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and scarred by guilt than her persecu- never windows gleamed or bonfires tor, in the revolting grossness of his blazed for any victory before ; for this life, had ever condescended to appear. was felt to be a victory which the
From first to last, during the long people might rejoice in heartily, withcontinuance of proceedings in the House out misgiving or alloy; a victory over of rds, Mr. Brougham's energies the strong hand of selfish and unscruwere poured forth unsparingly in this pulous oppression: and he who had important case. It is the occasion been foremost in the arduous strife bewhich his biographer will have to dwell came the idol of the people, and was on, as revealing within definite limits hailed as the people's friend. But the all his rare and multiplied endowments fiery indignation which Mr. Brougham -all his defiant and indomitable daring had often given utterance to during the -his lightning-like conception-his course of these proceedings against the multifarious knowledge-his compre- Queen, did not die away at their terminahensive grasp of details, and his skill- tion, nor even on the mournful death of ful marshaling of them in production his unhappy client. From time to time, of some climax startling from magnifi. ever since, the pent emotion has burst cence of power,—his lynx-eyed insight forth, rapid, fierce and burning, as in into falsehood and prevarication under its first consuming outbreak. A wellall their wide variety of cleverly-con- remembered example of the abiding, trived disguises-his fierce, intolerable unabated strength of this feeling ocsarcasm and his vehement and im- curred in the defense of Ambrose passioned eloquence, touched some- Williams, in a trial for libel on the times with an unwonted pathos, and Durham clergy. The defendant had, raised sometimes into an unwonted in the “ Durham Chronicle,” published solemnity of tone, which were inspired some severe censures on the conduct by the greatness of the cause, and were of the clergy, in not having the bells not unworthy of it. The chaste and of their churches tolled on the occanoble impressiveness of the peroration sion of her Majesty's death ; and Mr. of his speech in defense was a new ex- Brougham, roused to pitiless resentcellence in his marvelous oratory. ment by the insult which had provoked One brief emphatic passage in it, which his client's strictures, poured forth a Lord Eldon reprehended as an intimi- bitter stream of mingled sarcasm, irony, dation, was in these memorable words: and stern vituperation on the complain
ants, which must have made them in “My Lords, I pray you to pause. I do earnestly beseech you to take heed! You
the depth of their abasement look back, are standing upon the brink of a precipice- almost lovingly, on the milder libel of then beware! It will go forth your judg. which the evil spirit had come back to ment, if sentence shall go forth against the them in the strength of seven even more Queen. But it will be the only judgment you ever pronounced which, instead of wicked than himself. Amongst the reaching its object, will return and bound multitude of Mr. Brougham's speeches back upon those who give it.
at the bar, we question whether any country, my Lords, from the horrors of this
other equaled this in the one quality of catastrophe-save yourselves from this peril
concentrated scorn : -rescue that country, of which you are the ornaments, but in which you can flourish no doubtedly more richly graced with longer, when severed from the people, than knowledge, some more soundly arguthe blossom when cut off from the roots and
mentative, some wittier, and some more the stem of the tree."
classically eloquent; but in that pecuOwing to the matchless efforts of the liar power in which the orator surpassed Queen's defenders, the Bill of Pains the whole of his contemporaries—the and Penalties met with so discouraging power of a contemptuous, withering, a fortune in the House of Lords, that merciless invective —it is doubtful it was, after the third reading, finally whether this defense of Ambrose Wilwithdrawn. The news of that event liams is not, even now, to be regarded was welcomed with a jubilant delight as his best oration at the bar. throughout the land. In the homes of It has been a hundred times rethe great masses of the people, even in marked, how seldom a distinguished tho lanes and courts and alleys where speaker in the courts is equally sucthe very poorest of them lived, the cessful in the House of Commons. Mr. windows gleamed with light, and bon- Brougham's first efforts in that new fires blazed in the public places, as arena are said to have made it likely
some were un
that his name would have to be inscribed addressed, or uphold against attack in the catalogue of those to whom this with a surpassing storm of sarcasm, disappointment had occurred. But scorn, and sneers, and fierce and pasthere was a stubborn invincibleness in sionate invective, against which, no his nature, a power to do whatever he member of the House, but Canning, determined on, that soon bore him up could, with any hope of victory, conabove all fear of permanent failure. tend. With this influence in the House, Before he had been many months a there was no lack of sustenance to his member of the House, he became so popularity out of doors. well accustomed to it as to wield the liberal measure, of every measure tendrare weapons of his oratory in that ing to relieve, redress, refine, and raise great assembly with just as much ease, the people, he was the strong and and with just as assured a mastery, as staunch supporter.
On all those mohe was wont to do elsewhere. In little mentous themes, in which the problem more than two years it was thought is to reconcile the widest benefits of not imprudent for him to contest a civil government with the smallest Liverpool election against Canning, possible encroachment upon individual and his defeat on that occasion ex- rights, his exertions were unsparing on cluded him from Parliament for four the popular side. On some of these years. But, in 1816, he again obtained his labors and endeavors have, to such a seat there, which he continued to an extent, identified him with the cause, hold
-as representative, successivelythat the memories of the measure and for Winchelsea, for Knaresborough, the man must go down to posterity toand for Yorkshire-until his elevation, gether. And-if we have not misconin 1830, tu the House of Lords. In ceived the character which is revealed the House, it was soon felt that a mas- beneath the tumult and the turmoil of his ter-spirit was again amongst them—an life—if the high ambition of a beneorator of nature's fashioning, yet well factor to his fellow-countrymen, and to sustained by all the helps of art—a the world, has been in truth amongst worthy successor of the great parlia- the foremost of the dispositions which mentary chiefs of a generation just inspired and sustained him—he would passed away. Compared with the himself wish to be remembered in no mightiest of that by-gone race, though nobler association than that of the he might fall short of the gorgeous faithful and triumphant leader in the imagination and the philosophic depth great battles for the abolition of colonial of Burke, or of the sonorous and sus- slavery; the reform of law; and the tained strength of Pitt, or of the vehe- diffusion of knowledge, the helpmate mence, and simplicity, and genuine and chief servant of Christianity in the nobleness of Fox, or of the wit, and work of civilization, into the underpolish, and dramatic point of Sheridan, standings and the hearts of all the popuhe had powers of his own, quite as for- lution of the land. midable, at least, as any of these in In the twenty-two years which interdebate-as much dreaded by opponents, vened between his call to the English and as much confided in by friends. bar and his accession to the woolsack, For, to the consideration of almost it would have been excusable enough every subject that could come before if Mr. Brougham had written nothing. the council of a great nation, he brought In the harass of his extensive business an ample and exact fund of knowledge, in the courts, or in the excitement of a comprehensive acquaintance with all his labors in the House of Commons, an the principles of sound and scientific ordinary man would have found quite government, and a very competent task enough for body and for mind, and familiarity with all the details of our the anxieties, and toil, and efforts of home, foreign, and colonial affairs, the two occupations, actively pursued, which a retentive memory enabled him might have satisfied the most intemperate to bring to bear at any moment in de avidity for work. But Mr. Brougham bate, which he had the skill—in spite found time and vigor for a third. of an unstudied style-to set before his Hazlitt says—truly, indeed, though not hearers clearly, fully, and impressively; in an obvious sense—the more we do, the and which, upon occasion, he would en- more we can do; the busier we are, the force with an eloquence in which the more leisure we have : and Mr. Broughreason and the feelings were alike am's accumulated labors at the time we are speaking of, exemplified the theo- to our deliberate admiration, after its retic truth. In the production of ad- appeal to the feelings had been successdresses, pamphlets, and revised and fully made.” published speeches, and in the great On the accession of the Whigs to body of his contributions to the “ Edin- office in 1830, Mr. Brougham, much to burgh Review,” there was an intellectual the surprise of Parliament and the naharvest which might have been held not tion, became their Lord Chancellor. On scanty in amount even for a man of him, and on Earl Grey, the burden of letters by profession; and yet these the battle rested in carrying the memor. were but the superabundance which his able Bill for Parliamentary Reform indefatigable spirit yielded. The larger against the deeply-rooted opposition of portion of these writings have, unques- the Upper House. But Lord Broughtionably, a political cast and character am, with his long experience in the about them, and were probably -- as Commons and the courts of law, was thair manner indicates-written hastily just the man that an emergency so and carelessly; yet in all their indiffer- startling needed. Like Massena, he was ence to elegance, abounding in vitality most himself when difficulties thronged and strength, as auxiliaries in the great most against him. Those who remempublic causes pending at the time. ber the perilous excitement of that Sometimes, however, we meet with time—when the people's voice was a genial paper, so eloquent of the heard from every quarter of the land in charm of early, unforgotten studies, stern and deep tones demanding that and old classical memories and joys, the proffered measure of relief should as to set us pondering on the great be no longer kept from them, and the things the writer might have accom- press, in all its multitudinous chanplished if, in his young days, he had nels, from the hawker's penny sheet wedded himself to literature instead of
to the almost omnipotent " Times,” was statesmanship or law. Of this kind is clamoring and thundering for the passthe Inaugural Discourse on his installa- ing of the Bill, and both press and peotion as Lord Rector of the University ple were looking angrily towards the of Glasgow. Opposed, as a candidate, House of Lords as the one obstruction by Sir Walter Scott, and winning the to the great redress they claimed-will election only by the casting vote of remember how, in the nightly conflicts Mackintosh, Mr. Brougham's address is and commotions which disturbed the said to have been composed amidst the immemorial dignity of their Lordships' complicated business and bustle of the deliberations, the strangest of all innonorthern circuit. But, wherever it was vations was the fierce and passionate written, the address is redolent of fond rhetoric, the ever-ready artillery of inremembrance of the pure and high de- vective, menace, sarcasm, and denuncialights belonging to the scholar's life, tion of their new colleague in council, rich in eloquent incentives to exertion, Henry, Lord Brougham. And it will nobly stored with dissertation on the be remembered also, how, when every grace, and power, and beauty of the lan- argument in favor of the Bill had been guage of old Greece, commendatory- insisted on, till frequent use had made but not enough so-of the great mas- it threadbare, his Lordship, on the ters of our own glorious tongue, wise second reading, delivered an oration and earnest in the counsels it enforces, full of wit, and novelty, and eloquence, and, above all, bold in the declaration of and argumentative impressiveness, a great philosophic truth, which raised which delighted, by its force and beaua host of hoodwinked volunteers against ty, those who most disliked and dreadhim ; and it is, moreover, distinguished ed its effect, and which stands to this by a better and exacter style than was day in the foremost rank in merit, if habitual to the writer in the works re- not itself the very first in 'merit, of all ferable to that laborious time. Bearing the countless speeches he has made. this discourse in mind, as a model, we On the passing of this much-contested might, without injustice, apply to some measure, in the summer of the next few of his other writings of the same year, the Whig ministry were at liberty period his own words: Had he studied to proceed to other and extensive correctness equally, the effect would amendments of domestic and colonial have been heightened, and a far more law. In all these legislative labors the excellent thing would have been offered Chancellor was an able, energetic, and untiring sharer. In the case of some to any of the great principles of liberty of them, such as the abolition of colonial and progress, or
to any momentous slavery, the amendment of the criminal policy, that he had ever advocated earlaw, and the improvement of the de- nestly in earlier years, but that he has structive and demoralizing poor-laws, not chosen to be bound by the shibboboth wisdom and humanity demanded leth of any of the parties in the state. the reform. His speeches upon these His opposition to the Whig ministry subjects, even if they remained alone, under Lord Melbourne, in which the instead of being merely instances of his charge originated, began reluctantly : continuous and consistent effort to and, as he himself proclaimed, at the make his influence beneficial to the na- conclusion of a masterly and eloquent tion, would amply prove him to have defense, wrung from him by an been earnest, outspoken, and enlight- imputation of the kind within the ened, in performance of the legislative Houseduties of his brief official life. But he had, at the same time, judicial duties to
“Only began, as every man in the country
knew, and as those slanderous assailants alone perform; and it is in reference to his willfully forgot, when the government took a competency to these that detraction has new line against reform of Parliament, and been busiest against his fame. We think
other reforms; and when on that, and on their it quite probable that he was less deeply
extravagant civil list, and their Canada Bills,
and their slave-question, they had compelled learned in the technicalities and prece- him to oppose them, if he did not mean to dents of law than many of his prede- abandon all his most sacred and most concessors had been, but he was a master stantly avowed principles and feelings upon
the whole policy of the state. These things of its principles, and he made up by
were quite notorious—they were facts, and prodigious toil and care for
even had dates, which at once dispelled the ficiencies.
He gave, moreover, more whole charges made by willful fabrications hours in the day, and more days, than
out of doors, and at length, with an indiscre had been usual to the court, and by this
tion to which great wits are too subject,
brought forward by a cabinet minister in that means, and by his unequaled quick- House." ness and activity of mind together, he left not a single appeal unheard, nor Since his emancipation from the toils one letter unanswered.” In dispensing of office, in 1834, his lordship has enthe extensive patronage of his office, he
gaged in a career of literature which, at had the rare merit of doing nothing that any previous time, must have been, even the malignancy of spite could found a to his unexampled industry, impracticcensure or a cavil on, whilst he left, on
able. It is true that the greater porquitting power, more than one glad and
tion of his “Discourse of Natural Thegrateful home, made happy by his un
ology” was written whilst he held the expected kindness.
Great Seal, but, amidst the cares that Lord Brougham remained in office pressed upon him, “it was impossible little more than four years. His sub
to finish the work." The revision and sequent position in the Upper House conclusion of this philosophical discourse has been that of an independent peer.
was one of the first fruits of subsequent During that long portion of the inter- leisure. The edition of Paley's treatise vening time in which his activity in on the same subject, with scientific Parliament was unabated, there was notes and illustrations, in the preparasometimes a purpose to be served by tion of which Sir Charles Bell was his representing him as one who had aban- colleague, and the “Dialogues on Indoned and opposed his former views, stinct,” were the next ripe produce of and had been, in fact, without any obvi- his lordship's versatile ability. Το ous or sufficient motive, guilty of that
these there has succeeded a considerable very tergiversation with which he charg- series of Lives of Philosophers, Men ed Canning, in the memorable scene of Letters, and Statesmen of the time between them during the debate on of George the Third-a collection of Catholic Emancipation, in 1823. But biographies, full of interesting informawhen we look at the particulars on which tion, and richly interspersed with critiit is attempted to substantiate this cisms which, themselves, occasionally sweeping charge, they are found to be need a passing word of comment. To contemptibly inadequate to any such the consideration of some of these prodesign; the facts arrayed against him ductions we would gladly turn had we showing, not that he has proved a traitor
In a few months his lordship will keenly deplored, as we look forward to have entered on his eightieth year. a more quickly forthcoming reunion Very recently he has gone back to in- with the departed objects of our caro vestigations in physical science like and love; and all the lesser cares and those by which his celebrity in youth troubles of his long life, all the coldness was won. As the memories of those
and injustice, and calumnious misreprestudious days in the university of his
sentation that have occurred to him in native land, and of the intervening his public course, how abundantly have years of struggle and success upon the they been counterbalanced by the indebusiest of the world's stages, are re- fatigable use which it has been percalled to him in his sweet southern mitted to him to make of his great home, it would be excusable, though natural endowments, either by himself his pulse should beat quicklier, and his originating, or by ably seconding others, cheek flush with pride, as he dwells on in the protection given to the weak the remembrance of the labors he has against the strong, in the freedom won gone through, the good he has accom- for our colonial slaves, in the amelioraplished, and the high example he has tion of our laws, and in the glorious given to the world. In such a retro- boon of knowledge, the enlightener to spect there should be a noble and suffi- myriads of our fellow-men, who, but cient consolation for the sorrows that for his ceaseless, splendid services, have fallen to his lot. In advanced age, would have been doomed to linger on in the bereavements of affection are less bopeless intellectual darkness.
FEMALE COOPER AGE.
NEW fashion always proves to be vain to talk Iroquois in Greece. The
old. Trades change ; and a female finest poetry, the sublimest truth, are dress-maker is only a cooper working equally lost. Fashion, in dress, is the in crinoline. A “ portrait of a lady” is solvent that reconciles and adapts. To now no more exhibited in a frame than be out of fashion, is to be out of tune the lady herself. There is this differ- and time. ence: in the picture the frame is visible; Now we shall let our betters speak in the original it is hidden.
of these mysteries. We said a new In England, at the present moment, fashion is always old. There is noladies wear hoops in full dress at balls thing new in hoops, and we shall soon and dinners upon state occasions; at have patches. In 1715, petticoats had which times, also, men wear dress-coats swollen to that degree, that a writer and white waistcoats, if they like white says: “ If the men, also, adopted the old waistcoats - or have them. In this fashion of trunk-hose, a man and his country, a lady wears hoops at breakfastwife would fill a whole pew in church.” in the street, calling, and shopping. It In a letter to the 66 Spectator,” we is not ascertained that she is ever un- find the following account of hoops : hooped. A laudable curiosity inquires, “Since your withdrawing from this “Does the American lady sleep in place, the fair sex are run into great hoops ?"
extravagancies. Their petticoats which There is reason, however, even in the began to swell and heave before you extravagance of fashion : that is to say, left us, are now blown up into a most every fashion has some good idea. Some enormous concave, and rise every day attempt to please ; some aim at beau- more and more. In short, sir, since ty, grace, ease, propriety, or conveni. our women know themselves to be out
We do not say how often that of the eye of the • Spectator,' they will effort is successful, or how frequently be kept
within no compass.
You a fashion is beautiful or graceful. praised them a little too soon for the
One thing only is sure : that to be modesty of their head-dresses ; for as entirely out of the fashion is to be the humor of a sick person is often neither beautiful nor graceful. It is in driven out of one limb into another,