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and in 1766 one of his majesty's excite the admiration of his hearers. principal secretaries of state; but He did not preach to men of learn, he resigned not long after, and con- ing alone; he had the happy art of tinued in opposition till 1782, when familiarizing the most difficult he again came into power as the points, and presenting his ideas in head of the Shelburne party, and a form which was interesting to the introduced Mr. Pitt as chancellor highest capacity, and intelligible to of the exchequer. This administra- the meanest. He was born at Per tion concluded a long and unpo- terborough in 1742, and his repular war; but their stay in office mains will be interred at Carlisle. was but short, giving way to the Aged 76, the Kev. Joho Hos. coalition of North and Fox, with kyns Abraham, thirty-four years their respective friends. From rector of Compton Martin cum that time his lordship has continued Nemphett, Somersetshire. perfectly independent of all parties, The Rev. Richard Watkins, rece though generally voting against mi- tor of Rock, in. Worcestershire. nisters. About the time of his re- The Rev. Thomas Clark, presignation he was created Marquis bendary of Exeter. of Lansdowne. He was account- In Lamb's Conduit Street, the ed a man of deep talents, but very Rev. John Skynner, rector of reserved in his disposition, His Easton, Northamptonshire. first lady was the daughter of the At Grayrigg, near Kendal, in late, Earl Granville, hy whom he Westmoreland, aged 90, the Rev. had one son, who succeeds him in John Hastewell, who had been sixty the title. By his second wife, years incumbent of that parish. Lady Louisa Fitzpatrick, he had The Rev. John Waller, above another son, Lord Henry Petty, forty years curate of Ingleton, in now a member of parliament. Yorkshire.
At Sunderland, in the 62d year Near Benares, in the East Indies, of his age, the Rev. WILLIAM the Rev. Donald M.Kinnon, D.D. PALEY, D. D. archdeacon of Car- vicar of Claybrook,in Leicestershire. lisle, subdean of Lincoln, and rec- Aged 95, the Rev. Daniel Hill, tor of Bishop Wearmouth, Durham. vicar of East Malling, in Kent. The works of this divine are so At his house in Hamilton Street, well known in the literary world, Piccadilly, in his 90th year, Riand their merit so universally ac- chard Smallbroke, L.L. D. The knowleged, that it is unnecessary duties of his office as chancellor of for us to enumerate them. As a the diocese of Lichfield, which he preacher, whatever was the subject held for the long period of sixty he selected, he never failed to place four years, he discharged with it in a new point of view." His sound judgment, and inflexible insermons were not recommended by tegrity. He was the son of Dr. a splendid and oratorical style, and Sinallbroke, Bishop of Lichfield and his manner of delivering them, Coventry, well known for his de. though impressive, was vot grace- fence of the miracles of our Saful; but they contained something viour against Woolston. Dr. Smallso original and tersé, so satisfactory broke is succeeded in the chanceland instructive, that they never lorship by his nephew, Dr. Vyse, failed to engage the attention and canon residentiary of Lichfield.
TO CORRESPONDENTS. The favours of our Correspondents in the west signed " A Trinitarian,” &c. will appear in our next.
The Biographical article promised by“ A Kentish Curate," will be very acceptable. We are persuaded that to confine our Obituary exclusively to the deaths of Clergymen, would not be generally satisfactory to our readers; and we think it would be unjust to omit mentioning persons of distinction, merely because they were laymen.
Philalethes; the Essay on the Natural History of the Bible, Ecclesiastical preferments and other articles are necessarily deferred for want of
MAGAZINE AND REVIEW,
FOR JUNE 1805.
To what purpose did God institute a Government, of the resolutions there.
of must be suspended, till every one is sätisfied with them; or if its State must be altered so often us any. man cun pick in it matter of offenceror dislike; or if the proceedings thereof must be shaped according to the numberless vurieties of different und repugnant fancies.
Dr. I. BARROW.
THE LIFE OF ST. ATHANASIUS.
T. ATHANASIUS, surnamed the GREAT, was born
at Alexandria about the' end of the third century, of parents who are said to have been eminently remarkable on account of their piety and virtue. His extraordinary abilities, even in his early days caused him to be taken so much notice of by Alexander, bishop of the place
above-mentioned, that he first made him one of his own family, appointed him his secretary, and afterwards or. dained him to be one of his deacons.
On the rise of the Arian controversy he displayed the greatness of his capacity in the various conflicts which he had with the abettors of those impious notions, and particularly when they came to be examined in the famous council of Nice, where the superiority of his genius appeared so manifest, that it drew upon him the irreconcileable enmity of the leaders of that party, and caused them to study every method to disquiet him, even to his dying day.
; On the death of Alexander, he was, by the unanimous consent of the people, appointed his successor in the see abovementioned, in which station he behaved with great prudence and fidelity, carefully attending to the concerns of those committed to his charge. But the Testless malice of the Arian faction continually pursuing
. Vol. VIII. Churchm. Mag. June 1805. 3.7 hini,
him, they accused him to the emperor of sundry pretended misdemeanors, and particularly of treason, as having, according to them, sent a cabinet full of gold to a person named Philumenus, on purpose to enable him to usurp the goverment. In consequence of these caJumnies he was obliged to appear at Psammathia, in or. der to justify himself; which he did so effectually, that his enemies were put to shame, and himself was honourably dismissed by the emperor, who gave him a letter to his own people, in testimony of his innocence. His adversaries being thus disappointed, and yet unwilling to desist from the prosecution of their malicious designs, they next combined together to charge him, among other particulars, with murdering a Melitian bishop, named "Arsenius, and cutting off one of his hands; and to make this appear with the greater shew of reason, they first prevailed upon the said Arsenius to secrete himself in Egypt, and then procured a dead man's hand, in order to produce as evidence against. Athanasius at a synod, which they had caused to be packed at Tyre. But, by the good providence of God, it came to pass, that some of the friends of this good bishop having discovered that Arsenius was come to Tyre (being tempted thither by curiosity) they procured him to be seized, and kept in secret custody till the trial came on, at which time, when the charge abovementioned was exhibited against Athanasius with great confidence, be ordered Arsenius to be brought into court, and asked the judges, whether any of them knew the person of whose murder he stood accused of? This being answered in the affirmative, he immediately compelled him to appear, and shew them both his hands, to the utter confusion of his enemies, “ Is this, said he, the man whom I stand charged with murdering, and afterwards cutting off one of his hands ? See, he has them both, and where the third was, which I'cut off, I leave to my accusers to discover."
The council having met again to consider of other matters, and Athanasius finding that his adversaries were determined, if possible, to wreak their malice upon his, either by an unjust sentence or private murder, he departed privately from Tyre, and went to Constantinople; which the synod being informed of, they immediately deprived him of his bishopric, and restored the Arians again to comuunion, The emperor Constantine being made acquainted with their proceedings, he summoned
the members of -this synod to appear before him, who perceiving that their perfidious dealings were discovered, in order to screen themselves from the emperor's displeasure, they exhibited a fresh accusation against Athanasius, namely, that he had threatened to stop the trans portation of corn from Egypt to Constantinople. This Was intirely false, though it bad its desired effect, for the emperor being highly incensed bereat, according to some, he banished himn to I'riers in France, though others assert (and among them the emperor Constantine the younger) that his real motive for su doing was to prevent his falling a sacrifice to the malice of his enemies.
After Athanasius had continued about a year and a half at the lastmentioned place, the emperor Constantine departed this life, whereupon his eldest son, who governed the western part of the empire, immediately restored this venerable sufferer to the possession of his bishopric, of which he had been so unjustly deprived, and at lais departure for Alexandria, he gave him a letter to the fole lowing purport:
“ Constantine Cæsar to the people of Alexandria. "
suppose you are noi ignorant that Athanasius was sent into Gaul for a tiine, lest the fierceness of his bloody enemies might bring incurable mischief upon him, to prevent which he was sent out of the reach of those who had designs upon his life, and was commanded to reinain under my jurisdiction, that so in this city he might be furnished with all necessary accommodations ; though such is his incomparable virtue, that he made light of his afflicted fortune: now, for as much as our father was fully resolved to restore him to his bishopric, but was prevented by death from so doing; I thought myself concerned to fulfil such his intention, and with how much respect and reverence he has been treated by us, himself at his arrival among you will particularly declare. Dated at Triers, the 15th of the calends of June."
Athanasius being furnished with this letter, he returned to. Alexandria, and entered immediately, on the discharge of his duty. He was received by his people, of all ranks and degrees; with every imaginable expression of joy and gladness, which gave no small mortification to his Arian adversaries, who did not suffer him to be long at peace. Having gained over to their opinion the einperor Constantias, the empress, and several great men 3 F.
him, they accused hiin to the emperor sintiated to tended misdemeanors, and particularls beel synodihaving, according to them, sent a cak' u return to the a person named Philumenus, on pure of absolution, to usurp the government. In con lumnies he was obliged to appep se of much slaughter'
: they charged him der to justify himself; which' vened another. synod of his enemies were put to shar, they deposed him once ably dismissed by the ens regory, an Arian, to supply his own people, in testir ng made acquainted with their versaries being thus di from Alexandria, and went to desist from the proser who was then bishop of that city, next combined tog
"in order to examine his case. The culars, with mr
pronounced biin innocent of nius, and cutt appear with
dagainst him, and ordered him to be again ed upon
to charge. But, not withistanding this, the
power on their side at Alexandria, and the
, io continue at Rome for some years, and, duce they pro
dernist the time of his absence, the Arian taction at the bevorementioned exercised their cruelty on their
inost dreadful manner; killing, wounding,
and imprisoning, all wbo came in their way, without any respect either to sex or age; and this for no other reason, but because they would not join with them in their impious communion.
Things being in this confusion, the emperor Constans was prevailed upon by Athanasius to call a general counin the year 347. This synod entered on a very careful excil, which accordingly met at Sardica, a city of Ilyricum,
of the affairs of Athanasius, whom they pronoun. ecd intirely innocentof all the pretended crimes which had been alledged against him, and appointed him, once more, to the possession of bis bishopric, of which they declared him unjustly deprived; and Constans warmly espousing his cause, he informed his brother Constantins, that unless he would perniit him, and such other bishops as the Arian's had deposed, to return to their respective sees, he would einploy the whole force of his government in order to put them in possession of what they had been so injuriously deprived of. Constantius being intimidated with this threatening, he sent three several letters to Athanasius, in each of which he kindly invited him to return to Alexandr'a, and granted him, at the same time, the use of the public cartiages, in order to his more speedy conveyance to "Antioch, where that emperor then kept