no value " (Thenius).

Vers. 29–31. The rest of the acts, &c. What pression ,?-m 01775 (2 Chron. xii. 14) which 2 Chron. xi. relates of the cities fortified by Reho- he translates " to ask the Lord," to "the relation boam, of the emigration of priests and those faith of the king to the priesthood, and in that he is ful to Jehovah to the Judah-territory, and of the blamed for not inquiring of the Lord, we can perfamily relations of Rehoboam, is certainly derived ceive that Rehoboam had not been led, by the from ancient historical sources, probably from misfortune which had befallen him, to accord those mentioned in 2 Chron. xii. 15 (Thenius) greater consideration to the priesthood than they As also the account of the Chronicles gives no had enjoyed under his predecessors." That exdetails of a regular war of Rehoboam with Jero- pression denotes rather, as Dietrich very justly reboam, mənbp here ver. 30, and nidsp 2 Chron. marks (Zu Gesenius W.- B.8, 2.), " the striving of the sii. 15 only refer " to the hostile position of both prayer, and calling upon Him; cf. Isai. Iv. 6; lviii. Kingdoms as manifested in single acts" (Winer), | 2; Jer. xxix. 13; 2 Chron. xv. 2, 14, 6; Hos. x. therefore not to a warlike disposition simply: - 12; Ps. xiv. 2." That the priesthood under ReThenius thinks that the repetition of the conclud- hoboam strove for greater consideration than ing words of ver. 21 (the name of his mother, &c.) they had under David (for instance) is a pure in. "was caused by a fault in the copyist that cannot vention; but we see from chap. xii. 22-24 and be accounted for.” This, however, is very improb- 2 Chron. xii. 5, 6, 12, that Rehoboam did not reable, for why should just these words have been sist or act in opposition to the prophetical word. taken by a copyist from ver. 21, have been repeated

2. The idolatrous worship that commenced in Ju. here, and then always have remained? The re- dah under Rehoboam was not begun by the latter petition appears rather to have been intentional, but by the people; for ver. 22 does in order to show once more at the end of the ac-evil in the sight of the Lord, as is said of other count of Rehoboam that the mother of this king kings, but: sudah did, &c. This scems remarkwas descended from that rough heathenish peo- able, because Judah had the central sanctuary in ple, the Ammonites, who were always hostile to their midst, and the priests and levites; indeed all Israel, and that under Solomon the worship of the true worshippers of Jehovah had left the aposMoloch, the "abomination of the Ammonites," was tate ten tribes and had gone to Judah, by which brought by her to Jerusalem (chap. xi. 7) and the kingdom of Jeroboam was weakened, but that suffered to remain for her by his son Rehoboam. of Rehoboam strengthened (2 Chron. xi. 13–17). This appears also to be meant by 2 Chron. xii. That Judah, nevertheless, fell so deeply was owing 14, in connection with ver. 13.

to an after-influence of the condition of things HISTORICAL AND ETHICAL.

under Solomon's reign, and particularly the latter

Commerce and intercourse with 1. We learn only a few facts from these books re- part of the same. garding, king Rehoboam and his reign, and from foreign nations, acquaintance with their customs those few no certain conclusion can be drawn re- and mode of life, great riches and uninterrupted garding his relation to the fundamental law of peace, had exercised an enervating and demoralizIsrael; the general phrase also which expresses ing influence. Ease, superfluity, and luxury gradthe relation to Jehovah, and which always imme- ually undermined serious thought, and brought diately follows the account of the personal cir- forth lukewarmness, indifference, and even avercumstances of all the later kings (cf. chap. xv. 3, sion to the strict covenant-law: what was written 11, 25, 34, &c.) is omitted here. But Chron. con

in Deut. xxxii. 15 (Hos. xiii. 6) came to pass. cludes its rather more explicit account with the Added to this, Solomon at last removed every obwords: “he did evil, because he prepared not his stacle to the strange heathen-worship of his wives, heart to seek the Lord (1927),” ¿ Chron. xii. 14; so that although Jerusalem was the centre of the

Jehovah-worship, it was at the same time the spot and the remark is made before (ver. 1), that "he where the most various national gods were adored, forsook the law of the Lord." We are not to con- and where their linchaste worship found a ready elude from this, however, that he himself served soil (see on chap. xi. 1-8). Immediately after Soidols; on the contrary, it is emphatically said that, lomon's death this "religious liberty" could only in solemn procession, accompanied by his whole have been abolished by force and iron severity; body-guard, he continually visited the temple, and but the times were not adapted for this task, and thus showed himself publicly to all the people as still less was his successor, Rehoboam, the son of a worshipper of Jehovah. As such he showed the Ammonitess, the 235277? 779 (2 Chron. xiii. 7); himself also when Shishak made war against him (2 Chron. xii. 6, 12) But he forsook the law in so that idolatry and immorality rather increased so far that lie did not obey its injunctions; he suf-than decreased, and the fall of Judah seems to fered idolatrous worship in Jerusalem and did have been even deeper than that of Israel. Howbothing towards exterminating it. This was ever, the condition of Judah was not so bad as the " the evil” he was accused of; he continued condition of Israel in this respect; as in the Jehovah's servant, but he wanted firmness and latter, the breach of the fundamental law had bedecision. Sometimes fiery and arrogant, some come the State religion and institution of the simes yielding and weak, he was unstable, as he kingdom, the separate existence of which de

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pended on the new worship; whilst in Judah the thendom, how many soever may be the churches apostasy was only permitted, and the lawful wor. King Rehoboam, too, sinned grievously in this ship of Jehovah had always a firm footing at the wise-he, although not himself an idol-worshipper, central sanctuary. Many good elements also still yet failed as a servant of God, in that he did not existed in Judah (2 Chron. xx. 12). Judah always oppose idol-worship with all his might, and even repented as often as they fell into idolatry, and they regarded it as having equal rights with the service continued to be the guardian of the law, whilst of the true God-even, alas, as we find Christian Israel, on the contrary, never completely returned sovereigns who permit unbelief and revolt from the to the right way.

truth to rank upon a level with faith and confes.

sion of God in Christ.–Vers. 25 sq. Where the HOMILETICAL AND PRACTICAL.

carcass is, there will the eagles be gathered io.

gether (Matt. xxiv. 28). The chastisements of God Vers. 21-30. The deep fall of Judah: (a) are never delayed where immorality and godless. Whence it came (Deut. xxxii. 15; Hosea xiii. 6; ness prevail, but they do not always lead, as with Prov. xxx. 9-see Hist. and Ethic, 2); whither Judah, to the humble confession: The Lord is it led (Rom. i. 25-28). Amongst individual men as righteous! (2 Chron. xii. 6).-Calw. B.: Sovereigns in entire communities, cities, and nations, revolt are often only the instruments of God in their unagainst the living God results from haughtiness, dertakings, although they do not or will not recog over-prosperity, and carnal security, bringing as nize the fact.–Ver. 26. The true treasures of the inevitable consequences, poverty, ruin, and mis- temple are the worship of God in spirit and in truth, fortune in war. High as stood Judah under David prayer, faith, love, and obedience; these no thieves and Solomon, so deep in proportion did it sink un- nor robbers can steal, and without them all the gold der Rehoboam.–Vers. 21, 22. Wherever God has and silver in temples and churches is vain and empty a house, the devil always builds a chapel close at show. Golden or copper shields are alike in hand. How often does it happen that cities and value if only we can say: The Lord is our shield, countries, whence it has been ordained by God and the Holy One of Israel our King.–Vers, 27, that the light of His knowledge should shine forth, 28. It is better to pray to our heavenly Father in have become the seat alike of superstition and of our closet, rather than to worship with pomp in scepticism, and thus infinitely sink below the level church to be seen by men. Yet now there are of those lands which have never heard His blessed many who ceremoniously frequent the churches, word. When an individual man, or a whole but neglect to maintain the fear of God, discipline, community and people, who have received and ac- and good morals in their own houses and neighknowledged the truth, again depart from it, then borhoods.-- Vers. 30, 31. It is not to a man's is their last state worse than their first (Isa. xi. honor when, at his grave, these words are said: 26).— Vers. 23, 24. Wherever profligacy and for. There was life-long enmity between him and his nication are in the ascendant, there is true hea- | neighbor.

B.— The reigns of Abijam and Asa.

CHAP. XV. 1-24 (2 Chron. XIII. XIV.)

1 Now in the eighteenth year of king Jeroboam the son of Nebat reigned 2 Abijam' over Judah. Three years reigned he in Jerusalem. And his mother's 3 name was Maachah, the daughter of Abishalom. And he walked in all the sins

of his father, which he had done before him: and his heart was not perfect with 4 the Lord [Jehovah] his God, as the heart of David his father. Nevertheless, for

David's sake did the Lord [Jehovah] his God give him a lamp in Jerusalem, to set 5 up his son after him, and to establish Jerusalem : because David did that which

was right in the eyes of the Lord [Jehovah), and turned not aside from any thing

that he commanded him all the days of his life,' save only in the matter of Uriah 6 the Hittite. And there was war between Rehoboam and Jeroboam all the days 7 of his life. Now the rest of the acts of Abijam, and all that he did, are they not

written in the book of the Chronicles of the kings of Judah ? And there was 8 war between Abijam and Jeroboam. And Abijam slept with his fathers; and

they buried him in the city of David: and Asa his son reigned in his stead. 9 And in the twentieth year of Jeroboam king of Israel reigned Asa orer 10 Judah. And forty and one years reigned he in Jerusalem. And his mother's 11 name was Maachab,' the daughter of Abishalom. And Asa did that which was 12 right in the eyes of the Lord, as did David his father. And he took away the

sodomites out of the land, and removed all the idols that his fathers had made. 13 And also Maachah his mother, even her he removed from being queen, because

she had made an idol in a grove®; and Asa destroyed her idol, and burnt it 14 by the brook [ir. the valley of ] Kidron. But the high places were not removed

15 nevertheless Asa's heart was perfect with the Lord [Jehovah) all his days. And he

brought in the things which his father had dedicated, and the things which himself

had dedicated,' into the house of the Lord [Jehovah], silver, and gold, and vessels. 16 And there was war between Asa and Baasha king of Israel all their days. And 17 Baasha king of Israel went up against Judah, and built Ramah, that he might not 18 suffer any to go out or come in to Asa king of Judah. Then Asa took all the silver

and the gold that were left in the treasures of the house of the Lord [Jehovah), and the treasures of the king's house, and delivered them into the hand of his

servants: and king Asa sent them to Ben-hadad, the son of Tabrimon, the son 19 of Hezion, king of Syria, that dwelt at Damascus, saying, There is a league

between me and thee, and between my father and thy father : behold, I have

sent unto thee a present of silver and gold; come and break thy league with 20 Baasha king of Israel, that he may depart from me. So Ben-hadad hearkened

unto king Asa, and sent the captains of the hosts which he had against the cities

of Israel, and smote Ijon, and Dan, and Abel-beth-maachah, and all Cinneroth, 21 with all the land of Naphtali. And it came to pass, when Baasha heard thereof, 22 that he left off building of Ramah, and dwelt in Tirzah. Then king Asa made

a proclamation throughout all Judah; none was exempted": and they took away

the stones of Ramah, and the timber thereof, wherewith Baasha had builded; 23 and king Asa built with them Geba of Benjamin, and Mizpah." The rest of all

the acts of Asa, and all his might, and all that he did, and the cities which he

built, are they not written in the book of the Chronicles of the kings of Judah ? 24 Nevertheless in the time of his old age he was diseased in his feet. And Asa slept

with his fathers, and was buried with his fathers in the city of David his father: and Jehoshaphat his son reigned in his stead.

TEXTUAL AND GRAMMATICAL.

אֲבִיָּה

:קָדְשׁוֹ

Keil refers for

1 Ver. 1.-[Many MSS. and Ed, read throughout this narrative instead of

das as in 2 Chron. xi 22; xill. 1, &c. (C. 2 Chron. xiii. 20 777798) and so the Sept. ABtov, and the Syr.

? Ver. 2.-[The Alex. Sept. makes his reign sixteen years.

3 Ver. 4.-[in the author's translation the name Rehoboam is inserted in brackets as explanitory of the pronoun him. The natural reference to Abijam may, however, as well be preserved.

• Ver. 5.- [The Vat. Sept. omits the mention of this exception, and also omits the following verse.

• Ver. 6.-(For Rehoboam eight MSS., followed by the Syr. and Arab., substitute Abijah. The Alex. Sept. puts the last pronoun of ver. 6 in the plural-a variation in the opposite direction.

Ver. 8.-[The Vat. Sept. adds, "in the twenty-fourth year of Jeroboảm," and in ver. I changes the number to correspond-a manifest errur.

• Ver. 10.-(The Vat. Sept. escapes the difficulty connected with the queen-mother's name, here and in ver. 13, by substituting Ana for Maachab. The Arab. omits the name here, but gives Manchah in ver. 13.

* Ver. 13.-[1908nypp. The meaning of these words has been much discussed and is variously given in the VV.-The most probable sense seems to be "an idol of Asherah." See Exeg. Com.

Ver. 15.–For 1u7py must be read with 2 Chron. xv. 18 yuri???. [The kori is 10mp, which Kiel says “ is a bad emendation for the above correct w7p, which is to be read or more correctly perhaps ?R.]

19 Ver. 18.–[The Sept. in translating by tỏ cúpedév give the sense as expressed in the Exeg. Com. All the other VV., like the A.V. translate literally. 11 Ver. 22—[The adverbial use of p? 18

= nemine immuni 1. e. excepto is peculiar to this passage. Its source to such passages as Dent. xxiv. 5; Num. xxxii. 22. The Sept., not understanding the phrase, has rendered it as a proper name, eis 'Evarig (Alex. 'Avvakeiu.)

12 Ver. 22-[The Sept. has undertaken to translate the names Geba and Mizpah as common nouns, Tây Bouvov Βενιαμίν και την σκοπιάν.-F. G.] EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL.

there is no mention made of an Absalom except Verg. 1-5. Abijam king of Judah. Instead of of him known as the son of David, na must mean DIR Chronicles has always 79% (2 Chron. xiii. 1 the granddaughter here, as 3ş means grandfather 89.!, 'Afuá in the Sept. The latter seems to be the in ver. 3. Maacha must then have been the rigt and original name, composed of ax and 77', daughter of Tamar (2 Sam. xiv. 27), as Absalom had wbich mean Sxas (1 Sam. ix. 1), not, therefore, no sons

(2 Sam. xviii. 18). The same name is no

doubt meant in 2 Chron. xiii. 2, where Abijam's father of the sea, vir maritimus (Gesenius), but mother 97'7"? is called a daughter of Uriel of wbose father (benefactor) is God. According to 2 Chron. xi. 20 sq. Abijam was the eldest son of Gibeah ; see on ver. 13. In all the sins, &c., is not Rehoboam's second wife Maacha, who was his to be taken in a universal sense, but of all the favorite, for which reason he set Abijam above his sins which Rehoboam committed regarding the brothers, and appointed him for his successor. As service of Jehovah; in these he followed the ex.

or

ample of his father (123PS). He was in his own tana Walida, under Asa, until Asa deposed her or

account of her idolatrous worship (ver. 13), and person Jehovah's servant, but he did not oppose that she had been such because, perhaps, Asa's the idol-worship; he permitted it, and therefore mother had died early” (Keil and Ewald after the in no respect resembled his great-grandfather Rabbins). Dx (ver.10) would then stand for David, who therefore for all kings continued to be the pattern and model of right conduct towards grandmother, which is very questionable for the Jehovah. Thenius thinks that vers. 4 and 5 are the reason that, often as the name of the mother of a addition of an “elaborator"; they are certainly king is given, his grandmother is never meant not useless, but stand in a very proper connection. thereby; besides, the mother alone, and never the Abijam was the third king on David's throne who grandmother of a king, had the dignity and posiallowed idol-worship to exist side by side with tion of the Gebirah, the name given to Asa's mothat of Jehovah. Such kings had, in fact, de ther, ver. 13 and 2 Chron. xv. 16. Other comserved to lose their land and throne, because they mentators, who are not insensible to these considhad not acted as servants of the true king of erations, think that Maachah, the mother of AbiIsrael ; but for David's sake, to whom God had jam, was indeed, as is said in chap. xv. 2, and 2 promised that a descendant of his should always Chron. xi. 20 and 21, a daughter of Åbishalom, but reign in Jerusalem (for 7") see on chap. xi. 36), that Maachah, the mother of Asa, was the daugh

ter of Uriel of Gibeah. They think that the Chron. Jehovah suffered even such kings of the house of icler (2 xiii. 2) committed an oversight when he David, who, like this one, were not wholly and mentioned the latter (whom he names Michaiah) undividedly devoted to Him. The sin of David as the mother of Abijam instead of Asa, whilst, in against Uriah was great indeed (2 Sam. xi. and versely, our author names the daughter of Abishxii.), but apart from the fact that he repented of it alom (ver. 10) instead of the daughter of Uriel, as bitterly, it was not one which broke the funda- the mother of Asa (Thenius, Bertheau). This much mental law of the theocracy, the covenant and its is certain, that the mother of Asa, as well as the chief commandment, and it did not therefore mother of Abijam, was called Maachah. undermine the foundation of the Israelite nation Vers. 12-15. All the idols. Ver. 12. The de ality. Vers. 4 and 5 serve, then, to explain ver. 3, and in a certain measure to justify what is said signation Disaba for idols, includes, confessedly, the there.

idea of something contemptible, as appears from Vers. 6–8. And there was war between the many passages in Ezekiel where it occurs Rehoboam and Jeroboam, &c. Ver. 6 says the The Rabbins, whom several commentators follow, same that was previously said in chap. xiv.30, only have derived the word from sa with this difference, that there the concluding

559, i.e., mud draiped off, and translated it Dei stercorei, mudgods, are changed to own p-here, which Thenius thinks the most correct interpretafrom which it follows, at least, that this verse is tion. But in the Pentateuch, where the word first from the carelessness of a copriset times tension occurs, 55a, mud, is not used, but sa, dibe, stone

Rehoboam,” the Syrian, Arabic, and several heaps, masses of stone (Gen. xxxi. 46, 48, 51, 52), manuscripts have" Abijam;” but this would make hence Hävernick (Comm. über Ezechiel, s. 75) un. the conclusion of ver. 7 a mere repetition of our derstands it to mean stone monuments, with the verse, which is even less tenable than the repeti- additional notion what was dead and lifeless (cf. tion from chap. xiv. 30. As the words stand they Ezra v. 8; vi. 4); which translation seems better can scarcely be understood in connection with ver. than: lumps (Keil). Cf. also Deut. xxix. 16; Lev. 7 otherwise than as Schulz, Maurer, and Keil take xxvi

. 30. For 177'), see on chap. xi. 19. sep them; they give their meaning to be this: that the hostile feeling which existed between Rehoboam means horrendum, and no doubt refers to a phallusand Jeroboam during the entire lifetime of the image, which was something terrible and detestaformer, also lasted during the lifetime of his son ble to the Hebrews. The Vulgate gives in sacris Abijam. This interpretation is certainly rather Priapi for it. The statue of the male and generaforced, and it is very possible that the text is no tive power in nature was placed next that of the longer the original one; happily, however, the sub- female power (Astarte). That the former was of stance of the narrative is in no wise affected by it, wood, like the latter, appears from the "burning but it remains the saine, howsoever those words in the valley of Kidron; the as'ıes were thrown may be read or explained.

into the brook, which carried them quite away. Vers. 9-11. In the twentieth year of Jero- The niza, ver. 14, mean here such as were dediboam, &c. Ver. 9 sq. If A bijam became king in the eighteenth and Ása in the twentieth year of cated to Jehovah, as in chap. iii. 2 therefore, and Jeroboam (vers. 1 and 9), Abijam could not have not as in chap. xi. 7, and 2 Chron. xiv. 2. These, reigned three full years (ver. 2). The incomplete to which the people were accustomed from ancient years are here, as elsewhere (see on ver. 25), reck- times, Asa did not destroy, perhaps because doing oned as if complete, in statements of the length of so might have given offence to many even of the the reigns. Maachah, the daughter of Abishalom, is true servants of Jehovah,. This was the only unthe mother of Asa in "er. 10, but she could not, of adhered perfectly, as long as he lived, to the worcourse, liave been the mother of both father and ship of Jehovah as enjoined in the law. He even son at th same time. It has therefore been sup

began to till again the treasure chambers of the posed " that Maachah, Abijam's mother, was in Temple, which had been plundered by Shishak; the position of queen-mother or 17'an , i. e., sul- to them partly with what his father Avijan

had taken (cf. 2 Chron. xiii. 19), partly with the

כָּל־הַיָּמִים words

- לְמַלְכוּת taken out of the

plunder he himself had seized (2 Chron. xiv. 12; | Kings v. 18). Thenius identifies Hezion with the IV. 18).

Rezon mentioned in chap. xi. 23, who was called Ver. 16. And there was war between Asa so originally (?). The phrase "king of Syria" is

all their days. Ver. 16. The account of certainly in opposition with Benhadad. There is a Chronicles does not agree with this, if the former league, &c. (ver. 19), i. e., as between our fathers be only understood in the sense as given above, there was a league, let it continue between us also. chap. xiv. 30. For, according to 2 Chron. xiv. 1 Syria must have increased rapidly in power since (xiii

. 23) the land had rest ten years under Asa; the days of Solomon; for both kingdoms, Israel according to 2 Chron. xv. 19, "there was no more and Judah, sought its friendship, although it was war unto the five and thirtieth year of the reign the natural foe of both. There is no doubt that of Asa," and in xvi. 1 it says that Baasha did not Benhadad was induced to break his league with make war on Judah till the six and thirtieth year. Baasha by the larger sum that Asa offered him. But these numbers cannot possibly be correct, for The Syrian army, which came from the north, overaccording to our chapter ver. 33, Baasha became ran the whole land of Naphtali to the lake of king of Israel in the third year of Asa, and only Genesareth; the towns which it laid waste lay in reigned four-and-twenty years, therefore he could a line from north to south. ljon was the most not have made war against Asa, in the six-and-northern, and is nowhere else named, except in the thirtieth year of the latter. The number ten is parallel passage 2 Chron. xvi. 4; according to Roalso too great, and was used probably because the binson (Researches, &c. II. p. 438), it is situated in numeral sign, was shortened to !. Judah had rest the well-watered district of Merj Ayun. Dan before Baasha's accession to the throne of Israel, could not have been far south of it. Abel-beth. and also two years afterwards, but then, when he maachah (2 Chron. xvi. 4; Abel-maim) is the sane was properly prepared for war, Baasha undertook town as that mentioned in 2 Sam. xx. 14 and 15, the invasion; this occurred, therefore, in the fifth and was situated at the mouth of the Merj Ayun; or sixth year of Asa's reign. The numeral sign it is the modern Abil el Kamh (see Thenius on the =30 of the Chronicles may very well have been place). Cinneroth, " evidently a district, not a town;

it was the basin which stretches from the lake Cf. Thenius and Ber

of Merom to the head of the lake of Genesareth" theau on the same passages. The supposition of the same). Although then Benhadad only disolder commentators and of eil, that the five-and-turbed the northern parts of the kingdom, Baasha thirty, that is, the six-and-thirty years dated from saw himself induced to obey the demand to leave the time of the separation of the two kingdoms, is Judah (probably made to him) in order to prevent not admissible, because the text in 2 Chron. xvi. 1 further losses. He left off building the fortificasays quite positively: "in the six-and-thirtieth tions of Ramah which he had begun, and returned year of the reign of Asa."

to his residence Tirzah (chap. xiv. 17) without disVer. 17. Ramah (ver. 17) was not in the moun- turbing Asa any more. The latter now had the tains of Ephraim (1 Sam. x. 2) but in the tribe of building materials at Ramah removed, and he for. Benjamin (Josh. xviii

. 25; Jud. xix. 3), somewhat tified Geba of Benjamin and Mizpeh with them; more than two hours' distance from Jerusalem : it the former was one-half mile [two and a quarter is the modern Er-Ram. The fortification of Ra- Eng. miles) from Ramah, and the latter about three mah presupposes that Baasha had recovered the miles (thirteen and a half Eng.). These two fortowns that belonged to the kingdom of Israel (2 tresses overlooked each side of the road that led Chron, xiii. 19) which had been taken by Abijam.

northwards from Jerusalem. The conjectural reading nid instead of nm (The

Vers. 23–24. His might and . the cities.

7732, not so much potestas as deeds of might, nius) is unnecessary; it is literally: “to the end that one should not give (or send) any one coming 1. e., brave deeds, as appears from chap. xvi, 27; in or going out, to Asa” (Bertheau) i. e., ut non pos- other fortresses in Judah (2 Chron. xiv. 5, 6),

xxii. 46. Besides Geba and Mizpah, Asa erected set quispiam egredi vel ingredi de parte Asc (Vulg.). As the principal road from Jerusalem to the north which were probably designed to protect the passed through Ramah, Baasha wished to cut off southern part of his kingdom. He was on the all traffic, and in fact to blockade Jerusalem com

whole prosperous, only in his old age” he suf

fered much, and did not show a right trust in . , ver. 18, does not mean here, God (2 Chron. xvi. 12). It is uncertain if his dis. in the strict sense of the word, the remainder, for ease were gout (Thenius). Chron. says that he Shishak had taken all (chap. xiv. 26); Asa, after had caused his tomb to be hewn out in the city of his victories and those of his father, filled the trea- David; probably the place of sepulture hitherto sure chambers again with the plunder he took used was not large enough. (ver. 5), and this, when compared with the former treasure, was the remainder. The Sept., therefore,

HISTORICAL AND ETHICAL. gives evpelèv, i. e., what he then found. Vers. 18-22. Benhadad (ver. 18) means

1. Chronicles gives not only more extended ac of the sun," for the sun received divine honors counts of king Abijam, but some also which recent from the Syrians, under the name of Adad (Ma-criticism declares to be utterly irreconcilable with crob. Saturn. i. 23). Three kings of Damascene the representation here. • According to the earlier Syria bore this name; the one named here was the narrative," says Winer (R.-W.-B. I. 8. 6), " A bijam first of them, and he who is mentioned in chap. xx. walked in the footsteps of his idolatrous father 1 $. 34 was his son. The name could scarcely (1 Kings xv. 3); according to the later one, he bave been a general royal title (Keil), for the name appears to be a very zealous guardian of the Tabrimmon is certainly the name of a person, but worship of Jehovah and of the levitical system it is, in composition, like "good is Rimmon" (2|(2 Chron. xiii. 8 89.). We must bear in mind that

,הַנוֹתָרִים pletely

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