Obrazy na stronie
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עָצוּר The words

frim having God before one's eyes; and it is quid. The meaning seems to be: Jehovah v stronger than "cast Thy law behind their backs,' raise up a king, who at a certain period shall cut Veh. ix. 26 " (Keil).

off the house of Jeroboam ; what now occurs (the Vers. 10–12. Therefore behold, I will bring death of the boy) is the sign and beginning of this evil, ver. 10. The expression “that pisseth complete destruction. The interrogatory form against the wall " in 1 Sam. xxv. 22 (1 Kings xvi. makes the words more impressive. The Hirsch11; xxi. 21; 2 Kings ix. 8), was, no doubt, origi- berger Bible says: " And what shall I say on nally used of dogs, and was not an honorable way that coming day)? It is even now come;" Keil of alluding to the male sex; for it is employed in also; " but what (sc. say I)? even now (viz. he has all these passages only of those who are to be raised him up).” cast away and rooted out.

Vers. 14–16. For the Lord shall smite Israel, Siry?, which are mostly connected with it, are ver. 15. Smiting refers to the wasting of Israel

by hostile nations, before the Assyrian captivity. epexegetical ; literally, the detained, and those set A - reed” continually waves to and fro in water, free, which Seb. Schmidt rightly interprets puer, as it cannot resist the force of the wind and waves. qui domi adhuc detinetur et qui emancipatus est; the

" The image is very striking, for Israel was male descendants not of age are under guardians brought so low, that every political influence bore (2 Kings x. 1, 5; 1 Chron. xxvii. 32). This is the it along " (Thenius). The “scatter ag.” took place only explanation which suits the word Spoona, in the captivity (2 Kings xv. 29; xvii. 23; xviii.

11). D'ex does not mean groves (Luther), but which "refers to an intruded, or already assumed share in public life” (Thenius); all the male de- the statues of the female deity, elsewhere called Asscendants of the king, even the minors, were tarte (see above on chap. xi. 5), who stands over threatened with destruction. Luther's translation, against Baal, the Canaanitish (Phænician) male " those shut up and forsaken in Israel,” is de- deity. These statues were wooden (upright treecidedly erroneous. “ Behind the house of Jero- stems); the worship was licentious (Judg. iii. 7; boam means: as often as a new scion arises I vi. 25 sq. ; 2 Kings xxiii, 7; Ezek. xxiii. 42 sq.). It shall take it away, &c. (cf. Isai. xiv. 23). The Vul- is not expressly said that images of Astarte were gate which Luther followed is wrong: mundabo erected under Jeroboam, but ver. 23 remarks that reliquias domus Jeroboam. The threat reaches its this was done in Judah under Rehoboam, how climax in ver. 11, which foretells the frightful much more then in Israel. The Astarte worship and disgraceful manner of the destruction. To existed in the time of the Judges (cf. on the place). remain unburied was an intolerable thought to the Jeroboam's image-worship is here regarded as a Hebrews; and in all the ancient world it was ac- continual evil and source of all ruin. Keil's counted the severest disgrace, because in such assertion that “D!?stands for any idols, cases the corpse became the prey of the birds or of wild beasts. or of the voracious dogs in the among, which the golden calves are to be numEast, that ran wild and were reckoned unclean. bered,” is not susceptible of proof. According to Deut. xxviii. 26 this punishment was

Vers. 17-18. And Jeroboam's wife ... to a divine curse. The same threat occurs elsewhere, Tirzah, ver. 17. According to Josh. xü, 24, Tirespecially in Jeremiah (chap. xvi. 4; xxi. 24; zah was originally a Canaanitish royal city,'situEzek. xxix. 5; xxxix. 17; Jer. vii. 33 ; viii. 2 ; ix. ated in a beautiful district (Eccle. vi. 4). We can. 22; xii. 9; xiv. 16). cf. Winer R.- W.-B. I. s. 148. not ascertain its precise situation; it was probably The 's at the end is to heighten the effect, as else- near Shechem; Robinson thinks it was rather north

of Mount Ebal; former travellers state that they where, and is imo (Ewald, Lehrb. der hebr. found a Tersah 'on a high mountain, three hours Sprache & 330 b); yos, Jehovah will fulfil this as distance east of Samaria (cf. Winer, R.- W.-B. II. s. well as the former prophecy of Jeroboam's eleva- 613). According to chap. xii. 25, Shechem was the tion.

residence of Jeroboam; and he must either have Vers. 13-14. Some good thing toward the changed it afterwards to Tirzah, or the latter Lord God, ver. 13. nin si is not to be con- mentioned above, was not a place of residence but

must have been only a summer residence. Penuel, nected with *323, and then translated as the a fortress; so that the present passage does not Vulgate has it, a domino (Thenius); but it means at all contradict that one, as Thenius thinks The towards, or in relation tū, Jehovalı (cf. 2 Kings vi. kings Baasha and Asa and Elah resided at Tirzah 11). The whole context shows that it can scarcely (chap. xv. 21, 33; xvi. 8). neai anything else than that this son, from whom

Vers. 19-20. The rest of the acts of Jerothe king and people hoped so much, was inclined boam, &c., ver. 19. For the book of the contemto the pure and lawful worship of Jehovah. The poraneous history of the kings of Israel see IntroRabbins have a fable that he disobeyed his father's duction S 2. What is only alluded to by our command to hinder people from travelling to Jeru, author, in the words “how he warred," is fully salem to keep the feasts, and that he even removed given by the Chronicler, from the book of the proobstructions in the road. The abrupt words in phet Iddo; 2 Chron. xiii. 2-20. This is an account ver. 14: inyoda na are obscure, and are very of a great defeat of Jernheam he king Ahijah, an i variously explained. Thenius adopts the view of it says at the end: "and the Lord struck' him the Chald.: He shall cut off the house of Jeroboam (177891), and he died.” Bertheau's supposition " that which now (lives), and that which shall be that this refers to the defeat itself, is scarcely porn) to it.” But the athnach with big as well as right; neither can it mean a sudden death (TH:with rip contradicts this, which means not quod but nins), but, as in 2 Chron. xxi. 18, a severe and paiu

HISTORICAL AND ETHICAL.

of the prediction, pronouncing the natural and

necessary end of Jeroboam's sin. To take away 1. From the long reign (twenty-two years) of Jero- this conclusion is to break off the point of the bram, whose history closes with the present section, our whole. Thenius only objects to the second half author only selects those deeds that bear on his of ver. 15, on account of the expression ; " beyond apostasy from the fundamental law of Israel, i. e., the river ; " this he thinks is from an “elaborator." on" the sin wherewith he made Israel to sin." But the Euphrates is generally given as the exHe passes over all the rest that Jeroboam did as treme limit of the land that was promised to the a shrewd and powerful regent or warrior, because fathers (Gen. xv. 18; Ex. xxiii. 31; Deut. 1. 7; xi. it was of far less importance to the history of the 24; Josh. i. 3, 4; Ps. lxxx. 12). The prophet, kingdom and of the entire theocracy than that sin when he wished to say that Israel should lose the which especially characterized his government, | land given to their fathers, could scarcely use any and the results of which were felt for hundreds of other form of expression than that they should be years. David was the king who faithfully kept sent away beyond the river; a case which Solothe fundamental law, and was therefore the type mon foresaw as possible (see above). If criticism of a theocratic king, but Jeroboam was the king did not take it for granted that any genuine prewho openly broke the fundamental law, made the diction is impossible, it would not think of doubt. bull-worship the religion of the State, and used it as ing the authenticity of this. That the prophet prea bulwark of his kingdom over against Judah. He dicted the cutting off of Jeroboam's house, and the was the real cause of the apostasy of all the after destruction of the kingdom of Israel, is as little to kings of the ten tribes, for they all regarded it as be doubted as the prediction connected with it, that the support of their power, and as a firm wall of of Abijah's death, whom the blind prophet had not. separation between both kingdoms. This is the even seen. reason why the account of his reign significantly 3. Ahijah's prophecy repeatedly describes the concloses with the divine sentence on him and the sequence and working of "Jeroboam's sin " (vers. 9 apostate kingdom. It was a divine dispensation and 15) in the words, provoked the Lord to anger. that he himself, after all warnings and threaten- This expression occurs in other parts of the Old ings had been in vain, called forth this divine sen- Testament also (chap. xiv. 22 ; xvi. 2, 7, 13; xxi. tence by the deceitful means he took, and even 22; 2 Kings xvii. 11, 17; xxiii. 26; Deut. iv. 25; from the very prophet who had announced to him xxxi. 29, xxxii. 16, 21 ; 2 Chron. xxiii, 25; Ezek. his future elevation; so that he could judge from viii. 17; xvi. 26; Ps. lxxviii. 58); it by no means the fulfilment of that announcement that the sen- presupposes rude, anthropopathical ideas of the tence would also come to pass. As his sin was the nature of God, but is founded on perfectly just type of the sin of all succeeding kings and of the views of the deity. The two expressions for Jehowhole kingdom, so Ahijah's prediction is the type vah's anger, Dys and xp, which are cited in the of all succeeding predictions regarding this king- above passages, sometimes interchanged and dom; it forms the key-tone that rings through all sometimes used synonymously, are employed only of them (chap. xvi. 4; xxi. 23 ; xxii. 28; 2 Kings in reference to a particular sin, i. e., apostasy from IL 36).

Jehovah through idolatry or image-worship, and 2. Ahijah's prophecy, in form as well as in con- never of sin in general; and they have, therefore, tents (cf. above on ver. 7) is a perfectly connected direct reference to the fundamental law, the covewhole. It refers back (ver. 7, 8) to the former pre- nant, in which this sin is forbidden, with the addidiction, chap. xi. 30, particularly to ver. 37 After, in ver. 8, it is stated in a general

way that tion, “ for the Lord thy God is a $2 %x," i. e., a Jeroboam did not follow David's example, which jealous God. Jehovah had from love chosen Israel was the condition imposed upon him. Ver. 9 out of all peoples to be His people, and had made declares how he sinned; then follows, in vers. a covenant with them (Ex. xix. 4, 5; Deut, iv. 3610 and 11, the announcement of the punish- 40; vii. 6–13; x. 14, 15; Ps. xlvii. 5; Jer. xxxi. 3), ment, which was to be a shameful destruction of that they should be a holy people, even as He is his house; vers. 12 and 13 apply this to the holy (Lev. xix. 2). The holy love of Jehovah to heir-apparent, to the sick and only son, who his people is so great and strong that each departwas, indeed, also to die, but he was not to ure of Israel from the covenant excites His "jealperish so disgracefully, because some "good ousy ; ” Jehovah, " the holy God," is, as such, also thing" was found in him. Vers. 10 and 11 are “a jealous God” (Josh. xxiv. 19), and He would repeated in ver. 14, and it is added who is to carry appear as faithless and unholy if He were indifferout this sentence; but as Jeroboam had drawn all ent to idolatry and image-worship, which are Israel into his sin, and they had consented thereto, breaches of the covenant, and therefore called the prophecy finally proceeds in vers. 15, 16 to deal adultery and whoredom (Jer. iii. 9, and many other with guilty Israel, pronouncing its disastrous future places). Offence against the holy love of God and final ruin. This alone shows how unfounded awakens His jealousy, which manifests itself in the assertion of the recent criticism is, that the retributive justice, i. e., it provokes Him to anger. form of the prediction, as it now is, is not the ori- "Just anger can only be conceived of as closely ginal. According to Ewald, vers. 9 and 15 are united with mercy. The Old Testament proclaima * clearly an addition of the later (i. e., fifth Deute- this high and blessed truth with a voice above ronomical) author; ” the style of ver. 9 is peculiar that of man. This is its greatest excellence, and to this author, and ver. 15 interrupts the connec- conspicuously with it is to be seen its peculiar tion. But ver. 9 is an essential part of the whole, sublimity, which consists in its preaching at one and its omission would leave a serious gap; the and the same time the all-consuming wrath of God following sentence of punishment is founded on and the ardor of His mercy, surpassing infinitely what ver. 9 states. Just as little does ver. 15 break that of a mother. Both are closely and inseparably the connection; it rather forms the object and acme interwoven on every page, the thunder of God's

wrath and the quickening spring-breath of His a superstitious faith. If God send thee necessity mercy. Classical antiquity had no genuine, awe and distress, take no by-ways, but go to Him and inspiring knowledge of divine anger, neither had it pour out thine heart before Him; He hears al! any living consciousness of the divine mercy" who call upon Him, all who earnestly cry unto (Rothe, Theologische Ethik II. 8. 203).

Him. Disguise thyself, that no one mark who ang 4. The divine judgments announced in Ahijah's what thou art! This is the bad advice which the prediction, namely, cutting off Jeroboam's house, world gives for the conduct of life, and which and dispersion of Israel out of the good land given passes current with it as the true wisdom thereof. to their fathers, correspond with the nature of the How social life is vitiated by this sin, by the enold covenant, which has its form in the bodily and deavor to seem before people rather than to be in the temporal. As natural descent and deriva- often it is like a masquerade! It is even more tion was the condition of belonging to the chosen deceived by actions, by mien and manner, than by covenant people, so the curse and blessing, good words. The art of disguise corrupts man in the and evil bound up with the covenant relation, were profoundest ground of his being, and transforms of a material, temporal nature. As natural descent him into an incarnate lie.-Vers. 3, 4. CALW. B.: determined a right to partake of the covenant with The little bit of faith which worldly people often Jehovah, so also natural posterity was blessing exhibit is but part of their selfishness. . . . The and peace, while the dying out or cutting off of a foreknowledge of the future in the affairs of daily race was a curse and misfortune. This is the rea- | life man would gladly possess, because he will not son why David, who was faithful to the covenant, yield himself, in faith, to the will of God. Hence was promised that he should always have a light, flow often superstition, fortune-telling, dream-ini. e., a house forever (chap. xi. 36; xv. 4; 2 Sam. terpretation, astrology, both among the heathens as xxi. 17), while the speedy and shameful extinction well as among Christians.—CRAMER: The gift of of his house was announced to the unfaithful Jero- God neither should nor can be sold or bought for boam. So also the “good land,” flowing with milk money. As a rule, unbelief is bound with superand honey, was promised to the whole of the chosen stition. Jeroboam did not believe when God spoke people; but when they broke the covenant and to him by word and deed (chap. xiii.), and yet he partook of Jeroboam's sin they were deprived of believed that by means of a few loaves and cakes the good land, were scattered in strange lands, and he could persuade God to reveal the future to ceased to be a nation, which was to them the great- him. [The history of religion in modern times est punishment.

confirms and illustrates this.]

Vers, 4-6. The wife of Jeroboam before the HOMILETICAL AND PRACTICAL.

prophet. (a) She means to deceive the aged

blind prophet by a disguise, but the Lord gives Vers. 1-20. The last divine warning to Jerobo- him sight (Ps. clvi. 8). He gives strength to the am, (a) through the illness of his son, (b) through the weary and power to the feeble. The Lord ever prediction of the prophet. Jeroboam in need and gives sight to His true servants, so that the world in distress. (a) He is only concerned about the tak- cannot deceive and blind them. (6) She hopes, by ing away of the need and the listing off of the pun- her present, to secure the desired answer, but, at ishment, not in the renunciation of his sin and the the hour, the Lord gives hin the word he shall conversion of the heart, which should have been speak; it is the Spirit of God who speaks through the result of his need, as it is the case now with so him (Matt. x. 19 sq.). A true servant of God many. (6) He seeks consolation and help, not at the proclaims the word of truth to every one, without hands of his false priests and spiritual hirelings, respect of persons, no matter how hard it be for whom he himself did not trust, but from the proph- him. This often is his hard yet sacred duty.-Vers. et, about whom he did not long trouble himself after 7-16. Ahijah's sermon of repentance and retribuhe had nothing to ask. Thus it is always. In tion. (a) Against Jeroboam, who corrupted Isra. need and necessity unbelievers and the children of el. (6) Against Israel, allowing themselves to be this world seek for consolation and comfort from a corrupted.–Ver. 7 sq. How often it happens that spiritual preacher, and despise the finery of the the very ones whom God raises from the dust, and hirelings who care only for the wool and not for to whom He gives the largest favors, turn their the sheep. (c) He does not himself apply to the back upon and forget Him. So Jeroboam, so Isprophet, because he has an evil conscience, and he rael. Deut. xxxii. 6.–Vers. 10, 15. Not a blessing sends his wife in a disguise, for before the world but a curse rests upon a house which turns its he does not wish to be viewed as one who cares back upon the Lord and His commandments. And much for prophets. This is the folly of the wise so also a people who forget the faith of their faof this world, that they suppose they can deceive thers lose all territory, are given up to all convul. God as they deceire men. But the Lord sees what sions from within and from without, and go to de. is concealed in the darkness, and gives to every struction. Sin is the destruction of the people. one what he has deserved.

(Heb. x. 28–30.)-Vers. 12, 13. The death of a be. Ver. 1. When the threatening, warning word loved child, for whom God has prepared good, is of God bears no fruit, God at last sends the cross, often the only and the supreme means of turning especially the cross in the household, to humble away the heart of the parents from sin and the us, to bring us to a knowledge of our sins, and to world, and of winning them to the life in God to lead us to the cross of Christ. --STARKE: God gen- which they are strangers. For many a child it is erally lays hold upon men in those respects where a divine blessing when it is early taken out of this it is most grievous to them (2 Sam. xii. 14; John vain world and called away from surroundings in iv. 47).—Ver. 2. Calw, B.: Jeroboam did not wish which there is danger of the corruption both of to be seen having anything to do with the prophet, soul and body.-Ver. 15. Israel, it is thine own by any one. Worldly people are ashamed to make sin that thou hast destroyed thyself.–Ver. 16. If it known that they believe in anything, even if it be the Lord say,-he who offends one of the least of

these, &c., &c. (Matt. xviii. 6), what will He say to The memory of the just is blessed, but the name those who give offence to an entire people, at the of the godless will perish (rot). The first is true head of which they stand, through unbelief and of David, the last of Jeroboam, whose name is not immorality, and beguile them into an apostasy like an ointment poured out (i. e., diffusing sweet from the living God ?--Ver. 18. What the Saviour perfume, Eccle. i. 3), but is a savor of death unto said to those who bewailed Him on His way to death ; for with his name, for all the future, this death, Weep not for me, but, &c. (Luke xxiii. 28), word is connected: who sinned and made Israel to might have been said to the whole people Israel, sin. Of what use is it to have worn a worldly and is true to-day of so many who are weeping crown two and twenty years, to have striven and over a grave. We should carry the dead in whom fought for it, when the crown of life does not sucgood before God is found with honor to their rest ceed it, which they alone obtain who are faithful in the grave.

unto death (Rev. ii. 10) ? Vers. 19, 20. The Scripture says (Prov. x. 7),

THIRD SECTION.

THE KINGDOM IN JUDALI UNDER REHOBOAM, ABIJAM, AND ASA.

(CHAP. XIV, 21.-XV. 24.)

A.-The Rule of Rehoboam.

CHAP. XIV. 21-31.

21 And Rehoboam the son of Solomon reigned in Judah. Rehoboam was forty

and one' years old when he began to reign, and he reigned seventeen years in Jerusalem, the city which the Lord [Jehovah] did choose out of all the tribes of

Israel, to put his name there. And his mother's name was Naamah an Ammoni22 tess. And Judah did evil in the sight of the Lord [Jehovah], and they provoked

him to jealousy with their sins which they had committed, above all that their 23 fathers had done. For they’ also built them high places, and images (pillars]', 24 and groves, on every high hill, and under every green tree. And there were

also sodomites in the land: and they did according to all the abominations of

the nations which the Lord [Jehovah) cast out before the children of Israel. 25 And it came to pass in the fifth year of king Rehoboam, that Shishak king of 26 Egypt came up against Jerusalem: and he took away the treasures of the house

of the Lord [Jehovah), and the treasures of the king's house; he even took away 27 all: and he took away all the shields of gold which Solomon had made. And

king Rehoboam made in their stead brazen shields, and committed them unto

the hands of the chief of the guard, which kept the door of the king's house. 28 And it was so, when the king went into the house of the Lord [Jehovah], that 29 the guard bare them, and brought them back into the guard-chamber. Now the

rest of the acts of Rehoboam, and all that he did, are they not written in the 30 book of the Chronicles of the kings of Judah? And there was war between 31 Rehoboam and Jeroboam all their days. And Rehoboam slept with his fathers,

and was buried with his fathers in the city of David. And his mother's name was Naamah an Ammonitess. And Abijam his son reigned in his stead.

TEXTUAL AND GRAMMATICAL.

1 Ver. 21.-[Our author substitutes the number twenty-one in his translation, the reasons for which see in the Exeg. Jom. On the other hand, the entire agreement of the VV. and Mss. is a strong argument for the text as it stands. Kell decides agninst the proposed alteration.

Ver. 28.– [ 1700-D 19:1" and they, even they built," t. e, the Jews as well as the Israelites.
Ver. 23.-[ niasa = monumental pillars for religious purposes. Sept., orýdas. See the Exeg. Com.

• Ver. 26.—[The Vat. Sept. thus enlarges the close of ver. 26: shields of gold which David received of the band of the children of Adrazaar, king of Souba, and brought them into Jerusalem, all the things which he received, the arms of gold which Solomon made, and carried them into Egypt.

6 Ver. 27.- (The Heb., followed by all the VV. has the plural. The A. V. must have used "chief" collectively, • Ver. 31. The Vat. Sept., as also the Syr., omits the foregoing clause, which is repeated from ver. 21.-F. G.]

EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL.

boam. For the expression: provoke to jealousy,

see above. For ning see on chap. iii, 2, and for Ver. 21. Twenty and one years old was Re- Dimus see on ver. 15. The niaxa are also men hoboam. [Rehoboam was forty and one years old.----Eng. Ver.] The usual reading is “forty and tioned in Ex. xxxiv. 13; Deut. vii. 5; xii. 3; one.” Although the Chronicler (2 xii. 13) and all xvi. 21 $9., in connection with the Astarte-images: translations give the latter, and only some Mss. front which passages it appears that the former give twenty and one, yet this is indisputably the were made of stone, and the latter of wood. right reading. For (a) in chap. xii. 8, 10 (2 Chron. 28 from any means something that is made x. 8, 10), Rehoboam's companions at the time of fast or placed firmly, and refers to monuments his accession are called D7%, which generally (Ex. xxviii

, 18, 22 ; xxxi. 13 ; xxxv. 14, 20; Ez mean infants, or at most youths, but never men used to commemorate a divine appearance and reof forty. The older commentators resorted to the velation (Gen. xxviii. 18), men easily came to pay very strange and far-fetched supposition that the them divine honor, and in the heathen world they young men mentioned in chap. xii. were not young passed into regular idols (Lev. xxvi. 1). Whilst in years but in understanding. Thenius thinks that their youth was relative as compared with the female nature-divinity, the stone pillars repre

the wooden monuments (Astarte) represented the age of the "old men;" but men in ripe manhood of one and forty years cannot be called baby in scuted the male deity, i. e., Baal; hence nas any case. (6) Regarding the son of Relioboam, Syan (2 Kings iii. 2; cf. x. 26; xviii. 4; xxiii. Abijah, 2 Chron. xiij. 7, says, the rosurrection of Jeroboam and the separation of the ten tribes took 14). The nion were erected on hills and moun. place because his (Abijah's) father was still a boy, tains, the idols of the male and female divinities nya, and 975-77 (of a weak, tender heart, cf.

were placed under thick shady trees, as appears

from Hios. iv. 13, cf. Deut. xii. 2; Jer. ii, 20; üi. 6; Gen. xxxiii. 13). The son wishes to explain the con- xvii. 2. That w7p (ver. 24), used collectively, does duct of his father by his youthful age: but he could not possibly speak thus of a man forty-one not mean female (Ewald, Thenius), but only male years old. Besides, chap. xii. 6 sq. agrees per- prostitutes, is quite evident from chap. xv. 12 fectly with the description of Rehoboam's con- (O'WIPN) and Deut. xxiii. 18; the author menduct. (c) If Rehoboam were forty-one years old tions as the greatest excess of idolatry, that men at the death of Solomon, who reigned forty years or boys allowed themselves to be prostituted in (chap. xi. 42), Solomon must have married during honor of the gods. There is no reason to suppose, David's life-time, and have married an Ammoni-as Keil does, that they were such "as had castess, which was contrary to the law; and, as he trated themselves in a fit of religious frenzy." calls himself only a ny) (chap. iii. 7) when he had | The words " in the land” (cf. with chap. xv. 12) become king, he must have had a son in about his shows that they were not natives (Israelites or 18th year. There is nothing, however, of all this Judeans), but strangers, Canaanites or Phænicians in the history; on the contrary, it says expressly who had settled in the land for unluwful gain. that he married a daughter of Pharaoh after he Vers. 25–26. Shishak came up, ver. 25. For this became king, and she was the real queen (chap. king see on chap. xi. 40. 2 Chron. xii. 2-8 gives a iii. 1; ix. 24); he did not take Canaanitish wives further account of his invasion of Judah. We do till later (chap. xi. 1 sq.). All these positive his- not know the cause; the Rabbins think it was torical evidences for the youth of Rehoboam at only a robber expedition. As Jeroboam had sohis accession cannot be disproved and rejected on journed as a refugee with Shishak (according to an account of a mere numerical figure, though it addition of the Sept. to chap. xii. 24, he had even were originally in the text. We must, therefore, married the daughter of the latter), it has been believe, like Capellus and Le Clerc, that the nume supposed that he was induced to undertake the ral signs were changed, as so often happens, viz., war by Jeroboam. “It can scarcely be doubted that of with ); this obviates all difficulties, and that the king with a Jewish countenance on one there is no passage that in the least contradicts it. of the monuments at Carnac (see Winer, R-W.. The name and descent of the mother are expressly B. II. s. 311, 474) was Rehoboam, if Champollion given, because the queen-mother was very much was correct in reading Sheshonk (Précis du syst. esteemed and very influential, as the 177'? , just as hieroglyph. p. 204),” Thenius. San-MN?, . e., all the sultana Walida is now in the Turkish empire. that he found; took the shields, &c. (chap. x. 16). The text also subsequently gives the name of the These were of peculiarly high value. According queen-mothers, but only of those belonging to the to the connection, the author means, * That Judah Judah-kings (chap. xv. 2, 13; xxii. 42, &c.). The was given over into the power of the heathen was reason of the words, in Jerusalem. the city which the the punislıment that speedily followed their fall Lord did choose, &c., is found in the following vers. into heathen abominations " (Keil). 22 and 24, in connection with which they mean: the resideuce of Jeroboam was indeed the city

Vers. 27–28. King Rehoboam made, &c., where Jehovah's dwelling stood, which was the ver. 27. The Disy are the royal guards (see above centre of the whole theocracy, but even here the on chap. i. 38), who were also named celeres with people fell into idolatry. For the expression : put Romulus (Liv. i. 14). They kept watch at the His name there, see above on chap. vi.

palace gate (see on 2 Kings xi. 6) and accompanied Vers. 23–24. And Judah did evil, &c. Even the king in solemn procession, as often as he in the times of the judges the apostasy was never went to the temple; it was only then that they 50 great in Judah as it was now under Reho-' bore these shields, and 20t on ordinary occasions.

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