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the Protestant church : for all your best friends, chiefly I, can hardly believe that your wit and wisdom should be subject to such inconstancy, unless perhaps by some melancholy fit, or some other distemper proceeding from I know not what discontent or jealousy conceived against me, or any other of those you know. If any such thing there be, I bumbly beg of you to acquaint me therewith, by your letter commended to the post-office in Dundalk, and do engage my word to you that you shall have all satisfaction imaginable that lieth in my power; and that you sball find me always ready to render you any service that may be expected from
John TREE, alias S. R.' " To this letter I answered immediately in terms of no less kindness and sincere amity, that I did and would declare wheresoever he was concerned, tbat neither lie nor any other of bis society did ever give me any discontent which might be the cause of the resolution I was upon, that my dissatisfaction was of a higher nature, and that it was a great error to imagine that any dislike of particular persons should work in me an alteration of this kind, it being well known how easily I might remedy any discontents in Ireland, by repairing to the place of my former habitation and employments in Spain; and how good a reception I was to expect there even in that season, as to him was well known.
“ This letter being miscarried, or not reaching to him (as he signified) before my declaration made at Cashel (after many days retirement and serious consideration of the matter, and no hope appearing of receiving satisfaction to my scruples) be wrote another to me on the 16th of June following, repeating the same expressions of fear, that either be or some of his brethren might have given me some discontent to occasion my change, and desiring that if any such did happen, I might give him notice thereof, that I may give you (said be, any satisfaction possible, and that únion at least of Christianity, if not of religion may remain entire among us.) He desired further that I would consider seriously unde et quo whence and whither I was going, and wbat great inconvenience might follow.
“ To this letter I also answered immediately, repeating my former assurancés given to him, of no injury or discontent received from bim or any of his society, as a cause or occasion of my change; and that I did heartily embrace his offer of maintaining union of Christianity among us, if not of religion, which was my constant inclination and hearty desire. As for considering unde et quo whence and whither I went, that I did consider it with praier and studi of many years, and the grounds of my resolution thereupon would soon appear in public : and I desired be would prevail with some able men of his fraternity to reply to them with that gravity and modesty which becometh learned and religious men, that on both sides we might concur with our studies, to the glory of God, and manifestation of bis truth, setting aside all wonted acerbities, which if used would confirm me, and all men of good judgment, in a dislike of their way and spirit.
“ Soon after my arrival in Dublin he sent another letter to me of the 24th of June, with a message by word of mouth by a gentleman of my relation, earnestly craving an opportunity of a private conference with me, with an offer made by the said gentleman of all favour and assistance, if I did desist, even then, from proceeding in my resolution; and desired I would signify either in private or in public, the reasons my discontent with them. To this I answered, that I conceived some inconveniencies in private conferences in that occasion, and expected no quiet of mind by them; that the case being already public, I judged the bandling of it in public more expedient both for the service of God, and my particular satisfaction,
the matter going through a more exact trial that way; and consequently I did proceed, declaring in a sermon preached a few days after, to a very great and noble auditory, in Christ's church in Dublin, the reasons of my discontent with the present practice of the Roman Church, in such moderate terms, as may be seen in the same sermon printed, and extant in the hands of many ; desiring to be answered in the same moderution, and formal style, setting aside satyrical, and seurrilous libels, to which I was not to afford any either reading or answer. And long it was before I heard of any serious reply made to my proposals, but silly libels of this latter kind, which the sober part of my own party thought unworthy to be published, and I thought them to be as little wortby of my regard. In the mean time having taken my dwelling, since my coming to Dublin, in Trinity College, near it; and that University being pleased to have me incorporated with it, in the quality of Doctor in Divinity, at the performance of acts usual to such a degree, I published a Divinity Thesis, directly intended for a justification of my resolution taken, by a strict enquiry and examen of it in a public dispute, and containing to that purpose two conclusions touching the niain points of our controversy, and to which all the rest may be reduced.
“The first was - That out of the Roman Church there is a safe way for salvation.
“ The second-That the way of the Church of England, is safer to salvation, than that of the Church of Rome.
“ By the former I intended to justify my constant and continual aversion to that horrid and arrogant position of the Romanists, that out of their community there is no salvation ; the fountain of so many bloody tragedies and unchristian animosities, which bave been the disgrace and destruction of the Christian church these many years: By the second I proposed to justify the election I made of the Church of England, as the more sure way to salvation, each one being obliged by the laws of that charitie, which every one owes to himself, to take the way he conceives to be most secure in a matter of so bigb a consequence.
• To these conclusions, I invited seriously and earnestly all manner of persons, having obtained free licence for them“to come and argue, from the Lord Primate our Vice Chancellor, and from the other heads of the University concerned, as may appear by the letter following, which I wrot with the Thesis enclosed to a certain learned Doctor of the Romish communion :
66 "Honoured Doctor, “ . In pursuance of my earnest desire to discover the truth, in the matter of the greatest concern, in all the waies I could think expedient for it, I am to defend by public dispute next Thursday, in the chapel of this college, the Thesis I send to you enclosed here in performunce of my promise : I signified to my Lord Primate, to the Provost of the College, and the Moderator of the disputes, my desire, that any learned man of whatsoever condition might be permitted to oppose ; and they all granted my request; it being not the custom of the Church and Universities of England and Ireland to keep their people from reading and hearing the reasons of their adversaries, as elsewhere you know it is. And as Suarez, Bellarmine, and others, the ablest defenders of the Roman cause, are read here with due regard to their learning ; so any learned man will be welcome to our disputes, and in bis good behaviour will have a sure warrant of his indemnity for what he shall say against us by Scripture and reason. And where the answer may seem deficient, he may with confidence go on with, contra sic argumentor, by that modest and clear way of schools. But if his reply should be some foul words or rudeness, though I have resolved to pass over that kind of opposition, I may not assure that the audience
here, (which is to be very illustrious and learned) may bear it. I heartily pray to God be may send all grace to seek after sincerely, and happily find out the true way of serving and praising him : and so I rest
Sir, your sincere friend to serve you,
ANDREW SALL.' “ At this invitation the said Doctor, with some others of the Romish communion, came to our disputes ; but for reasons to them best known, they resolved not to oppose in that public manner : neither did we by our defaults want learned and able opposers, for several of our own Doctors of Divinity and Masters of Arts, members of this University, well furnished with skill in controversies, and the best arguments our adversaries have, did propose them vigorously upon the chief points controverted, reduceable to the heads I proposed for Thesis, and by vote even of the Romish auditors present, they were not wanting to the duty of able disputants, por could I understaad that any did miss a satisfactory answer to the arguments used which were many, and all in the presence of the Most Rev. Father in God, James Lord Archbishop of Armagb, Primate of all Ireland, our Vice Chancellor, and of the Right Reverend Fathers in God, the Lord Bishop of Kildare, the Lord Bishop of Ossory, the Lord Bishop of Killaloe, and of a very great and flourishing number of learned men, both of the clergy and gentry.”—Preface to " True Catholick Faith Maintained.”
Having thus decidedly passed over to the Church of England, the last peaceful effort made to reclaim the lost sheep, was a solemn bull of Pope Clement the Tenth, signed and sealed by his Protonotarius Apostolicus, Claudius Agrete, assuring him in terms of full authority, of an entire and absolute remission of all that, was past, and a favourable reception and admission into his former condition and privileges, if he would return to the Church, and at the same time warning him of great evil designed, and which must befal him, if he persevered in his apostacy.
Sall having returned no answer to this overture, a host of writers and literary traducers were let loose on him-a shower of books came down on him, (as he says himself) one upon the back of another :
"The first that appeared on the stage was J. E. a fit person to break the ice, a rough trotter, with a book of small bulk and less sense-bearing a thundering title, ‘A Sovereign Counterpoison, prepared by a faithful hand, for the speedy reviviscence of Andrew Sall, a late sacriligious Apostate'- in this book be extravagantly extols me above the skies for wbat I was before, and depresses me under the abyss for what I am at present, now calling me sacriligious A postate, and now dear Andrew, sweet Andrew, and what not."
It may be amusing to see a specimen of Father Egan's writing :
“ The restless and hellish labours of some pseudo prelates in compassing sea and land, to make one proselyte, is very strange--whereas, Apostates, made their A postles, can be little purchase to Protestants, and the loss of Catholics much less, they having been twice dead, and canker-eaten branches, that could produce no fruit while united to the stock, much less could they after their separation. Their endeavour is not to go far off and convert Pagans from the worship of dead idols, to serve the living God, but rather to pervert illuminated Christians, to corrupt and evacuate the sovereignty of Christ's faith, by novel devices, foul lies, and forgeries is their main ambition. The main reason that put the author upon the sudden
contrivance of this small tract, was to give a seasonable check to the despiteful malice, venom and brawny-faced impudence of the renowned wight, vile apostate, and professed enemy to Cbrist, Andrew Sall—to dash back all his shameless and tbundering brawling strains of profound and wonderful nonsense, in his late open, avowed, and dirty practices in Dublin and elsewbere, all no better stuff than old worn out bold railings, and false ignorant accusations ol superstition, idolatry, sacrilege, &c. &c. against the Mother Church.
“O wretched Andrew, it had been more advantageous to you to have ýour living body fastened to a rotten putrid carcase, than to have your soul fastened to the darkness and loatbsomeness of cursed heresy and apostacy. Now, do consider the infinite advantages, prerogatives, and dignity of your former happy state, and compare it with your present deplorable, cursed, and most black condition-you were vir Apostolicus-now Apostata, vilis dictu-before a most resplendent star in the firmament of the true Church-now an obscure dusky and abominable ignis fatuus, leading yourself and others to the precipice of eternal perdition-before a religious Priest-now an accursed Judas--before conferring life and grace on others-now you are lest destitute of all life, and light, and grace, blessing, and goodnessbefore called by the band of God to a most bigh-saving dignity and honournow blindly fallen from that into the Devil's jaws--before an obedient child-now factus liber voti fractus_before a chaste evangelical missioner-now a sacriligious SCORTATOR—before reputed an honest man, questuosus mercator-now fugitivus Apostata et seditiosus sectarius factus--before raised from a Sall to be a Paul, & preacher of the word and penance—now turned to be Saul, a persecutor, and warring in a most furious manner against the heavenly witnesses of true faith, and so you are become a wretched lying vile Protestant-wallowing like a sordid, nasty, stinking sow, in the mire of liberty, libidinous lust, and pride, and concupiscence. Retire, retire poor Andrew to your interior man, have a care of your drooping soul-mind eternity.”
A grave and honourable prelate (says Sall) reading this, said
“ They were beholden to him for giving so good an account of what I was before, but needed not his information for wbat I am now, themselves knowing that better. And this egregious writer being questioned in a private discourse with what truth he could say, I was become so debauched since I came to the Reformed Church, living all that time very abstemious and retired in Trinity College, Dublin, and in good repute with those that conversed with me. He answered, that he never meant that I was really guilty of those vices, but in a metaphorical sense-for that the Church of England being a barlot, I embracing her communion, became guilty of spiritual uncleanness and all those vices he mentioned. He cannot deny that I know this to be his answer. He was well contented that his followers should understand that I was really guilty of the debauchery he speaks of, but if brought to the test he is provided with the reserve aforesaid to come off with. The specimen'l give (says Sall) of this man's genius, will, I presume, quit me in all good judgments, of any obligation to regard surther what he wrote against me.
“ The next book published against me was entitled the Bleeding Iphiginia,'*
* There is now in the press a reprint of this rare and curious tract of Dr. French. It will be published by Messrs. Hodges and Smyth, College-green,
In a collection of treatises by Morley, Bishop of Winchester, I find a letter addressed to French, Bishop of Ferns, by a Franciscan Friar, whó, though not named, was, I believe, the famous Peter Walsh, in which he animadverts very severely
by way of preface to another greater preparing, which soon after appeared under the title of the Doleful Fall of Andrew Sall;" both written by a grave and ancient prelate of my acquaintance in Spain, Dr. Nicholas French, bishop of Ferns."
on the excessive uncharitableness of the attack of Bishop French on Sall and the Church of England. “If ever," says he, “ there was a violation of that command of our Lord, 'notite judicare,' it is on your part. The most tremendous, peremptory, cruel judgment that could be given by mortal men of others ; it excludes for ever as well • secundum præsentem, as secundum futuram justitium,' all the Church of England universally, both priests and people, out of the mystical ark of Christ ; and so, without any remorse or regret, I am sure without any sufficient examination of their cause, without any allowance to the insensible prepossession of their minds, without any regard to their particular merits or demerits. Your application of the Ark of God utterly razeth out of the book of life so many millions of human souls, who have since the reformation died, or shall die hereaster in the Church of England, condemning them all without any exception to a deluge of fire, and the life of devils, to a long elernity." It is pleasant to have to record the concluding words of the amiable Franciscan, as a Christian contrast to the horribile decretum of the bigot of Ferns. “God of his infinite mercy grant, that our controversial thoughts on every side may centre at last in truth and in happiness. I am sure they are in themselves at least no other than vexations and afflictions of spirit. But what shall we say, or sball we answer in the words of Solomon- This sore trouble hath God given to the sons of men, to be exercised therewith.' But our comfort is, that it shall not be so for ever, We know that when be, the Lord Jesus, shall appear, we shall be like him, because we shall see him as he is; but seeing him, 'what is it we shall not see?' said Gregory the Great. But then, if on the contrary, our unfortunate checking of the light of conscience should thus deprive us of seeing that light of lights, and superessential fountain of all light, what shall become of us? O thou keeper of men prevent this dreadful, 17, oh thou that desirest all men to be saved, and for that end come to the knowledge of the truth; Oh thou that rejoicest not in the destruction of the living, but in their correction and amendment-hic ure hic seca ut in æternum parcas-here burn, here cnt, that thou mayest spare for ever ; London, 13th March 1676.” But Peter Walsh was excommunicated, and counted a heretic, and his life attempted, so that these his Christian aspirations would go for nothing with a real Papist.
It may not be amiss to give the character of French of Ferns, as drawn by a Roman Catholic (Dr. Charles O'Connor.) “ No man,” says he, (page 241, Letter of Columbannus,) " who is not acquainted with the character of French, Bishop of Ferns, can adopt any of the imputations which be throws out against the Duke of Ormond in bis UNKIND DESERTER, since French bimself had so often changed sides, that do reliance could be placed on his word. French was Chancellor and Chairman of the exclusive Synod of Waterford, in 1646. He changed sides soon after, and was sent Ambassador to Rome by the nobility and gentry, in 1647. On bis return in 1648, he promoted the second peace : but scarcely was that concluded, when he changed sides again, and signed the excommunication denounced by the foreign-influenced Bishops at Jamestown. He then went to Brussells, with instructions from the same foreign-influenced men to offer the Crown of Treland to the Duke of Lorraine : and here, (see page 455 of O'Connor's Historical Address) in order to transfer the Crown of Ireland from its right owner to a Flemish Popish Prince, who was a notorions adulterer; he forged Lord Taafe's name to an instrument, and thus added (as O'Connor says) forgery to sacrilege, and thus the spiritual power of the Keys, and that sacred authority which were equally committed to all Bishops by the voice of inspiration for the benefit of immortal souls, and in reference to eternity, were made subservient to ambition, instrumental to malignity, and prostituted to intrigue. He was afterwards concerned in carrying on a secret negociation with Cromwell against the Royal Family. He then had the effrontery to wait on King Charles the Second, at Paris, who refused to see him. At the restoration, he was instrumental in opposing the loyal remonstrance ; and was one of those who, wiping their moutus, said, that with regard to the King, as they knew no crime they were guilty of, so they needed no pardon. Such a disloyal intriguer and busy bigot was not allowed to return to Ireland-he died in Spain.