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but one nature in Christ), were condemned. From this may be dated the rise of the Jacobite or Monophysite churches, viz., the Coptic, Abyssinian, and Armenian, which exist to this day. In 553, another council was held at Constantinople, when Origen and the three Chapters were condemned. In 680, another was held at the same place, when the Monothelites, who taught that there was but one will in Christ, were condemned. From these sprung the Maronites, who inhabit Mount Lebanon. The seventh was held in 692, in which the sentence of the sixth was confirmed. Here, then, we have five branches from the Catholic church. Let us follow its history. After the extinction of the western empire in 480, there arose a jealousy between those Catholics who resided in the east and those in the west, but no open or direct schism took place until the seventh century, when the insolence of the Romish bishops began to assume that spirit of tyranny and usurpation which has continued to the present hour. It is remarkable that at this period the following events date their commencement:--The schism between the eastern and western churches, the rise of Mahomedanism, the Hegira commencing in 622, and the dedication of the Pantheon by Boniface the Fourth in order to gratify the wicked Emperor Phocas. This building, which had been dedicated to the heathen gods, was now consecrated to the Christian saints, the naine of Cybele changed to that of the Virgin Mary, and so with the others. Here began the doctrine of other mediators beside that appointed between God and men-the man Christ Jesus. From this wo trace the gradual adınission of corruption and superstition into the western church. But it is remarkable that, while this mist was gathering over the Roman Church, Christianity was spreading rapidly in those countries which were hereafter to become the champions for truth-religion was much advanced in England, Holland and Germany, the cradle of the Reformation. It was in this century that the archbishoprics of Canterbury and York, with twelve other bishoprics, were appointed. In the eighth century, we find the Bishop of Rome condemning Zachary for asserting that the world was round; he was a learned mathematician, but education did not suit tha Pope better in those days than it does now. At this time arose the controversy between the Greek and Roman Church, about the procession of the Holy Ghost. As it originated purely in the use of words, the Greeks asserting that certain words, “filio que,' were left out in the original document, the Romans insisting that they were userted, reference was made to two silver tables, upon which the creed was engraven from the original documents, and hung up by command of Pope Leo III., in St. Peter's church, when it was discovered that the Easterns were in the right. From this, however, as it too often happens, from words they came to facts, and thus fell into the error which they have held ever since, that the Holy Ghost proceeds only from the Father. But as to the point in dispute between thêm, the Greeks were in the right and the Romanists in the wrong. In the ninth century, another source of controversy arose between them. The Romanists having sent missionaries into Russia aud Bulgaria, failed in their attempts to convert the natives; but alterwards, some Greek missionarjes were more successful, and the Russians and Bulgarians joined the Greek church. The Emperor Charlemagne, who favoured the Pope, was greatly incensed against the Greek church on account of this. Now began the corruptions of Rome rapidly to accumulate, the Popes increase in power, the bishop's dwindle into mère slaves aod subjects of supremacy. Hence we see that Popery is opposed to episcopacy. We insist upon an independent episcopacy; Popery will have but one bishop. Hence its proper designation is the tof a Pope-propagating system. As the power of the Pope increased, so the work of pelf and plunder

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progressed. During this century, we read of the introduction of the doctrine of transubstantiation; worshipping of saints; the sale of relics; the festival of the assuinption of the Virgin-thạt base invention, whereby they say that the Virgin was taken up into heaven and crowned by God " Queen of Heaven;" and, lastly, the canonization of saints, with all its attendant revenue to the pocket of the church. On the other hand, we find the eastern church protesting. Photius, patriarch ( f Constantinople, excommunicates the Pope, and Theophilus, the emperor, banishes all painters from the east, in so great abhorrence does he hold the worshipping of pictures and images. In the tenth century, the baptism of bells and praying for the dead are introduced into the western church. In the eleventh, the crusades are instituted, whereby religion was much injured, Christians wielding the sword in defiance of the precept, they that use the sword shall perish with the sword. In the twelfth century, the crusades have failed. In the fourteenth century, a schism has commenced in the Romish church; rival Popes are contesting the supremacy; the seeds of reformation are laid by Wickliffe. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the great crisis has arrived, and a new era of light bas dawned upon Europe during these two centuries. He would mention a few facts to shew the feeling which existed in the minds of the Reformers towards the eastern churches. Philip Melancthon, as the reformation advanced, felt so strongly the duty of making a coalition with the eastern protesting episcopalians that he opened a communication with the Patriarch of Constantinople, but without effect. In 1663, Heyling went to Ottriopia, where he met with such success that, like a second Joseph to Pharoah, he was advanced to the dignity of prime minister. He never returned to Europe. In the same year, Cyril Lucar, patriarch of Constantinople, publishes his confession of faith, which led to his deposition and death. Mr. Fremantle here read an account of his bold and uncompromising resistance to papal interference through the French Ambassador at the Ottoman court. He had 'been in communication with the clergy of Geneva. After this, Jewel's Apology was translated in Greek, and published in the east. Compton, Lord Bishop of London, opens a place of worship in London in 1680 for those of the Greek church who were obliged to fly their country from persecution. About this time, too, Ernest, Duke of Saxe Gotha, ancestor of Prince Albert, sent out an Abyssinian Abbot, named Gregory, for the purpose of raising the standard of faith in that country: he was shipwrecked on bis voyage. After this he sent out one Michael Wamleb, who turned out ill, and never fulfilled the object of his mission. Great persecution arose in Persia and Turkey against the Armenians, who were obliged to fly for refuge to differ'ent parts of Europe : many settled in London, Ainsterdam, Marseilles, and Venice, at which latter place they established their printing press, which has been the means of distributing many theological works of the Reformers in the east. Mr. F. here shewed as a specimen of their printing a book, containing a sample of their type, in twenty-five languages. He also read one of their prayers“

“ Heavenly Father and true God, who didst send thy beloved Son to seek the lost sheep, I have sinned against heaven oud be fore thee; receive me like the prodigal son, and clothe me with that garment of which I was deprived by sin. Have mercy on thy creatures and on me a grievous sinner. Such, then is the history of these churches. We find the Greek church is the only remnant of what was, in the literal acceptation of the term, the original Catholic church. But the contrast between all the eastern churches and the Romish church is inost worthy of our notice; for, on the one hand, we see the supremacy of the scriptures, independent episcopacy, and a desire for education; on the other, the supremacy of the Pope, a slarish priesthood, and a blighting of all instruction and learning. The condition, therefore, of the eastern churches differs widely from that of Rome. They have attained essential truth, although sinking under the weight of ignorance and the tyranny of Mahomedanism. Rome has risen with the tide of spiritual and temporal power; and has become corrupt, as she has decked herself in the finery of avarice and superstition. The eastern churches are like an old ruin which, though chipped and defaced by the effects of time, siill retains the outline of former splendour. The Romish church is so daubed with the untempered mortar of innovation that you can scarcely detect a feature of pure uomutilated truth. Mr. F. here read, from the creeds of the Greek and Armenian churches, extracts to show what were their present real 'opinions. They hold the great doctrine of the Trinity, and the Trinity in Unity; the all sufficiency of the merit, righteousness, and atonement of Jesus Christ; the depravity and original vice of man, &c.: in short, except in the one point of the procession of the Holy Ghost, it is almost difficult to point out any direct heterodox opinion in their creeds, liturgies, and confessions of faith, In externals, however, they are grossly superstitious. Mr. F. detailed the account of the miracle of the holy fire in the church of the holy sepulchre at Jerusalem; and other anecdotes, to show how completely they had lost the power of godliness in the midst of their forms and ceremonial. They were, nevertheless, willing to receive instruction; and many, both of Greeks and Arinenians, rejected the idea that they believed in the miracle. The Roman church has been very active in endeavouring to effect an union with the eastern churches. In one case she has been fully successful. The Maronites—the simple minded; hospitable mountaineers, consented to unite with Rome; to acknowledge the supremacy of the Pope on condition that they might be allowed to retain their peculiarities--such as the free circulation of the Scriptures, and the marriage of the clergy.

This was readily granted, and althongh several of their number fled to the Waldenses and Genua for refuge, the rest submitted to what has since proved a sad bondage to them. Their character is, in one sense, almost changed by this coalition. They will refuse to lodge a Protestant in their district. Here, by the way, we may remark the inconsistency of Popery. Acknowledge the supremacy of the Pope is all that they require for a coalition. The Greeks may have their own liturgytheir own creed, the words " and the son” being printed in the margin. The Armenians may adıninster the cup to the laity-in short, anything, only help to advance the universal spiritual dominion of the Pope. Such being their condition, what is our plain duty as churchmen? They are episcopalians, and are, therefore, likely to welcome ihe friendly help and assistance of episcopalians. They have from time to time looked to England, and other European churches, for assistance. They have yet the light of truth in their Scriptures; but all needs to be rekindled and reformed. The difficulties are great, but the duty is plain : if the Lord be with us who.can be against us? Mr. F. then alluded to a few of the obstacles :-1. Mahomedanism--but Mahomed is on the wane. The Turkish Sultan and. the Egyptian Pacha welcomed the introduction of European arts and science, and literature, into their respective countries; and full toleration was given to all religions. 2. Infidelity. This, however, was ofter: times, in the hand of God, the.step..by which men are. - brought from formality to truth : for when men see the. emptiness of a formal, false system, they are rea .y for that which is altogether new; but the transition statë was infidelity; it was so with many Roman Catholics and Jews who have been converted to Christianity. The first step in the process of conversion has been infidelity: we have seen it among ourselves.

We place our hope upon externals, and it is when we see ihem crumbling beneath our feet, and the soul left in the midst of its own guilt and helplessness, that we see we are practically infidels ; it is at this point that the blessed light of love and mercy appears in all its blessedness, and we receive it gladly, 3. Popery is rapidly spreading in the east, and is likely to prove a real hindrance. 4. Politics. The jealousy of Russia, France, and Austria, in connecting Christianity with English influence. Besides these there were the natural prejudices of the easterns, and the enmity of the carnal heart which hates the light; but what were our openings ? Protestant churches are in course of erection of Malta-the key of the Mediterranean; at Alexandria-the port of Egypt, and the door of the high road to India ; at Jerusalem-the centre of the various denominations of Christians, and still, so to speak, the centre of Christianity; at Athens, the seat of the once far famed and learned

Greece. Surely the door is opened for us, we have only to enter in. "Our object should be to send a deputation of clergymen to collate manuscripts, circulate the Scriptures, and promote education; oh, louk at the responsibilities of Great Britain. God has given her the first place in the scale of nations, blessed her with unparalelled pris vileges, 'sources of information, and means of inier.

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“Notwithstanding these errors and defects, we preserve a great charity for this distressed part of the Catholic Church, and wish, and pray heartily for their deliverance--and that in the mean while, they may see from what purity of doctrine and worship they are fallen, and may be restored to their ancient integrity and splendour. This Christian charity obliges us to do."

PREFACE TO SMITH'S HISTORY OF THE GREEK CHURCH.

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