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After all, it remains unquestionably certain that these books bear throughout a specific
Israelitish-religious character, or, as it is generally termed, a theocratic character. This does
not imply that this is owing only to the author's views and style; it lies rather in the nature
of the history itself. Oehler very truly says (in Herzog's Real-Enc. xvii. 8. 247): “The idea of the
people of God is, its very nature, supernatural, this view alone gives the key to the Israel-
itish history which, if not regarded in the light of divine election and guidance, as it demands,
remains a riddle, a 'dark riddle' (comp. what Rosenkranz says in Hegel's Life, 8. 49, about
the latter's view of the Jewish history : 'it revolted him, and yet fascinated him, tormenting
him all his life like a dark enigma ')” Later historical writers have (many of them) made it
their business to take the so-called purely historical point of view in the history of the kings
of Israel: that is, to ignore all special providence in it, or rather to regard it as the religious
coloring of the author's mind, and to set it forth, like that of every other ancient nation, in a
purely secular light. They trace the fundamental idea of divine election sometimes to ego-
ism, sometimes to the accidentally monotheistic character of the writer, or to the religious
genius of the Semitic race, and reduce all special divine influence to priest-rule and priest-
craft. What the history represents as great and well-pleasing to God, is insignificant and
blameworthy, and what it views as sinful and perverse, is delineated as humanly great and
noble: in fact, this history is looked at through the glass of modern political ideas. Their
writings take no account whatsoever of a “divine economy,” but rather turn it more or less into
a thorough caricature. We shall give some examples of this in explanations of particular pas-
sages and sections. There are no historical sources regarding the Israelitish monarchy except
those of the Bible; we cannot, therefore, compare the facts narrated, with the statements of
any other author, who might take a different point of view from our author. To correct the
only extant historical source, and to change the facts therein given into totally different ones,
according to private judgment and pleasure, is not to write but to make history. He who can-
not accept the principle on which this history of the kings is written, or rejects it beforehand
as erroneous, can no more write such a history than the most learned Chinaman could write
that of Germany; he should, consequently, leave it alone.

C. The building of the palace, and the manufacture of the vessels, &c., of the temple

(I., vii.). D. The dedication of the temple (I., viii).

E. Sundry statements referring to Solomon's buildings and ships (I., ix.). Fourth Section.-Solomon's glory and magnificence.

A. The visit of the queen of Sheba (I., x. 1-13).

B. The wealth, splendor, and power of Solomon's kingdom (I., x. 14–29).
Fifth Section.-Solomon's fall and end.

A. Unfaithfulness towards Jehovah and its punishment (I., xi. 1-13).
B. Solomon's adversaries and his death (I., xi. 14-43).

SECOND PERIOD.

THE KINGDOM DIVIDED INTO JUDAI AND ISRAEL.

FIRST EPOCH.

Of the division of the kingdom down to the reign of Ahab. First Section. The disruption of the kingdom.

A. The renunciation of the house of David by the ten tribes (I., xii. 1-24).

B. The founding of the kingdom of Israel by Jeroboam (I., xii. 25–33). Second Section.-Jeroboam's reign in Israel. A. Warning to Jeroboam by a prophet, and the disobedience and end of the latter (I.,

xiii, 1-32). B. The prophecy of Ahijah against the house and kingdom of Jeroboam; the death of

the latter (I., xiv. 1-20). Third Section.—The kingdom in Judab under Rehoboam, Abijam, and Asa.

A. Rehoboam's reign (I., xiv. 21-31).

B. Abijam's and Asa's reign (I., xv. 1-24).
Fourth Section.—The kingdom in Israel under Nadab and Ahab.

A. Nadab's and Baasha's reign (I., xv. 25 to xvi. 7).
B. Ela's, Zimri's, and Ahab's reign (I., xvi. 8–24).

SECOND EPOCH.

From Ahab to Jehu.

First Section.—The prophet Elijah during Ahab's reign.

A. Elijah before Ahab at the brook Cherith and at Zarephath (I., xvii.).
B. Elijah upon Mount Carmel (I., xviii.).

C. Elijah in the wilderness and upon Horeb; his successor (I., xix.).
Second Section. The acts of Ahab.

A. Ahab's victory over the Syrians (I., xx.).
B. Ahab's procedure against Naboth (I., xxi.).
C. Ahab's expedition, undertaken along with Jehoshaphat, against the Syrians, and his

death (I., xxi. 1-40). Third Section. The kingdom under Jehoshaphat in Judah, and under Ahaziah and Joram

in Israel. A. Jehoshaphat's and Ahaziah's reign (I., xxii, 41-II. 1). B. Elijah's departure and Elisha's first appearance (II., ii.).

C. Joram's reign and his expedition against the Moabites (II., iii.). Fourth Section.-E na's prophetic acts. A. Elisha with the widow in debt, with the Shunammite, and with the sons of the

prophets” during the dearth (II., iv.).

B. The healing of Naaman, Gehazi's punishment, and the recovery of a lost axe (II.

V.-vi. 7).
C. Elisha during the Syrian invasion, and at the siege of Samaria (II., vi. 8-vii.).

D. Elisha's authority with the king, and his sojourn in Damascus (II., viii. 1-15).
Fifth Section.—The kingdom under Jehoram and Ahaziah in Judah, and Jebu's elevatior

to be king of Israel.
A. Jehoram's and Ahaziah's reign in Judah (II., viii. 16–29).
B. Jehu's elevation to be king in Israel (II., ix.).

THIRD EPOCH.

From Jehu to the destruction of the kingdom of Israel.
First Seclion. The kingdom under Jehu in Israel, and under Athaliah and Jehoash ic

Judah.
A. Jehu's reign (II., x.).
B. The reign of queen Athaliah and its overthrow (II., xi.).

C. The reign of Jehoash (II., xii.).
Second Section.—The kingdom under Jehoahaz, Jehoash, and Jeroboam II. in Israel, and

under Amaziah in Judah.
A. The reign of the kings Jehoahaz and Joash (II., xiii.).

B. The reign of Amaziah in Judah, and of Jeroboam II. in Israel (II., xiv.).
Third Section.—The kingdom under Azariah (Uzziah) and Jotham in Judah, and under

Zachariah and Hosea in Israel.
A. The reign of the kings Azariah and Jotham in Judah, and of the kings Zachariah,

Shallum, Menahem, Pekahiah, and Pekah in Israel (II., xv.).
B. The reign of Ahaz in Judah (II., xvi.).
C. The fall of the kingdom Israel under Hosea (II., xvii.).

THIRD PERIOD.

THE KINGDOM IN JUDAI AFTER THE DESTRUCTION OF THE KINGDOM ISRAEL,

First Section.-—The kingdom under Hezekiah.

A. Hezekiah's reign: oppression by Sennacherib and deliverance from it (II., xviii., xix.).
B. Hezekiah's sickness and recovery: his reception of the Babylonish embassy, and his

end (II., xx.).
Second Section.—The kingdom under Manasseh, Amon, and Josiah.

A. The reign of Manasseh and of Amon (II., xxi.).
B. The reign of Josiah, the discovery of the book of the law, and restoration of the

prescribed worship of God (II., xxii. 23-30). Third Section, A. The reign of the kings Jehoahaz, Jehoiakim, Jehoiachin, and Zedekiah (II., xxiii.

31-xxv. 7). B. The fall of the kingdom of Judah: release of Jehoiachin from prison (II., xxv. 8–80).

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LITERATURE.

Passing over commentaries and expositions extending over the entire Old Testament (for a list, see De Wette, Introduction to the 0. Test, and the Biblewerk), we confine ourselves to notices of those works which concern themselves especially with our books. On the whole, the literature in question is not so extensive as that of many other and less weighty books, as e. g., The Song of Solomon. For a number of centuries no work could be adduced which was specially devoted to our books.

I. Exegetical treatises. Ephraem Syr. (+ 378): Explanatio in I. et II. regnorum (Op. omn Romæ 1737. Tom. 1).—Theodoreti (+ 457): Quæstiones in libros III. et IV. regnorum (Om.omn ed. Noesselt. Halæ 1769. Tom. I.).–J. Bugenhagen: annotationes in libr. Reg. Basil. 1525.Seb. Leonhard : (nouvhuata in libr. Reg. Erfurd 1606.-Piscator : Comment. in duvs libr. Regum. Herborn 1611.-Seb. Schmidt: in libr. Regum annotationes. Argentor 1697.-A. condensed collection of expositions up to the close of the seventeenth century may be found in Poole's (+ 1679) Synopsis Criticorum aliorumque scripturæ sacræ interpretum et commentatorum. Francof. ad. M. 1694.-K. Fr. Keil: Commentar über die Bücher der Könige. Moskau 1846.—0. Thenius: Die Bücher der Könige. Leipzig 1849 (9. Lieferung des Kurzgefassten Exeget. Handbuchs zum A. T.).—K. Fr. Keil: Biblischer Commentar über die prophetischen Geschichtsbücher des A. T. Dritter Band; die Bücher der Könige. Leipzig 1864.-Einleitung in die Bücher der Könige. Leipzig, Halle 1861 (translation with remarks thrown in by Adolf v. Schlüsser).

II. Historical treatises. J. J. Hess: Geschichte David's und Salomo's, und: Geschichte der Könige Juda's und Israel's nach der Trennung des Reichs. 2 Bünde, Zürich 1787.-Niemeyer: Charakteristik der Bibel, 4 ter u. 5 ter Theil, 5 Aufl. Halle 1795.-—Leo: Vorlesungen über die jüdische Geschichte 1825 (withdrawn by the author.).—Bertheau: Zur Geschichte der Israeliten, Göttingen 1842.—Menzel: Staats-und Religionsgeschichte der Königreiche Israel und Juda. Berlin 1853.-Ewald : Geschichte Davids und der Königherrschaft in Israel. 2 Ausg., Göttingen (the third volume of the history of the people Israel to the time of Christ).–Eisenlohr: Das Volk Israel unter der Herrschaft der Könige. 2 Theil., Leipzig 1856.-Schlier: Die Könige in Israel. Ein Handbüchlein zur heiligen Geschichte, Stuttgart 1859.-M. Duncker: Geschichte des Alterthums. Erster Band. 2 Aufl., Berlin 1855.—Hasse: Geschichte des Alten Bundes, Leipzig 1863.-Weber: Das Volk Israel in der alttestamentlichen Zeit, Leipzig 1867.—To these must be added special articles in Winer: Biblisches Realwörterbuch, 3 Auf., Leipzig 1847, and in IIerzog: Real-Encyclopädie, Gotha 1854–1864. Comp. particularly the article in vol. xvii. pp. 245–303: “the people of God," by Oehler.

III. Homiletic treatises. Only upon the history of the prophets Elijah and Elisha are there sermons and devotional dissertations, which are cited below. in the appropriate place. Notwithstanding the rich material of our books in ancient as well as in recent times, there are fewer homiletical treatises, whether of the whole or only of particular sections, than upon any other books of the Bible. We must rest content here with referring to the works which embrace the entire Bible, and have interpreted it more or less practically and devotionally. Cramer: Summarien und biblische Auslegung, 1627, 2 Aufl., Wolfenbüttel 1681, Fol.-L. Osiander: Deutsche Bibel Luthers mit einer kurzen, jedoch grünillichen Erklärung, herausgegeben von D. Förster, Stuttgart 1600, Fol.-Würtembergische Summarien und Auslegungen der ganzen Heil. Schrift. Das Alte Testament, zuerst bearbeitet von J. K. Zeller, Stuttgart 1677; afterwards “ diligently revised and enriched with many useful remarks by the theological faculty of the University of Tübingen, Leipzig 1709. 4. (The new “ Summarien oder Gründliche Auslegung der Schriften des A. T. ii. Band,” by Finkh, Stuttgart 1801-4, are far inferior to the older).Berlenburger Bibel, anderer Theil, 1728, Fol.-A. Kyburz: Historien Bet-und Bilderbibel, ater Theil, Augsburg 1739. 8.-Joachim Lange: Biblisch Historisches Licht und Recht, d. i. richtige und erbauliche Erklärung der sümmtlichen historischen Bücher des A. T., Halle u. Leipzig 1734, Fol. - Chr. M. Pfaff: Biblia, b. i. die ganze Heilige Schrift mit Summarien und Anmerk., Tübing. Fol. (8 Ausg. Speyer 1767).--Starke: Synopsis Bibliothecæ ereget. in V. T., zweiter Theil, andere verbesserte Auflage, Leipzig 1745. 4.-G. F. Seiler: Des grössern bill. Erbauungsbuches Alten Testaments dritter Theil, Erlangen 1791.4.-Richter : Erklärte Tausbibel. Altes Testament, zueiter Band, Barmen 1835. 8.-Lisco: Das Alte Testament mit Erklärungen u. 8. 2. Erster Band, die historischen Bücher, Berlin 1844. 8.-0. Von Gerlach: Das Alte Testament mit Einleitungen und erklärenden Anmerkungen, zueiter Band, Berlin 1846. 8 (5 Aufl. 1867).—(Calwer) Handbuch der Bibelerklärung für Schule und Haus. Erster Band, das Alte Testament enthaltend, Calw und Stuttgart 1849. 8.

[The remarks of our author respecting the small number of commentaries and treatises upon the Books of the Kings are truo, conspicuously of English theological literature. What

we have is of the most meagre description. In fact, there is nothing to be named; we have no special exposition of our books in the English language. Our clergy and laity, who have depended upon English authors, have been compelled to use Patrick, Lowth, and Whitby, or Thomas Scott, or D'Oyly and Mant, or Adam Clarke, and the rest. These works, as is well known, are utterly deficient in critical acumen, and the amount of information they convey is insignificant. Whatsoever may be the merits or demerits of this work, it will certainly meet a need that has been long felt.

The reader can moreover consult Bp. Horsley's “Notes on the Kings," and for the historical review, Dean Stanley's History of the Jewish Church, and Prof. F. W. Newman's Hebrew Monarchy. Dean Prideaux's work, embracing the period from the declension of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah to the time of our Lord, notwithstanding its faulty construction, remains an abiding monument of genuine erudition.

In Bishop Hall's “Contemplations” the reader will find much that is valuable, and of great spiritual practical insight. It is rich in homiletical suggestions, and can be read with profit in connection with the sacred text. Many sermons, too, have been published, which illustrate particular sections of the Books of the Kings, as, e. g., on the temple (chap. vi.), and its consccration (chap. viii.), and on the disobedient prophet (chap. xiii.), and on Elijah (chap. xvii. 89.), &c., some of which will be referred to under the texts in their order.

For particular items: Dr. Smith's Dictionary of the Bible (Boston, 1860-1863, enlarged by Hackett and Abbott, in 4 vols. 1870), or an abridgment by Mr. S. Barnum, may be used (see especially art. "Temple," by Ferguson). For the temple in respect of comparative architecture, &c., see K. O. Müller, Archæology of Ancient Art, &c., translated by John Leitch. London, A. Fullarton & Co., 1847. Also, Solomon's Temple, &c., by T. 0. Paine, a minister of the NewJerusalem Church. Boston, 1861.-E. H.]

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