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day, for their faith, unless it is accompanied with good works; though without faith they certainly would not be justified, or reckoned righteous for their works only."

CHAPTER V. Ver. 1 to 7. " The doctrine of justification by faith, as explained in the last chapter, is very confortable, for without it there could be no peace to those who know that eternal death, is the punishment of sin, which can only be taken away by the free grace of God.

Ver. 7 to the end. “ Take particular notice of the Apostle's reasoning in these verses, which plainly shews, that every human creature to whom sin is imputed on account of Adam's offence, namely his whole race, has an interest also in the redemption purchased by Christ. In what manner the benefit has been and is applied to those who have not been or are not of the household of God, the church, is not fully explained in the Scriptures; and, as Christians, it does not immediately concern us to enquire: The judge of all the earth will do right, we cannot doubt; and how he will deal with those to whom his Guspel is made known is plainly revealed in that Gospel. Let not the unlearned Christian then, perplex his mind with difficult questions, but rely upon the declaration of the Apostle, ver. 15, to the end of the chapter, which shews that the injury done to mankind by the offence of Adam, is recompensed in the sight of God, by the righteousness of Christ, and his obedience to death for the redemption of the world, so that all will be saved who testify a true faith by good works,”

2. DISCIPLINE. Acts, chap. 6.

Ver. 1 to 9. “ We have here an account of the institution of the order of deacons who were appointed by the apostles to distribute the alms of the faithful. This order is still kept up in the Church of England; every one who enters into holy orders is ordained as a deacon before he can take priest's orders, The employment of deacons is not exactly the same as in the time of the apostles, because the state of the church is altered.

Observe, that the deacons were ordained by the laying on of the hands of the apostles, without which they would have had no authority to perform any office belonging to the church."

Again, i 'Í'im. 3.

“This chapter relates almost entirely to the christian ministry, but we may learn from it, that there was such a ministry from the beginning, of which ours is a continuation, only that at first while there were Apostles, they were the chief ministers, and Bishops were under them; next to whom were Presby ters, and below them, Deacons; after the Apostles were dead, Bishops were the chief ministers for ordering the affairs of the Church,

Vol. VIII. Churchm. Mag. Feb.1805. U and

and so they continue to this day, having two orders of ministers under them, who are called Priests and Deacons.

Ver. 15. “Observe what the place in which true worship is performed by a regular ministry, is called. Observe also ver. 16, which shows what the mystery of godliness is, namely the doctrine of the divinity of the Son of God, his being manifested, or made known as such in the person of Jesus Christ, and proved to be so by the Spirit of God, which was in him, and by the testimony that was borne to him by angels; the conversion of many through the preaching of the Apostles; and by his glorious ascension into heaven. This was the mystery which the first ministers preached, and this doctrine continues to be taught in our church by a regular ministry, as it was first delivered to the Apostles, and by them to the ministers they ordained.”

And in the 4th chapter, she observes, that the Gift which was in Timothy,

“ Signified the gift of the Holy Ghost, which was given at the laying on of the hands of the presbytery, by whom are meant the Apostles and the higher orders of ministers.No man had authority as a ininister without being ordained to it by the laying on of the hands of the presbytery. The presbytery now are the Bishops and the and private, and worship, to attend to their advice both in public public appointed to minister, namely, to join with them in are what ought to be done on the part of those to whom they Priests. After reading these directions for ministers, consider to pay them respect and reverence on account of their holy oflice. Unless those who hear will do their part, it will be impossible for those who teach to save them.”.

Upon the whole, this work has our decided approbation; and one better suited to their purpose cannot be put into the hands of village schoolmasters and schoolmistresses, as well as the teachers of sunday-schools throughout the country.--Noblemen and gentlemen living on their estates, or occasionally visiting them, might render incalculable service to their tenants and the peasantry, by furnishing those who are to instruct them, or such families as have a reader or two among them, with books like Mrs. Trimmer's. In performning such good offices they might always rely upon the best services of the clergy, whose pastoral visits would leave a blessing behind them, and provide permanent instruction; being made the means of presenting a decent fainily with Mrs. Trimmer's “ Help to the unle:rned.” We will conclude with giving one Example of the way in which our author speaks to poor people. Gen. 47, Ver. 13 to 27,

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" Observe with what prudence and equity Joseph divided the land of Egypt among the people, giving them back four fifths of the land when their distresses had occasioned them to give all into the King's hands; and what an advantage it was to the people themselves that they submitted their concerns to his

management, instead of wasting the corn, as they most probably would have done in the years of plenty, and been clamorous for a supply in the years of scarcity. It is certainly a great trial to poor people when bread is scarce and dear, but they never mend their condition by impatience; whereas when they behave with respect to their superiors, and submit quietly to their governors, they are sure to meet with friends to help them in the time of necessity. What a sad state thousands would have been in if the Egyptians had gone and burnt the granaries in which the corn was laid up, instead of complying with Joseph's good rules and regulations.

L. C.

The Providence of God, a Norrisian Prize Essay: Ву

JAMES George DURHAM, A. B. of Corpus Christi

College, Cambridge, 8vo. pp. 38. W!

E have always considered the institution of prizes

for the best essay in English prose in the university of Cambridge, as admirably calculated to produce among the students a love of English composition. Those who are possessed of learning and emulation will, it may be hoped, constantly haye an eye to the proposed reward. And though, however many run in the race, one only can obtain the prize, still the advantages resulting from the practice of composition may, and assuredly will, in the end, be very many. It is, therefore, earnestly to be wished, that every college, in both universities, would require of her several members in every term, a certain number of disputations or essays, composed with care, both as to the selection of matter, arrangement of ideas, and elegance of language, that the students--those more especially designed for holy orders, who constitute at least two thirds of the whole--may become proficients in an art contemned by many, and neglected by alınost all. We have sometimes known even heads of houses very deficient in this essential part of the ministerial calling At one university, mathematics are considered as the chief excellence-the sine qua non without which every other branch of knowledge is esteemed as little worth: At the


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other, high attainments in the Greek and Roman classics are chiefly entitled to notice and reward. We lament that a knowledge of divinity, an acquaintance with Eng. lish composition, and excellence in the art of public speaking, are not considered by both universities as essential and indispensable requisites not only for acádemical honours, but even for the obtaining a bachelor's degree. And we wonder that the heads of houses and the tutors, seeing as they necessarily must do, the* inefficacy of the present mode of education, do not come to an unalterable resolution of establishing in their several societies such lectures and exercises, as will render the young men entrusted to their care, more expert in English composition, and more attractive and engaging as public speakers, in order that they may be more useful parish priests. We could enlarge on this subject; but we must defer it for the present, and confine ourselves to the work before us which suggested to us the preceding reflections.

Mr. Durham's essay discovers a just knowledge of his subject; he has selected his arguments with skill, and arranged them with precision. He has displayed a con: siderable degree of learning, and applied it with success. We shall not attempt to analyse his discourse; but we can assure our readers we think it both as to the matter and style possessed of unusual excellence. Mr. D. is a young man, but in the art of composition he has few equals. By perseverance he will distinguish himself in no cominon degree as a writer. He shall now speak for himself.

“That the doctrine of a Divine Providence is consonant with reason, must be evident from a consideration of the omniscience, wisdom, and power of the Supreme Being. That there is a God, we suppose to be already granted'; as our business at present is, not to prove the existence, but the government of the Deity. Admitting then the being of a God, we must necessárity attributo to him exclusively the creation of whatever exists; and, if the creation, the preservation also,-preservation being nothing less, when duly considered, than continued creation. Now, if God be Both the creator and preseiver of the world and its inhabitants, it is morally impossible that he should be either ignorant of, or indifferent to its concerns. Again, it is inconsistent with every notion of wisdom to perform any thing without proposing á suitable design; but God, being infinite in wisdom, in the creation of the world, doubtless proposed an object worthy of its glorious author: this object, things destitute of reason, or circumscribed in their faculties of intellect or power, must, in themselves, be altogether inadequate to effect:--for the accomplishment therefore of the end proposed, infinite wisdom and in tinite power become indispensably necessary. To render this argument a little plainer, let us for a moment suppose, that a merchant designing to transport goods to a distant country, after having duly equipped his vessel, and freighted it with the intended cargo, were to commit it to the ocean without a pilot, or any one to navigate its course: however well constructed or appointed the vessel might be, the design of the merchant would not be accomplished, the commodities would not be conveyed; for this obvious reason, that there existed a deficieney both of intelligence and power in the vessel to regulate itself. We readily admit that many effects both in the physical and in the mo ral world are produced by the agency of secondary causes, and the tendency of natural powers or properties; but these secondary causes originate in, are regulated by, and depend upon a grand primary cause: these natural properties, as they were first implanted, so they are still continued and directed by the overruling hand of Providence. To say that the government of the world

* Vide preface to the Bishop of Lincoln's Elements of Christian


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is an office beneath the dignity, or contrary to the felicity of the Deity, is highly inconsiderate and absurd; for if it were not contrary to the Divine glory and happiness to create, it cannot possibly be to preserve and regulate the universe: for, as we have already affirmed, preservation is but a constant repetition of creation. Indeed, it would be to call in question the Divine Wisdom, to suppose, that after God had formed an immense and glorious orb, He should, with disgust and disdain, fling it away into the vast abyss of space, as being either too ill executed to excite his pleasure, or, though the work of his own hands, of too little value to attract his attention! What should we think of a man, who, after he had reared a stately edifice upon the banks of a large river, and furnished it with every desirable article, should, at the very moment of its formation, abandon it, exposed to the incursion of the waves or the violence of the winds ?

Every page throughout the essay is equally excellent.


Letters on the Atonement. By CHARLES JERTAM, A, M.

8vo. pp. 124. HE following letters," says the author, “ owe their ori

gin to the objections of one of those strenuous advocates of the atonement, against the doctrine of “ Satisfaction for sin,"

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