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better, it would be a work of superero- Our Christian liberty is the firm ground gation in me to say a word of him. I on which we stand, and the first princonclude, therefore, with the expres- ciple for which, at all hazards, we must sion of an earnest prayer that his re- contend. But in remembering the right, newed health and strength may be long we must also remember the duty of free devoted to your service; and that when inquiry. I am quite sure that there others arise to fill his place, your chil- will be no deep conviction unless there dren's children may come to the house be first free inquiry, especially among which you have erected, to worship those who must be the future hope of the God of their fathers in spirit and our congregations, the young people. in truth.

My father's creed is nothing to me; it Mr. SWINTON Boult was next called was much to my father : it must become upon, and proposed—“Our Church in mine by personal investigation; and it its integrity ; free inquiry, deep con- cannot become mine unless I am a reader viction, earnest faith, and good lives ;- as well as a hearer of theology. We give we may destroy the temples where our our ministers the privilege of speaking fathers worshiped, but in the records freely, but we must ourselves use also and remembrance of the faithful life, the privilege of reading freely.-I was their good name and works will sur- pleased to hear your respected minister vive the fall."

speak of what he wished to see in all The Rev. CHARLES WICKSTEED, after our congregations-a genuine principle some playful introductory remarks, said of association. I think free inquiry and -I am, in truth, glad to be in Liver- the right of individual liberty have pool; to have been with you this morn- grown almost to their full extent among ing, to be with you now; because the us : we have so enormous an amount earlier part of my ministerial life was of individuality, that it is difficult to spent in Liverpool; and though fourteen get us together — that we are almost years have passed, and more deeply. pulverized. Now the individual men rooted attachments have ensued in an- and women which this glorious liberty other place, the memory of the kind. makes, association will combine into a ness I then received is green and hal. noble whole. We have now indeed the lowed still. I am glad also to be among elements of power, which we can unite the Paradise-Street congregation, be by the force of a great principle; and cause many years ago I had the plea. then we shall perhaps be able to presure of hearing Mr. Yates in the later, sent to the world a perfect and complete and Mr. Grundy in the earlier part of model of a Christian church. Hitherto his ministry; and because I well re- we have done little more than solve the member the day on which your present great problems of Christian doctrine; minister ascended that pulpit for the then we should be able to solve the great first time; and did time and place per- problems of Christian action. Without mit, I could still give you a pretty an active Christian love, our zeal will ample skeleton of the discourse on that become indolent -- our piety nothing occasion. I am glad also to be here, better than hypocrisy.-The remainder among my friends and brother ministers, of the sentiment touches upon a fact to stretch out to him the offering of very interesting to myself as well as to cordial sympathy and respect. We have you. There is allusion made to the a pride and a joy in your minister, for temples in which our fathers worshipwe feel that his splendid powers and ed, and which are destroyed, and also lofty character shed a lustre on our to their good name and works, which

denomination. But I must pass on to will survive the fall. This is to me • the sentiment which has been confided rather a comprehensive subject, as har

to my hands. I accept from Mr. Madge ing occupied so much of my time for the beautiful statement of doctrine he several months, that I fear I may begave from the pulpit this morning; I come too discursive. I will only express accept that ample and Christian creed. the hope that in our future edifices we The foundation of all our churches is may avoid the creeping meanness which their intellectual liberty. From their seizes hold of a thing simply because attachment to free inquiry, our ances- it belongs to a dominant Establishment, tors separated themselves from the gor- as well as the bigotry which rejects it geous Establishment of their own day, for no better reason. 'Let us adopt that and for our attachment to that liberty which is good and beautiful in itself; we are content to remain in separation let us reject that which is in itself poor from it. We are at liberty to accept and unornamental. We have built in that creed, to modify or to reject it. Leeds, in Cheshire and here, churches,

but not in imitation of the church: them, that whatever might deserve to ecclesiastical architecture belongs to be dear and sacred connected with that you as much as to anybody else: be- place, in the principles of their Puritan cause you are Dissenters, you do not descent, might cling to them as the therefore turn your backs on what has flesh clings to the bone; and that whatgone before. In this country we have ever of further and richer development always been devoted admirers of eccle- may have been wanting to the rugged siastical architecture: we have been fidelity of their forefathers, might more pilgrims, both in our own and in foreign and more descend upon them in their lands, to behold and admire the mag. realization of the future. Might he be nificent ecclesiastical structures reared permitted to say-it was just that he by the piety of bygone ages : and I do should say—that he uttered this wish, not see why we should not adopt other if not with an equal degree of personal features of it which seem to conduce to affection, yet with as sincere a desire, the beauty of devotion and the further- as honest a prayer, as if he were uttering ance of individual piety. It may seem it for his own people. Standing in the to you that there are additions and relation that his people and himself did ornaments which may very appropri- to the congregation of Hope Street and ately be made to your present structure; their minister, he desired to breathe a and those who wish to call back to their spirit of fervent cordiality and good-will memory the sainted spirits who have towards him and his people. There was left this scene of their labours, may not, he was sure, one minister in their here find a place for memorials which body who was not prepared to breathe shall prove ornaments to your church, that spirit of good-will with equal sincewhile they gratify personal affection rity and intensity. He must seize that and reverence. Now it often happens occasion to welcome once more amongst that many of the symbols of Christian them his valued friend and colleague, art belong to an age of Christian doc- to tell him how they all felt in his abtrine with which we have little sym- sence-how at least he had felt--as a pathy. I can well understand that some warrior in a castle that had lost its tower persons may dislike the introduction of strength, desiring and praying, in a of these symbols into their houses of craven spirit, that no enemy would be prayer; but let not such persons rest cunning enough to attack them until till they have become convinced of the their bulwarks were restored. He confact, that we have in our theory as fine gratulated his friend and brother on the a field for Christian art, and till we inestimable blessing he had enjoyed in have all our churches ornamented with his long period of rest and meditation, out one untrue or unchristian symbol. and that it had pleased Almighty God And if, in the exercise of these privi. to mark that term of absence with no. leges, you bestow a little more of your thing more severe than the gentle chasworldly goods on your beautiful tem- tenings of his hand; that it had pleased ple, it will be redeemed from much him not to connect those privileged days that is transient and changing, and with a sad memory which would have many of you will be able to say, There left a permanent scar upon his peace. I have a fraction of my earthly treasure He congratulated him upon the auspistored up where “neither moth nor rust cious prospect which greeted his return doth corrupt, and where thieves do not to the duties of his home; that, returnbreak through and steal.”

ing as he did amongst them with a new C. E. Rawlins, Esq., proposed the strength, he found a renewal of his peonext sentiment—" The other Congre- ple and a new and noble church. There gations of our body, and their Ministers was, he well knew, no man who could in this town and its vicinity ; be the better afford to do without the impulse spirit of cordial good-will which subsists of new circumstances, and there was no amongst us constantly maintained." man better qualified to take the full ad

Rev. J. H. Thom, after some intro- vantage of new circumstances. He deductory observations, said, he offered sired publicly to declare and to thank his cordial sympathy, and his warmest him for the harmony, the unbroken congratulation, and his earnest good unity, the brotherly fellowship and corwishes, to the congregation which will diality which had existed between them, henceforth assemble in the church of and to offer him, in the spirit of deep Hope Street. On this critical day of respect and affection, his earnest desire their religious life, when they were leav- for his increasing success as a minister ing behind them the outward habitation of Christ and a servant of God. Referof their former history, he desired for ence was made, in the sentiment just proposed, to other congregations and He took comfort from the reflection ministers of our body, and properly so, that possibly this might be set down for the circumstances of that day were as a symptom of their improvement in not altogether of a local character. The humility, and that they who went round fair and beautiful religious structures their towers, would against their lofty which had been rising, year after year, pretensions in stone set down the meek amongst them, were surely signs of in: lowliness of their name. There was creasing zeal and strength, of the sense another circumstance that awakened of new wants and a desire of richer cul- suspicion. Was not this designation of ture. He could count some six of these their church asign of their profound plotGothic edifices. Surely these have not ting? Was not this accidental humiliation sprung up out of a valley of dead bones, a device of their long-headed minister? the term by which the world thinks fit He (Mr. Thom) remembered well that sometimes to designate our religious in those last words which their pastor body. He was glad to see assembled, had addressed to them in their Paradion that auspicious day, so many of the saical state, he told them that it was his ministers of those angust Gothic edifices, wish, the most determined purpose of Mr. Martineau, Mr.

Tayler, Mr. Wick- his ministry, to deprive them of the steed, and Mr. Aspland. It was a some- luxury of a good conscience,-that he what remarkable circumstance that all was resolved to shake them out of all these brethren of his were conductors sorts of easy chairs, and to make them of the periodical literature of our deno- uncomfortable about their spiritual state, mination. How was it that all so circum- Now it might be that this explained the stanced, except himself, had been im- new style of architecture which belonged proving their state, and making them to the church. Instead of that simple selves bishops and archbishops, and but most respectable building in which deans with chapter-houses ? Ile was they recently worshiped, and which afraid that in his less good moments spread itself most leisurely, and lay (which he confessed he had) he should quite at its ease, they had betaken begin to envy these stately courts of themselves to a style all angular and theirs. These friends of his ought to sharp; now they had a church which rejoice that he had little of the icono- spurned the earth and sprung to the clastic spirit of John Knox, or else in skies, and, on the summit of that severe self-defence, if not in spite, he should finger which pointed to the skies, they be preaching a crusade against these had placed that solemn cross, which, if strange innovations upon the peace of it suggested hope, did so only to holi. our Israel ; that he should call upon the ness and modesty and vigilance and Presbyterians of England to stand upon prayer.

Mr. Thom concluded his very their old ways; that he should preach striking and impressive address in these up the meeting-house against the stee- words- My friends and brother of the ple-house, and denounce the latter as Hope-Street congregation, I pray and the sign of every thing that was worldly desire for you that in this designand priest-like. The grapes being sour, good and a right one-and in all the he had made up his mind not to covet desires of his heart for you, you and he them, and to maintain the great respectmay prosper! May you yourselves be ability of old things and old ways, and lively stones built up into a spiritual at all events to wait until Protestantism house, to offer praises acceptable to God should become creative, and discover through Jesus Christ ! new and beautiful forms of architecture, Thomas Avison, Esq., then proposed symbolical of its vigorous and expansive _“The Rev. Joseph Henry Hutton, to powers. He would take up and apply whom our thanks are due for his acceptthe noted saying of Michael Angelo, able services during the past fifteen “Better than you I cannot, and like you months, and whose engagement with I will not." 'Amongst the many de- the congregation at Gloucester will lightful circuinstances of the day, he prove, we trust, a source of comfort and must confess there was one considera- satisfaction both to him and them.tion that excited some little apprehen- Rev. J. H. Hutton acknowledged the sion; he could not but refer to the toast in an impressive manner. change of their locality and designa- The CHAIRMAN gave—“Our hearty tion. How was it that they were re- welcome to the friend of religious freemoving from a place of fruition to a place dom and simplicity, whose sympathy of expectation, from Paradise to Hope with us has brought him from a distance He trusted this descent was sympto- to share the interest of this occasion." matic of no declension in their state. HENRY CRABB ROBINSON, Esq., after some remarks on the surprise of being then preaching arose. It was resisted called upon to address such an assem- by those who wished to cling to the old bly, said they had heard that night religion and old ways, but it was pracwords of truth, of eloquence, of solem- tised and promoted by the early Renity, and he should be ashamed if they formers and then by the Puritans, who were now from him to listen to words every where promoted lectures, and conof frivolity and insignificance. But he temptuously termed the old clergy, who could not help making a remark on the could not or would not preach, dumb subject of the beautiful, or rather the dogs. He feared that, in some of their picturesque building in which they that churches of recent structure, the conmorning had the pleasure of assembling. veniences for hearing were somewhat It was a new thing to witness an assem- sacrificed to secure an ecclesiastical bly of Dissenters in a building con- character of architecture. His remarks structed after the model of the venerable did not, however, apply to their beauGothic churches which adorn our coun- tiful church, for that morning he had try. He should not soon forget the the good fortune to hear every word surprise he felt a few years ago on first that was uttered. The whole proceedbeholding such a sight. He was in ings of the day had gratified him. He Manchester, and was desirous of hear- was rejoiced to see proofs that the naing a gentleman preach whom he had tional character of England was not dethe pleasure of knowing. He inquired teriorating. In the time of the Stuarts, the way to his chapel, and having re- their Puritan ancestors had put on a ceived the necessary directions, pro- goodly and noble front in the counties ceeded in search of it. The street he of York and Lancaster. There the Nonfound; but of the Unitarian chapel he conformists had most flourished; and could see nothing. While standing in it was most gratifying to him to find at doubt opposite to what he conceived to the present day the liberal descendants be a Popish chapel, he asked a gentle- of those good ancestors now existing man passing, by to direct him to Mr. in the same places in their greatest J. J. Tayler's chapel. The stranger strength. Not even there, indeed, did pointed to the building opposite; and they constitute a numerous body. A on his (Mr. R.'s) remark of surprise form of Christianity like theirs, which that he supposed that to belong to some refused to identify itself with any of Roman Catholic community, added, those doctrines and notions which ap“The Unitarians have thought proper pealed exclusively to the passions, -a to imitate the Papists in their forms of religion which refused to address itself architecture.” For a moment, he con- to vulgar fears and idle superstitions,fessed, he was disconcerted by the re- which, while it did address itself to the mark. When in Italy, he heard the purest and best sensibilities of human differences between Protestant and Ro- nature, did it far more to their hopes man Catholic churches thus described: than to their fears,—such a religion “All Roman Catholic churches are in. could not expect to receive the assent tended to gratify the eye; Protestant of the multitude, or to include in its churches are built for the purpose of believers numbers at all in proportion hearing.” The two wants of the com- to those which were gathered together mon people of Rome were of old de- in support of systems less rational and scribed by the words, panem et circenses, spiritual. He trusted, in conclusion, which, translated by the aid of the whatever changes and improvements ecclesiastical habits of Italy into our might be introduced into the ecclesiasmodern language, meant "maccaronitical architecture of the liberal Disand processions. All the ancient and senters, that the members of their long churches were built for the purpose churches would preserve the integrity of gorgeous processions. A large and of their course, the spirituality of their important part of the service of the understanding, and the sobriety of their Roman Catholic church consisted of a habits. long procession of priests, crosses, cro- The Rev. JAMES MARTINEAU then rose ziers, and censers filled with incense. and said, he gave fair notice to his For Catholic worshipers to hear, is less friends around him that, notwithstandimportant than to see. Many of their ing all that had been said against creeds services were familiar and known by and confessions, it was his intention to heart, and they knew, by the genuflec- impose a creed upon them-a creed of tions of the priest and the ringing of a one article-a creed that would pledge bell, at what part of the service they them to their belief for the rest of their

When the Reformation came, lives. No one present would, he supVOL. V.



posed, hesitate to give his assent to strength. The new chapel was built this creed: “I believe in the high worth and filled by a very excellent congreand integrity of our Chairman, Thomas gation, many of whom he (Mr. J. B. Bolton.' He (Mr. Martineau) knew Yates) rejoiced to see around him on not of whom any one could give a safer that happy occasion. Their honourable pledge. He knew no one to whom he mention of his father was, he believed, could better go for help when sound well deserved. He lived and sustained advice was required. The services ren- their cause in a time of peril, certainly dered by Mr. Bolton, as Chairman of of difficulty, when by the world at large the Building Committee, had been in- it was considered no honour to be a valuable. Most honourable to him was Dissenter of any description, certainly it that at his time of life he had been no honour to belong to a denomination able to render such efficient service of Dissenters reputed to hold extreme to their cause. Every great building and obnoxious opinions. It was true had its chief and corner-stones : he that he altered, about middle life, some could wish, for the permanence of their of his doctrinal opinions, for he was ever work, nothing better than that every a seeker after truth; but the persuasion one of their hidden stones were as that he then adopted he maintained to strong and free from flaw as the cha- the end of his days. racter of their Chairman. Mr. Marti- WILLIAM RATHBONE, Esq., said, the neau concluded by proposing-" The men whom this sentiment honoured Chairman, Thomas Bolton, Esq. ; his were indeed a holy brotherhood. Mr. steadfast integrity as a merchant, his Yates had not only preached the gosunfailing constancy as a friend, his un- pel, but loved it; Dr. Shepherd was the flinching adherence to his principles as fearless champion of civil and religious a public man, entitle him to be remem- liberty; the name of Roscoe was halbered for imitation by those who must lowed. He had adorned the town by succeed him."

his literary talents and by his public The CHAIRMAN, in acknowledging the spirit. He had been one of the forekind remarks of his friend, said that in most in vindicating the rights of the his journey through life he had endea- slave. He (Mr. Rathbone) felt that voured to do what was just between his father's memory was honoured by man and man. He then gave—“The being associated with such men. He Memory of the distinguished band of trusted the memory of these men would Reformers which, in the last genera- cling to them through the whole of tion, conferred upon Liverpool its wor- existence, that it would be not only thiest renown, and an enduring lustre acknowledged in sentiment and words, on our own Societies ; and included but illustrated by a faithful and reveamong its associates the Rev. John rent imitation of their virtues. Mo, Yates, the Rev. Dr. Shepherd, William Rathbone concluded by proposingRathbone and William Roscoe.”

“ The Manchester Congregations and The sentiment was acknowledged by their Ministers ;-the People earnest, Mr. Rathbone, Mr. W. Roscoe and Mr. enlightened, energetic; their Pastors J. B. Yates. The latter gentleman said, distinguished by piety, ability, faithhe well remembered the removal of the fulness and learning :-present in comcongregation from a very humble part bination elements of influence enabling of the town, where they had long met them, now that the bitterness of sectain obscurity and humility.. Influenced rianism is passing away, to maintain rather by hope of better things to come that position in the progress of improvethan by the actual state of their society, ment and development of truth which, they removed, some sixty years ago, to in the earlier conflicts of opinion, they Paradise Street. He well remembered ably and nobly won and heid.” the anxiety with which his father, then Rev. J. J. TAYLER observed, that at pastor of the congregation, entered on that late period of the evening, he that proceeding. He remembered the could not be expected to say much in close and indefatigable attention paid reference to the sentiment which had by him to every thing that could minis- connected his name with the place ter to the welfare of his flock. When where his ministry was cast. He felt, his father first entered on his duties in indeed, that in every thing which reLiverpool, seventy years ago, the con

lated to the moral and social progress gregation was comparatively small. By of mankind, Manchester was a most his zeal, and he might perhaps be per- important locality, not less so than Li. mitted to add, his talents and eloquence, verpool itself. His friend Mr. Marti. it immediately grew in numbers and neau had referred to the lowness of

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