Obrazy na stronie

settle the fare with the hackmen herself. I, who thank my stars that I am a With an imbecile sense of relief, on these jolly old bachelor, and who am the indioccasions, the poor, prostrate Balaam vidual you see dancing every polka, says to her, with feeble jocularity,“ My every evening, at every hotel in Newdear, you are the only fair that the port, who have no wife nor family, but coachman can't settle."

that cigar and book, to which you have They go into the country. The house probably never heard any bachelor lies under the warm side of a hill. There allude — I often wonder how it hapare no trees. The Balaam bed-room is pened; how he came to do it-I mean, ten feet by fifteen, with a double bed in how they ever came to be married. it, and the trunks about the floor. There That form of asking the question is are wall-paper shades over the windows, a little painful to me, but it is quite in which the July sun nestles all the day strongly impressed upon my mind, and long. There are fried pork and heavy you shall know why. home-made bread for breakfast, and I am, in fact, bald. The family hair venerable boiled beef and cabbage for falls out early, and my head shines, at dinner—"hearty, homely fare,” Mrs. this moment, like a huge ostrich's egg. Balaam says—"none of your watering. In church, on Sundays, I usually leave place kick-shaws."

a glove on the top of my head to protect Balaam bleats mild protests at inter- it from draughts, for I hate the falsity of vals; and lately, as he was strolling a wig. Before Balaam removed into his along the dusty road, holding a cotton present house, which it is Mrs. Baumbrella with one hand, to shield him Iaam's pride to keep clean, we boarded from the sun, and with the other brand together, and I took pleasure in toying ishing a cotton handkerchief about his with an only child of theirs, who, I am brows to wipe the exuding moisture, he devoutly thankful, has been since remet a friend from town, going on to the moved to a distant boarding-school. sea-shore.

One evening Balaam asked me in to si Ah, Balanm, my boy, how do you tea. Now, though bald, I was not old ; like your lodging ?

I was marriageable yet; I could still B., who has a vague sense of the sigh and sing, and my toilette was choice omnipresence of Mrs. B., and always and exact. The company was not large, speaks as in her dread hearing, an- and it was silent. I have noticed that swered:

the Balaam parties are, in a word, dread“Oh! very well.”

ful. Mrs. Balaam looks as if she were “ Well,” said his lugubrious friend, ready to mop up or sweep away upon “I should think, if you were not eaten the instant any remark that should up with the musquitoes, did not come chance to be dropped. The consedown with the fever and ague, or the quence is, that people grin, and squirm, bilious fever, or the gastric fever, or and look at books of engravings, at the the low, slow country fever—and if you little social festivals of the Balaams, and dared to be out in the evening, or sleep smile so kindly upon dear Mrs. Balaam with your windows open, or go in to when they go away, thanking her for bathe--it might be quite tolerable, only such a charming evening. Why should it must be infernally hot, of course." people arrange their hair, and put on

Mr. Balaam rose one morning with lace dresses, and jewels, and gloves, and the firmness of despair, and said, with carry a bouquet, for the sake of looka careless, semi-resolute air, to his ing into the Balaam picture-books ? wife :

As this party was a tea-party it was My dear, I think I shall smoke a not large, and we all sat. You know cigar."

what tragical moments of depression Very well, Mr. Balaam, as there is come over the best regulated tea-parno spare room in the house, you will ties—but an ordinary festivity of the have to sleep in the barn.”

kind is a revel compared with this. The He did not sleep in the barn; but he Balaam tea-parties are what the French dreamed all night of being rolled up would call “ solemnities.” At this par. tight in a piece of straw matting, which ticular one I endeavored to

it smelt of Manilla diseases, and being off” gayly. I smiled and chatted, and scrubbed hard, on his defenseless face, laughed at my own humor, and critiby the energetic mop of Belinda Ba- cised the pictures in the drawing-room laam.


album, and tried in every way to


epliven the profound melancholy of the will rub his hands, and say hopefully: occasion.

“ Most time for a fire !” Mrs. Balaam, But in the midst of one of my cheeri- who is a woman of fixed principles, est efforts, while the eyes of the compa- takes this symptom at the very outset, ny were all fixed upon me, the young

and replies: You know, Mr. Balaam, heir of Balaam-since happily removed, that we never have fires until after the as I said--came and stood in front of fifth of November; it's a foolish extravame, and regarded me so steadfastly that gance; don't pamper yourself!" my attention and that of every person

Balaam has given up smoking; he in the room was attracted to him. Sud- has given up drinking wine; he has denly, as he stood staring before me, given up going to the theatre; he has he began to rub the top of his head, still given up driving, or buying books, gazing at me. I thought the brat had which "only clutter up the house." gone out of his ridiculous wits, and

He has given up asking a friend to paused ; so did everybody else ; perfect dinner, or to pass the night. He has silence reigned in the room, while this given up wearing a dressing-gown or wicked child kept rubbing the top of slippers in the parlor, or reading the his head, and, contemplating the re- newspapers there, or putting his legs fulgent top of mine, he at length, in a over the arms of the easy-chairs. He loud voice, asked, before that company, has given up little excursions, or linger“ HOW D'YE DO IT ?"

ing in the morning, after breakfast. He I pardoned the laughter of the par- has given up having the rooms at a ty; I laughed myself. And whenever, higher temperature than 65o. He has since, I wonder at any circumstance, given up walking up and down the the formula of my inquiry is the same; drawing-room, and going up the front and, therefore, when I think of the Ba- stairs. He has given up scolding the laams, I always wonder how they did it. servants for bringing him cold plates at

I know how it will be when they come dinner, and cold water for shaving. He home in the autum For weeks the has given up throwing a sixpence to house will smell of pepper, camphor, hand-organs, and looking out of the and tobacco, as the carpets, and cur- window at dancing-monkeys, and puttains, and winter clothes are unrolled. ting the evening paper over his head Mrs. B. will come out in great force and going to sleep. He has even given in every department. Pickling and

Pickling and up all curiosity to know how he did it. preserving, and consequent checked- And having given up all the flesh and aprons and curl-papers will set in. In blood of life, Balaam is quite ready to the latter days of September Balaam give up the ghost.


EIGHTY:NE years have passed which replaced the corrupt and effete ment, ever submitted to the approval personified in the Hollandish William. of a free people, was read to the con- Yet the iron will and calm fixedness gress of the United States, assembled of purpose which animated the delegates in a neighboring city. It was not rati- from every province between New fied by that burst of external enthusi- Hampshire and Georgia, which mado asm by which persons of more mercurial the Puritan, the Quaker, the votary of temperaments usually receive the pro- the church of England, the Irish Cathogramme of a revolution in their political lic, and Rochelle Huguenot to lie down situation-for large assemblies, ever together, as the lion and the lamb are hopeful, usually expect improvement described in holy writ, was yet as fit a from change—but with a sturdy English theme for the pen of a historian as the resolution and self-confidence, like that wildest scenes any chronicle records. of the barons who wrested Magna Char- The document was no holiday declata from King John, and the convention ration of rights already won, no holiday inauguration of a monument of triumphs Thomas Jefferson. In these opinions already achieved, but the solemn decla- he was firm and consistent, having, as ration of men who knew no such word he states in his autobiography, introas fail, of a fixed purpose to plant the 'duced a bill for the abolition of slavery tree of liberty-not to wither, as the into the colonial legislature, before the olive branch of sunny France subse- Revolution, and continued its consistent quently withered, but to stand like our

opponent until a few days before his own live-oak, almost eternal and ever- death. On this subject he says: green. That declaration has become

“In 1769, I became a member of the legisthe evangel of nations struggling to be lature by the choice of the country in which free, and its defects cannot be looked I live, and so continued until it was closed by on as inherent, but, like the Spanish body for the permission of the emancipation

the Revolution. I made one effort in that moss, were parasitic and accidental,

of slaves, which was rejected, and, indeed, easily to be torn away, and never des during the regal government, nothing liberal tined to do aught than veil the trunk could expect success." of the firm and sturdy oak. They were Thus Mr. Jefferson began his public not destined to remain. For that reason, career by an effort for the en

emancipation when we read the Declaration of Inde- of the slaves of his own state, before he pendence, it does not seem to us like made himself illustrious by far happier the emanation of a human mind, but efforts for the establishment of national assumes the grandeur and type of in- independence. His was no sentimental spiration; and men in despotic lands, patriotism, but he loved liberty, for itwhere liberty is treason, and the enun- self alone, in its broadest sense, and did ciation of the truth, that men are born not distinguish between chains for the equal, is a crime—all recognize Thomas individual and for the masses. He Jefferson as the very apostle of popular hated slavery per se, and his mind was right, and the Paul of the gospel of too philosophical not to be aware that independence. The clear and distinct the establishment of an instance recogparagraphs, the grand yet simple elo nized the principle. quence, show this declaration was not a In the unamended portion of the DeRbætor's display, but the enunciation claration of Independence, Mr. Jefferson of the yearnings of a great and good speaks, in his own strong and peculiar man, who was aware of his duty to his style, of what he thought one of the nation, and willing, as he expresses it greatest tyrannies of the government himself, to pledge his life, his fortune, of George III. : and his sacred honor for its salvation.

“He has waged cruel war against human It is at this time peculiarly proper to nature itself, violating its most sacred rights look back on Mr. Jefferson's glorious of life and liberty in the persons of a distant participation in the work, of which he people who never offended him, captivating might aptly say, quorum magna pars

and carrying them into slavery in another

hemisphere, or to incur miserable death in fuč, and to show the mistake of those their passage thither. This piratical warfare, who pretend, at this day, to honor his the opprobrium of infidel powers, is the warmemory, while they are engaged in the

fare of the Christian King of Great Britain. most subtle attacks on what he consid

Determined to keep open a market where men

should be bought and sold, he has prostituted ered to be cardinal principles of the his negative for suppressing every legislative Union he formed, and for which he attempt to prohibit or to restrain this execra

ble commerce. pledged his name, fame, and fortune.

And that this assemblage of

horrors might want no fact of distinguished If we look through his biography and die, he is now exciting those very people to his letters-far more interesting even rise in arms among us, and to purchase that than those of Cicero to an American- liberty, of which he has deprived them, by we shall everywhere find clear and murdering the people on whom he has 06.

truded them; thus paying off crimes which he manifest indications of his abhorrence

has committed against the liberties of one of the institution of slavery. Coleridge people, with crimes which he urges them to says, that there are axioms so true, that commit against the lives of another.'* they lose their power and require a new At every stage of his political life, demonstration to be brought home to this subject seems to have occupied his the mind; and of this kind is the cer- thoughts; and, even when discharging tainty that the first and most earnest high duties in Paris, he thus writes to free-soil politician in the country was Dr. Price:

* Vol. i., p. 376.

“PARIS, August 7, 1785. society for the abolition of the slave trade. 6. Sir:-Your favor of July 2d came duly to

You know that nobody wishes more ardently hand. The concern you therein express, as to

to see an abolition, not only of the trade, but the effect of your pamphlet in Ainerica, in

of the condition of slavery; and certainly no. duces me to trouble you with some observa- body will be more willing to encounter every tions on that subject.

sacrifice for that object. But the influence “From my acquaintance with that country,

and information of the friends to this propoI think I am able to judge, with some degree

sition in France will be far above the need of certainty, of the manner in which it will of my association. I am here as a public servhave been received. Southward of the Chesa. ant, and those whom I serve, having never peake, it will find but few readers concurring yet been able to give their voice against the with it in sentiment, on the subject of slavery. practice, it is decent for me to avoid too public From the mouth to tbe head of the Chesa- à demonstration of my wishes to see it abol. pcake, the bulk of the people will approve it

ished. Without serving the cause here, it in theory, and it will find a respectable mi- might render me less able to serve it beyond nority ready to adopt it in practice-a minority

the water. I trust you will be sensible of the which, for weight and worth of character, prudence of these motives, therefore, which preponderates against the greater rumber, govern my conduct on this occasion, and he who have not the courage to divest their

assured of my wishes for the success of your families of a property which, however, keeps

undertaking, and the sentiments of esteem their conscience unquiet. Northward of the and respect with which I have the honor to Chesapeake, you may find, here and there, be, sir, your most obedient humble servant." an opponent to your doctrine, as you may find, here and there, a robber and murderer,

If, however, there was a subject in but in no greater number. In that part of

which Mr. Jefferson felt more interest America, there being but few slaves, they can

than in any other, when he was able to easily disencumber themselves of them: and emancipation is put into such a train, that in a

divest himself, so to say, of his catholic few years there will be no slaves north of sympathies, and narrow his colossal Maryland. In Maryland I do not find such a mind to the level of the analysis of disposition to begin the redress of this enor

lower intellects, it was on all that mity, as in Virginia. This is the next State

touched his home, Virginia. In his to which we may turn our eyes for the interesting spectacle of justice, in conflict with "Notes on Virginia," published both in avarice and oppression-a conflict wherein America, France, and England, he thus the sacred side is gaining daily recruits, from the influx into office of young men grown,

expresses himself :t and growing up. These have sucked in the

“ It is difficult to determine on the standard principles of liberty, as it were, with their by which the manners of a nation may be mothers' milk; and it is to them I look with tried-whether catholic or particular. İt is anxiety to turn the fate of this question. Be more difficult for a native to bring to that not, therefore, discouraged. What you have standard the manners of his own nation, familwritten will do a great deal of good; and iarized to him by habit. There must, doubtcould you still trouble yourself with our wel- less, be an unhappy influence on the manners fare, no man is more able to give aid to the

of our people produced by the existence of laboring side. The college of William and

slavery among us. The whole commerce Mary, in Williamsburg, since the remodeling between master and slave is a perpetual exer: of its plan, is the place where are collected

cise of the most boisterous passions—the most together all the young men of Virginia, under

unremitting despotism on the one part, and preparation for public life. They are under

degrading submissions on the other. Our the direction (most of them) of a Mr. Wythe, children see this, and learn to imitate it ; for one of the most virtuous of characters, and

man is an imitative aniinal. This quality is whose sentiments on the subject of slavery the germ of all education in him. From his are unequivocal. I am satisfied, if you could cradle to his grave, he is learning to do what resolve to address an exhortation to those

he sees others do. If a parent could find no young men, with all that eloquence of which

motive either in his philanthropy or his selfyou are master, that its influence on the future

love for restraining the intemperance of pasdecision of this important question would be sion towards his slave, it should always be a great, perhaps decisive. Thus you see, that, sufficient one that his child is present. But 80 far from thinking you have cause to repent generally, it is not sufficient. The parent of what you have done, I wish you to do storms, the child looks on, catches the lineamore, and wish it on an assurance of its effect. ments of wrath, puts on the same airs in the The information I have received from Ameri- circle of smaller slaves, gives a loose to the ca, of the reception of your painphlet in the worst of passions, and thus nursed, educated, different States, agrees with the expectations and daily

exercised in tyranny, cannot but be I had formed.”

stamped by it with odious peculiarities. The About the same time, breaking

man must be a prodigy who can retain his through diplomatic restraints, he writes

manners and morals undepraved by such cir.

And with what execration the following letter to Mr. Warville :* should the statesman be loaded, who, permit

ting one half the citizens thus to trample on “ Paris, February 12, 1788. the rights of the other, transforms those into Sir :- I am very sensible of the honor you despots, and these into enemies—destroys the propose to me, of becoming a member of the morals of the one part, and the amor patriæ


* Vol. ii., p. 357.

+ Vol. viii., p. 403

of the other. For if a slave can have a the handicraft arts, seeds, pairs of the useful country in this world, it must be any other in domestic animals, etc. ; to declare them a free preference to that in which he is born to live and independent people, and to extend to and labor for another-in which he must lock them our alliance and protection till they have up the faculties of his nature, contribute, as acquired strength, and to send vessels, at the far as depends on his individual endeavors, to samo time, to other parts of the worid for an the evanishment of the human race, or entail equal number of white inhabitants : to induce his own miserable condition on the endless them to migrate hither, proper encouragegenerations proceeding from him. With the ments were to be proposed. morals of the people, their industry is also destroyed; for in a warm climate, no man The foregoing extracts show plainly, will labor for himself who can make another what Mr. Jefferson thought of slavery, labor for him. This is so true, that of the

and leave us in no doubt of his opinion proprietors of slaves, a very small proportion,

of the feasibility of maintaining slavery indeed, are ever seen to labor. And can tho libertics of a nation be thought secure when in connection with true republican instiwe have removed their only firm basis-a tutions. conviction in the minds of the people that these liberties are the gift of God ? That they

He prayed, worked, and toiled, for are not to be violated but with his wrath. the eradication of this evil, from the Indeed I tremble for my country when I reflect

" Old Dominion” he loved so well, althat God is just; that his justice cannot most from his boyhood to his very sleep forever; that, considering numbers, death ; and the large party which, in the nature, and natural means only, a revolution of the wheel of fortune, an exchange of situ.

convention of the people of Virginia, ations is among possible events : that it may advocated the abolition of slavery, imbecome probable by supernatural interference. mediately after his death, understood The Almighty has no attribute which can take side with us in such a contest. But it is

itself to be speaking his views. That impossible to be temperate and to pursue this party was unsuccessful, from the fact subject through the various considerations of that interest swayed principle. It left bepolicy, of morals, of history, natural and civil. hind it, however the nucleus of thought We must be contented to hope they will force gradually ripening, and certain, at no change already perceptible since the orgin distant day, to sweep away all " vestige of the present Revolution. The spirit of the of a darker age,'

as Mr. Jefferson master is abating-that of the slave rising from called slavery. the dust-his condition is mollifying-the way, I hope, preparing, under the auspices

That Mr. Jefferson never approved of of Heaven, for a total emancipation—and that maintaining slavery, always esteemed this is disposed, in the order of events, to be it a curse, and one of the chief evils with the consent of the masters, rather than imposed on the province by the royal by their extirpation."

government, we think is not to be contraThe following extract shows that Mr. dicted. A very little study of his corJefferson looked on the abolishment of respondence must satisfy any one that slavery as equally important to the true he would have strenuously labored to interests of the white as of the black; reverse the decision of the Supreme but that he looked forward to the colo- Court in the Dred Scott case. In the nization of the negro outside of the seventh volume of his correspondence United States. The multiplication of we find the following letter on the Supopulation has, since his day, made this preme Court, to Mr. Jarvis, which scheme chimerical, and the extract is shows his idea of the federal bench, given merely to show that he did not and the dangers to be apprehended consider the domestic institution a from it. + blessing :*

"MONTICELLO, September 28, 1820. To emancipate all slaves born after the I thank you, sir, for the copy of your Repubpassing of the act. The bill reported by the lican, which you have been so kind as to send, revisers does not itself contain this proposition; and I should have acknowledged it sooner, but but an amendment containing it was prepared, that I am just returned home after a long abto be offered to the legislature whenever the

I have not yet had time to read it se. bill should be taken up, further directing, that riously, but in looking over it cursorily, I see they should continue with their parents to a much in it to approve, and shall be glad if it certain age, then to be brought up, at the shall lead our youth to the practice of thinkpublic expense, to tillage, arts or sciences, ing on such subjects for themselves. That it according to their geniuses, till the females will have this tendency, may be expected, and should be eighteen, and the males twenty-one for that reason I feel an urgency to note what years of age, when they should be colonized I deem an error in it, the more requiring no. to such place as the circumstances of the time tice as your opinion is strengthened by that of should render most proper, sending them out many others. You seem, in pages 84 and 148, with arms, implements of household and of to consider the judges as the ultimate arbiters



Letters, vol. viii., pp. 380, 381.

† Vol vii., p. 177.

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