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LONDON, SATURDAY, JULY 18, 1863.
been the opinion of St. Gregory the Great, whose
authority is quoted in the following words of CONTENTS.-No. 80.
Eugenio Robles, a Spanish writer of great authoNOTES:- Mozarabic Literature, 41 – Exchequer: or Ex- rity on the Mozarabic Liturgy: checquer-Cheque, 43 — "The Book of Days:" Translation of St. Cuthbert, 41- Kemble's Version of “ The Tempest,' “ Tambien se averigua (San Gregorio, Epist. 67, lib. 44- The Queen's Memorial to the late Prince Consort at vii.) que la primera Missa que se celebró con solennidad Balmoral, 45 — Pope and Senault, 46.
de ceremonias y oraciones añadidas, fue instituyda y. MINOR NOTES:- The late Lord Hatherton Punishment ordenada por el Apostol Santiago el Menor, Obispo de of Beggars at Bath in 1739 - Mr. John Collet - Oxford
Jerusalem : cuyo orden y nueva manera de celebrar, Jeu d'Esprit, 46.
truxeron à nuestra España, introduziendola en ella, los QUERIES:- Philosopher's Stone, 47 - Anonymous -- Bun- siete Santos Discipulos de los A postoles, viz., Torraio y sus bury's Engravings Charron, "De la Sagesse The
Compañeros,” &c. (De la Antigüedad del Oficio Santo Douglas Casel Playing Germands" - Major-General Muzarabe, cap. xix. p. 204, Toledo, 1604.) Heane - Hopton Family - Jamaica - Epitaph on John a'Combe - Captain Thomas Kerridge - Lockwood, Ed. ward VI.'s Jester — "Miller of the Dee” - "The Nonsuch
The resemblance, however, between the Roman Professor":-Peter's Pence -- Quotation - Master Richard and Spanish liturgy appears to have been soon (Ryder) of Leicester - Skyring Arms or Pedigree - Spain: lost, at least with
respect to various pravers and Mosque of Cordova - St. Stephen's Church, Walbrook Inscription at Trujillo, 47.
ceremonies. Different popes made several alterQUERIES WITH ANSWERS: —“A Helpe to Discourse
ations in the sacramentaries, viz. Leo the Great, Dogs - Bryndley of Wistaston, &c., 50.
Gelasius I. and St. Gregory the Great. And REPLIES:- On the Derivation of the Word “Theodolite," then, when the Suevi, the Vandals, and Visigoths 51 - Bell Literature, 52 - Marc de Vulson Lucretia conquered Spain, they introduced their own parMaria Davidson, 53 – Dennis: Arma Inquirenda, Ib. Ralegh Arms: Correction - Luther --Sheriffs of Cornwall ticular liturgy, which was infected with the -- Parishes of England — Sir Charles Calthrope - Swift: Arian heresy. The Arian and ancient Spanish "Tale of a Tub” - Pizarro's Coat of Arms - To "speak by the Card” - Church used by Churchmen and Roman
rite existed together for some time, until at last Catholics — Church v. King - Godolphin
- The Song of the Spanish Church, through the cruelties and the Battle of Hexham-Unipods: Musky H- -- Christie Platform – Praed's Poems ---Stradella- Prince Chris
intolerance of the Arians, saw herself reduced to tiern of Denmark - Burning Alive- Black Monday - Sub- such misery and destitution, that nothing but stautia, &c., 54.
confusion existed in ber rites and religious serNotes on Books, &c.
vices. It is also probable, that the heresy of Priscillian had a considerable share in corrupting
the ancient Spanish Liturgy. Notes.
But a very important change took place when THE MOZARABIC LITURGY.
the Visigoth kings were converted the Catholic The remarks which appeared in “ N. & Q." Church, at the end of the sixth century. In the
fourth Council of Toledo, beld in the year 633, some time ago on the Complutensian Polyglot
, the Spanish Bishops
, with St. Isidore of Seville at would be incomplete in reference to the great their head, resolved to put an end to the diversity literary zeal and abilities of Cardinal Ximenez.
, 1 of rites which then existed, and to establish without some additional observations on the Mizarabic Liturgy which be undertook to restore in throughout the whole of the country one and the Spain, in the sixteenth century,
same liturgy. For this object, the bishops gave The following account is taken from Gomez, which he was strictly obliged to follow, in the
to each priest, at bis ordination, a new riiual, Eugenio Robles, Florez, Hefele, and the preface of Lorenzana, Archbishop of Toledo, to his edi- performance of his sacred duties and functions. tion of the Breviarium Gothicum, published at
This ritual was still, in substance, the same as Madrid in 1775.
the Roman. But St. Isidore, assisted by his Gomez mentions (De Rebus Gestis à Francisco
brother St. Leander, had made certain alterations Ximenio , Compluti, 1569, lib. ii. fol. 41), that in had crept in, through the malice and perfidy, of
and additions in it, and suppressed whatever errors the year 1502, while the cardinal was residing at Toledo, he discovered some valuable
the Arians. Hence the work often bears the
manuscripts in the library of the cathedral. These manu
name of Ritus Isidorianus ; seu, Breviarium et scripts were written in old Gothic characters, and officium, secundam Regulam Beatissimi Isidori. related to the ancient Spanish liturgy: Florez
But it must be remembered, that St. Isidore was
not the author of the reformed liturgy. Robles assures us (Espana Sagrada, tom. iii.) that this liturgy was introduced into Spain by St. Tor- enlarged the sacred office, &c. :
is quite correct in stating that St. Isidore merely quatus and his seven companions, who were disciples of St. James the less. It resembled the Amplió este oficio Santa,” he says, “añadiendo á la
cosas muy Roman Liturgy in every essential part. Several antigua Missa muchas oraciones, y otras prayers and ceremonies appear to have been added
notables y devotas; expurgandole de algunas obras que
con la antigüedad del tiempo se avian introduzido, no by St. James, which were afterwards introduced
tan conformes al uso y costumbre de la Yglesia.” –P. into the Spanish liturgy. Such seems to have 205, cap. xix.
This liturgy soon came into general use. It “ Mozárabe, or Muzárabe, is the Arabic Musta'rab, seems to have extended in every direction, with meaning a man who tries to imitate
or become an Arab out being influenced, in any way, by the reform know Arabic, speaks it like a foreigner.”
in his manners and language: and who, though he may of Pope Gregory the Great. According to Father Lesley, a learned Jesuit, who published an edition
This etymology of the word seems very proof the Mozarabic Liturgy at Rome in 1755, St. bable, for the Christians were so mingled up with Leander, the predecessor of St. Isidore, was the their conquerors and masters, that in process of first who revised the ancient Spanish rite for the time they were distinguished from the Arabs use of the Goths, to which allditions were after- amongst whom they lived by little except their wards made by his brother, St. Isidore. (See faith. (Conde, Hist. de la Dominacion de los Alban Butler's Life of St. Isidore, April 4th.) Arabes en España. Madrid, 1820, tom. I. p. 229.) This liturgy continued in use until the invasion When Toledo was recovered from the Moors, of Spain by the Moors, at the cominencement of and annexed again to the crown of Castile, in the eighth century.
the eleventh century, the Gregorian rite was At that unfortunate period, while numbers of adopted in the place of the Mozarabic. This Spaniards fought valiantly for their faith, and choice was confirmed in a council held in that some retired amongst the sierras of the north, royal and ancient city, in the year 1088. But others submitted to the conquerors under certain the approval of the council raised such a powerful conditions, the chief of which were, – that they opposition amongst those who still adhered to the should be allowed to preserve and practise their use of the Mozarabic Liturgy, that it was conreligion without danger or molestation. To these sidered necessary to decide the dispute by the conditions the Moors generously agreed. Robles Judgment of God." A copy of both liturgies tells us, that when Toledo was surrendered by was accordingly thrown into a blazing fire. The the Christians after a most obstinate resistance Gregorian copy rebounded from the pile of wood and defence, one of the conditions was, “ that the and fell by the side of it, while the Mozarabic Christians should live according to their own
remained uninjured in the midst of the flames. law, and that six or seven churches should be The inhabitants of Toledo exulted over the vicgiven up to them, wherein the boly offices might tory; but the King Alfonso VI. decided that, as be continued." (P. 207.) Those who lived under both liturgies appeared to be respected by the the Moorish power received, according to the fire, so they should both be allowed in his king. statement of Dr. Hefele, the name of " Mostara- dom. This decision gave rise to the proverb,
- an Arabic participle, signifying mixed “ Allà van leyes, donde quieren Reyes"—“Where with Arabs, while their liturgy was soon called kings wish, there the laws go.". the Mostarabic, the Muzarabic, Mozarabic, or But though the king recognised both liturgies, Mixed Arabic:
he did not think proper to grant them equal rights. “ Da nun aber die unter Maurischer Herrschaft leben- The Mozarabic Liturgy, was confined to only six den Spanier, den Namen Mosterabuna - d. i. die Ara- parish churches in Toledo, while all the other bisirten oder Vermischten erhielten,” &c. (Die Mozaru- churches of the city and of the kingdom were bische Liturgie, xiii. H.S. 152.)
obliged to use the Gregorian rite. The same etymology of the word is given, both But in course of time the Mozarabic Christians by Gomez and Robles; the first writer says :
in Toledo lost all attachment to their ancient “ Nonnulli tamen quibus patrii domesticique Jares liturgy, in consequence of which the Gregorian cariores libertate fuerunt, cöditione accepta, sub Arabum began by degrees to be adopted in the six parish et Maurorum imperio sacris suis retentis, in urbe manse- churches above mentioned, and the Mozarabic runt. Ergo ejusmodi homines quòd Arabibus permisti was used only on certain festivals. viverent, Mistarabes appellati sunt, et illorum Ecclesias. ticus-ritus-officium Mistarabum. Quæ vox, cùm tem
Such was the state of matters when Ximenez poris diuturnitate tum barbarorum lingua est corrupta, became Archbishop of Toledo, in 1495. His preet in Mozarabum degeneravit, quâ nunc vulgus utitur." decessor, the great Cardinal Mendoza, had already (De Rebus Gestis Francisci Ximenii, lib. ii. fol. 41.) commenced the work of restoring the Mozarabic Robles also observes :
rite; but as death prevented hin from accom“ Este vocablo · Muzarabe es corrompido de Mirti- plishing bis object, Ximenez completed the work. arabe, que es lo mismo que dezir, Christiano mezclado He carefully collected all the best manuscripts of con Alarabes.” (Cap. xx. De la Explicacion deste vocablo- the said Liturgy, and chose Alfonso Ortiz - a Muzarabe, p. 207.)
Canon of the Cathedral of Toledo-together with Don Pascual de Gayangos, however, who is three parish priests attached to the churches of one of the best Arabic scholars in Spain, gives the Mozarabic rite, with power to revise the a different interpretation of the word in his manuscripts, and to change the ancient Gothic Mahommedan Dynastics in Spain (English trans- characters for the Roman letters. The Cardinal, Jation, London, 1840, 4to, vol. i. pp. 419-20.) when everything was arranged, published at his
sole expense a great number of Mozarabic Misa
sals and Breviaries, copies of which are now quite as feasible for the Turks to bave gotten seldom or ever to be met with in Spain, though their sequin from the Venetians, and not vice the Roman reprint of 1755, and the edition by versâ, seeing that the former inhabitants of the Lorenzana of the Breviarium Gothicum in 1775, Adriatic city were, in the Middle Ages, the great are to be found in most good libraries.
“moneyers" of the world. Prior to the capture But in order that the Mozarabic Liturgy might of Constantinople by Mahomet II. there was no rest on a secure foundation, Ximenez erected a Turkish coinage to speak of; and from their interbeautiful chapel in the Cathedral, under the title course with the Greek Empire, the Venetians-and, of “ Corpus Cbristi," and endowed a college for through them, Europe-obtained not "sequins thirteen priests to officiate according to the Moz- but “Byzants” or “Besants," from "Byzantium.” arabic rite : these were called Mozarabes Capeln The “Besant" still lingers in heraldry. lani, and the head-chaplain was named Capellanus I cannot help thinking that the Italian term Major. These celebrated the divine office every “zecca" bas something to do with our exchequer, day, and recited the canonical bours according the more so as the first die-sinkers, seal-engrato the same rite. While the Roman Liturgy vers, and moneyers who settled in England were is now happily used throughout the whole of either Venetians or Greeks. A “zecca," excheSpain, the Mozarabic is still kept up in the Cathe. quer, or absolute treasury for money dral of Toledo, the funds for this purpose which have been attached to the actual mint (Monnaie, were left by Ximenez baving been fortunately Moneta). I have admitted that to connect the preserved, to a considerable extent.
“Exchequer," in its pecuniary bearings, with the It would be unsuitable for the pages of " chequers," as a pattern, passes my comprehen"N.&Q." to enter into any details connected with sion; still I am strengthened in my belief as to the ceremonies of this ancient and venerable the affinity of "exchequer” and “ zecca" when I Liturgy. They may be found in Robles, Tho- come to the consideration of the word "cheque,”masius, Bona, Martene, and Aguirre. A short the order or draft for payment of money deposited description and explanation of the Mozarabic in the hands of a banker. Certain etymologists Mass are to be found in Hefele's Life of Cardinal have been hasty enough to hold "cheque” as Ximenez (English Translation, ed. London, 1860, identical with "check," the act of curbing or rep: 187.)
J. DALTON. straining. Thus, in drawing a "cheque,” you keep Norwich.
a “check" on your banker; but the real "check,
as a curb or verificatory document, is not the EXCHEQUER: OR EXCHECQUER-CHEQUE.
cheque which departs from you, but the “counterfoil" or stump
you keep. ObThe following is half a Query” and half a serve as a curious fact, that ali hough we have “Note.” I want to know, first, as much as is borrowed "counterfoil " from the Norman patent as to the origin of the sign of the “Che- trefeuille," the equivalent term in modern French quers," the oldest tavern cognizance, I believe, banking is “souche," the “root” or “stump," or extant, and still visible on the door-jambs of a extraction of a thing, as in “ un gentilhomme de wineshop in Poinpeii,—and as to the curious con- bonne souche.” nection between such a convivial emblem and our In old time the goldsmiths (Lombards and Vegrave legal finance tribunal the Court of Exche- netians, by the way), were wont to keep their quer, the table of which court was, within the own and their customers' money in the king's memory of living persons, covered with a cloth treasury; and the flagitious shutting up of this bearing a pattern of alternate white and black treasury, and impounding of its contents by squares. I shall be told, doubtless, that our word | Charles II., will be remembered as one of the most exchequer comes obviously from the French impudent acts of dishonesty ever perpetrated by " Echiquier” or chessboard, and that the "che- a king. What, however, could have been more quers " was anciently a very apt sign for a tavern natural than for the Veneto-Lombard goldsmiths where any modifications of the games of chess, to have called the treasury (then closely associated draughts, or backgammon were played; but i with the mint) the " zecca," and a draft drawing cannot obtain a satisfactory solution of why the money thereupon (when they could get it), a "chequers " should have had anything to do with "zeque” or “cheque"? There was once an official the royal treasury:
also called the “clerk of the cheque.” Who and Next: I noted recently in Venice, that the what was he ? mint is called the “ Zecca." lere, obviously the I have transcribed this as I found it in my word is derived from the Venetian zecchino or note-book, written when, from circumstances, I Sequin. The Sequin is said to have been origin- was debarred from access to any books of etymoally a Turkish coin ; but not being an orientalist, logical reference. But I have gained very little, I am unable to determine its possible Turkish or since my return to England, from the consultaArabic root, I will, however, observe that it is tion of authorities readier to the hand, and am
therefore emboldened to appeal to the correspon- with silver ; a gold cross on the breast of the dents of “N. & Q.” to point out more recondite skeleton, and a paten lying by it. The bones sources of information.
were all placed in a new chest, and buried again GEORGE AUGUSTUS SALA. in the same place. The Book of Days goes on :
“ From all the appearances, it was plain that the swathings had been wrapped round a dry skeleton, and
not round a complete body; for, not only was there no « THE BOOK OF DAYS:” TRANSLATION OF space left between the swathing and the bones, but not
the least trace of the decomposition of flesh was to be ST. CUTHBERT.
found. It was thus clear that a fraud had been practised; The Book of Days occasionally gives some and a skeleton dressed up, in the habiliments of the grave, account of a saint, under the day of his feast. for the purpose of imposing on popular credulity, and Accordingly, under the date of September 4, it benefiting thereby the influence and temporal interests of
the church." has a long article on the “Translation of St. Cuthbert," characterised by the usual inaccuracies It would be out of place in the pages of and prejudice of its other notices of the saints. “N. & Q.” to go into a refutation of this gratuiIt is well known that, in 1827, on the 17th of tous imputation of fraud; but before any imMay, a stone slab was removed from the Feretory partial reader adopts this assertion of the Book of of St. Cuthbert, in Durham Cathedral, and a Days, I would have bin in justice peruse a work skeleton taken up, which was confidently asserted published the year after this exhumation, and to be that of St. Cuthbert. It is not my inten- entitled, Remarks on the Saint Cuthbert of the tion to enter upon any discussion as to the cor- Rev. James Raine, M.A., &c. ; with the following rectness of this assertion : my only object here is significant motto, “Quodcumque ostendis mihi sic, to rectify the mistakes of the Book of Days.
incredulus odi." It was written by the late Dr. “ The next appearance of St. Cuthbert," it says, “ was
Lingard; and the same learned author has a long in May, 1827; when, in presence of a distinguished as- note on the subject in the 3rd edition of his Hise semblage, including the dignitaries of Durham Cathedral, tory and Antiquities of the Anglo-Saxon Church, his remains were again exhumed from their triple encase- vol. ii. p. 77. But the flippant and groundless ment of coffins.”
imputation of fraud will be found well met in the From this account, the reader would be led to Remarks above referred to, at p.
61. F. C. H. conclude that the exhumation was a public proceeding, conducted before a large assemblage, and by the dignitaries of the cathedral. But the
KEMBLE'S VERSION OF “THE TEMPEST.” truth is, that it was quite a private undertaking; conducted by one prebendary, the Rev. W. N. In the article in The Cornhill Magazine for Darnell, and one other clergyman, the Rev. James July on the “ Stage Adaptations of Shakspeare,” Raine, Rector of Meldon : and the distinguished mention is made of the aslaptation of The Tempest assemblage " was composed of the deputy-receiver, produced by Mr. John Kemble in London - in the clerk of the works, the verger, and the master the winter of 1789." The exact date was Oc.
Mr. Raine, indeed, includes the Rev. S. tober 13, at Drury Lane Theatre. The Cornhill Gilly, another prebendary, among the openers of writer says: his tomb. But I know, from his own declaration,
“ This new version, in which Hippolito and Dorinda that he was not present at the actual opening. again made their appearance, and which altogether was He was engaged in the service of the choir; but a sort of compromise between Shakspeare and Dryden, hearing a strange noise in the Feretory, he ran was the recognised Tempest of the stage till Mr. Macready thither in his surplice as soon as the service was
revived the original play at Covent Garden.” over, to see what was going on. He there found In connection with this subject it may be worth the Rev. Messrs. Darnell and Raine, and the while to mention the following fact connected others. The two workmen were actually stand with the first production of The Tempest by the iny within the coffin, and trampling upon its con- Kemble family, and (what I imagine to be) the tents. He ordered them out, remonstrated with first appearance of the future Mrs. Siddons in a the Rev. Mr. Darnell, and requested that wit- play of Shakspeare; which facts have been overnesses might be sent for out of the town, and also looked by Boaden, Campbell, and other biosome one from Ushaw College. Mr. Darnell was graphers of the Kemble family. sub-dean: he seemed very nervous, and refused It was in 1767 that Mr. Jobn Kemble became assent to Mr. Gilly's proposals. He wished to the manager of the Worcester Theatre, then held finish the investigation as quickly as possible, and " at the Great Room, at the King's Head, in to prevent any crowd assembling. So much for High Street," where Mr. Ward (the father of the " distinguished assemblage." Mr. Gilly then Mrs. Kemble, and the restorer of Shakspeare's went down himself; and discovered a stole and nonument) had been manager. At that time the two maniples; a portable altar of oak, covered managers of country theatres were driven to
various ingenious expedients in order to evade usual places. Between the parts of the Concert will be those penalties upon unlicensed playhouses threat presented, gratis, a celebrated Comedy call'd ened by Sir Robert Walpole's “Golden Rump"
The TEMPEST; or the Inchanted Island. Act of 1737; and they usually advertised and (As altered from Shakspeare by Mr. Dryden and Sir
W. D'Avenant.) charged for a concert in which a dramatic performance would be introduced gratis. Indeed, on
With all the Scenery, Machinery, Musick, Monsters, one occasion, at Wolverhampton, Mr. Kemble's and other Decorations proper to the piece, entirely new.
Alonzo (Duke of Mantua), Mr. Kemble; company performed a “ Concert of Vocal and
Hyppolito (a youth who never saw a Woman), Instrumental Music, divided into three parts,"
Mr. Siddons; together with the comic opera of “ Love in a Stephano (Master of the Duke's Ship), Mr. Kemble; Village,” all of which was gratis; but the gra
Amphitrite, by Mrs. Kemble; tuitous tickets could only be obtained at certain
Ariel (the Chief Spirit), by Miss Kemble;
and Milcha, by Miss F. Kemble. places where was to be had “ a quantity of toothpowder (from London), selling in packets at 2s., Tempestuous Sea (in perpetual agitation) and Storm. in
The Performance will open with a Representation of a 18. or 6d. each ;” and it was “humbly hoped that
which the Usurper's Ship is Wreck’d; he Wreck ends Do Ladies or Gentlemen will take it amiss, that they with a Beautiful Shower of Fire.—And the whole to cannot possibly be admitted without a Ticket." conclude with a Calm SEA, on which appears Neptune, In the above opera, the future Mrs. Siddons Poetic God of the Ocean, and his Royal Consort Amphiappeared as Rosetta, and Mr. Siddons as Young trite, in a Chariot drawn by Seahorses, accompanied with
Mermaids, Tritons, &c." Meadows; and, as it was just before her residence with Mr. Greathead's family at Guy's Cliff
And it was in this fashion that the Tempest it was probably their last joint appearance before later than this, at Drury Lane Theatre.
was produced by Mr. Kenible, twenty-two years
The their marriage -- the date of which is not given above extract from the Worcester play-bill is by Mrs. Siddon's biographers, but was Nov. 26, 1773, at Trinity Church, Coventry. On the 13th noteworthy as recording (at least, I believe so) of December, 1773, the plays of The West Indian
the first appearance of the future Mrs. Siddons in and The Padlock were performed by Mr. Kemble's
a Shakspearian character; and it is a circumcompany at Worcester, the characters of Char- stance that has not been noted by her biographers.
CUTHBERT BEDE. lotte Rusport in the former, and of Leonora in the latter, being sustained by “ Mrs. Siddons ;” which I imagine to be the first occasion on which THE QUEEN'S MEMORIAL TO THE LATE we meet with that illustrious name, now a house
PRINCE CONSORT AT BALMORAL. hold word.
A copy, in full, of the inscriptions upon this She had received a good education (given gra- Memorial interest the readers of “ N. & Q." tuitously by the then mistress) at Thorneloe The “ Memorial Cairn,” as it is called in the loHouse School, in Worcester, where her native cality, is situated upon a high mountain which talent was manifested at amateur theatricals ; ) overlooks the Palace of Balmoral, and a great and she appears to have made her debût on the portion of the upper district of Deeside. The Worcester stage when she was twelve years old, monument is composed of native granite, is pyrathough, as we know from " the Boys and the midal in form, and has four sides. Upon the Frog” anecdote, she had made her first appear- north side, cut in plain Roman capitals, is the ance on other boards at a very tender age. (Her following: Worcester life, I may observe, is altogether passed over by her biographers.) At twelve years of age, on February 12 and 14, 1767, she performed at Worcester the character of the Young Prin
ALBERT, cess in the play of Charles the First, and also sang in the concert. On April 16, 1767, Kemble produced his version of The Tempest. I copy so much of the bill as relates to the play and the Kembles. The future Mrs. Siddons, it will be
1862.” seen, was the singing Ariel:
Upon another dressed slab, a few inches below “ Worcester, April 16th, 1767. the above, is this quotation : " MR. KEMBLE's Company of Comedians.
“ He being made perfect in a short time,
Fulfilled a long time: “At the THEATRE at the King's Head, on Monday
For his soul pleased the Lord, evening next. being the 20th of April instant, will be
Therefore hasted He to take performed a CONCERT OF MUSICK, to begin at exactly
Him away from among the wicked. half-an-hour after six o'clock, Tickets to be had at the
Wisdom of Solomon, chap. iv. verses 13
THE BELOVED MEMORY
THE GREAT AND GOOD,
ERECTED BY HIS