Obrazy na stronie


New Electric Current Regulator.

February 28, 1879.

Acid :—Finely divided platinum did not reduce the acid, The Society then adjourned to March 6, when the fol. but the metal charged with hydrogen immediately gave lowing papers will be read :-"The Quantitative Blowpipe the odour of sulphurous acid when the sulphuric acid was Assay of Mercury,” by G. Attwood; “On Gas Analysis poured on it. Platinum charged with hydrogen also reduces and Gas Apparatus,” by J. W. Thomas; “ The Isomeric sulphuric acid. In conclusion, the authors give the Dinaphthyls,” by Watson Smith; “On the Action of Isoresults of some experiments made by plunging a small morphous Salts in Exciting the Crystallisation of Superpiece of sheet magnesium into an excess of strong nitric saturated Solutions of each other," by J. M. Thomson. acid diluted with an equal bulk of water. The metal dissolved in one or two seconds, gas being given off which was combustible and explosive and contained hydrogen. The authors claim to have demonstrated the possibility

PHYSICAL SOCIETY. of the replacement of hydrogen in nitric acid by a metal,

Ordinary Meeting, February 22, 1879. and to have established the close likeness of character, and therefore of condition, between the so-called nascent hydrogen and the hydrogen occluded by metals.

Prof. W. G. Adams, President, in the Chair. Dr. ARMSTRONG said that he had not stated in the paper referred to by Dr. Gladstone that occluded hydrogen had no New Members :-Rev. Coutts Trotter, Prof. G. D. Liveing, action on nitric acid, but had asked the question has oc- i J. C. Adams, F. W. Paterson. cluded hydrogen, &c. ? He had dissolved some pure Dr. C. SIEMENS described his New Electric Current nickel, given to him by Dr. Russell, in nitric acid and Regulator. A necessary condition of the transmission of obtained hydrogen, whereas crude nickel gave none. He power to a distance by electricity along a single conductor therefore concluded that the pure nickel might contain and re-distributing it by means of branch circuits to some occluded hydrogen. Though admitting the extreme separate electric lamps or motors, is that the current value of the authors experiments, he did not quite agree strength in each lamp shall be practically uniform; other. with all their conclusions.

wise the current flowing in the whole branch. Hence the Dr. Russell said that he had heated and pumped the necessity of a regulator to regulate the flow of current so nickel referred to repeatedly, but had never succeeded in as to keep it uniform, however the resistance of the cir. obtaining any hydrogen.

cuit, or the electromotive force of the source, may vary. Dr. Wright suggested that the metal might contain a The author believes that by properly arranging a number trace of oxide, and when heated the hydrogen would be of dynamo-electric machines, either in series or parallel converted into steam.

(for intensity or quantity), at each end of the wire, a vast Dr. GLADSTONE bricfly replied and then took the chair. amount of power may be sent along a small copper con

Mr. J. T. Brown then read a short paper “On some ductor successfully, provided the distribution is properly Methods of Vapour-Density Determinations." The author regulated. He has designed a regulator based on the criticises the methods and especially the formulæ of heating of a wire by the passage of a current through it. Hofmann, Wertheim, W. M. Watts, Goldschmidt, Fre. A fine strip of mild steel jy m.m. thick is stretchel hori. richs, and Meyer. As the actual tensions of the vapour zontally between two terminals. An upright spindle is of mercury under various conditions are not known the supported by means of an insulating foot upon the middle author suggests that they might be determined by esti- of this strip in such a manner that as the strip bends or mating the vapour-tension of a substance over Wood's sags by its expansion, the spindle sinks with it. Now metal and mercury at different temperatures. He offers this spindle carries at its top à table or plate of metal (or, the suggestion in the hope that some one will take up as the case may be, a set of radial springs), and as the the subject. Wood's metal is å fusible alloy, composed spindle riscs or sinks to different heights this plate or of Bi15, Pb8 Sn4 Cd3.

these springs make contact with other springs set radially Drs. Witt and ARMSTRONG pointed out that the new round; and these contacts take out from or throw in remethod suggested by Meyer was almost perfect, as exact sistance coils into the circuit of the current. The sensi. results could be obtained by it with facility.

tive strip is so thin that it may be regarded as a radiating The Secretary then read a paper "On the Decomposi- surface merely, and it may be assumed that its temperation-Products of Quinine and the Allied Alkaloids,” by J. ture, due to heating by the currrent, balances itself with J. DOBBIE and W. RAMSAY. In a previous paper the the radiation instantaneously. After passing through the authors gave the results of their experiments on the steel strip the current flows through the coils thrown into oxidation of quinine by permanganate. In the present circuit, and, by the arrangement we have described, if the paper the authors have extended their investigation to current increase so as to overheat the strip, the latter the oxidation-products of quinidin, cinchonin, and cin- sags a little more, the spindle sinks, and the consequence chonidin. All these bodies yield, by oxidation with per- is that one or more of the spring contacts is broken, and manganate, acids which are physically and chemically one or more coils inserted in circuit. A rise of 1° F. in identical. This acid, the authors prove by analysis, &c., the temperature of the strip is sufficient to liberate two or to be tricarbo-pyridenic acid. They give in detail the three of these coils. The fact that the temperature cf method employed. More than 10 per cent of the acid the strip varies as the square of the current favours the was obtained from each base. The paper contains an sensibility of the apparatus. An older form of this account of the properties and form of crystallisation of apparatus having pendulous contacts was also shown; the acid, with many analyses. The acid is tribasic. also a regulator in which the expansion by heating of a Potash, soda, ammonia, silver, calcium, barium, strontium, sensitive wire caused the resistance of several carbon zinc, and copper salts were prepared, and are described. buttons in contact to vary through the pressure exerted on The formula deduced from the analysis of the acid and its them by means of a bell cranks lever.' Dr. Siemens had salt is C8H3N06+11H20. The result of the present in not been able to prepare carbons which gave the wide vestigations confirms the conclusions previously arrived | variations of resistance obtained by Mr. Edison. Siemens's at by the authors, viz., that there is a close relation regulator can also be used as a current meter by causing between the cinchona bark alkaloids and the bases of the the sensitive strip to actuate a lever, carrying at its end a pyridin series, and proves that the four principal alkaloids pencil writing on a moving paper. derived from the cinchona bark all yield on oxidation the Dr. Coffin said that he had thought of a regulator in same acid. In conclusion the authors draw attention to which the heating of a wire spiral in a gaseous chamber the fact that their first paper was published March, 1878, would cause the gas to expand and drive up a mercury and that in the Ber. der Deut. Chem. Gesell., Feb. 11, 1879, column past a series of contacts, which would throw reis a paper by Hoogeweiff and Von Dorp, which confirms sistances in circuit. the authors researches as regards quinine.

Dr. Guthrie suspected from some experiments of his 93


Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources. that the conductivity of metals was not strictly propor- | Inventions in the Exhibition of 1851, and was also named tional to their sectional area.

Treasurer for payment of all executive expenses in the Dr. Schuster then gave the results of some observa- original Commission. During his term of office the tions of his on the Spectrum of Lightning. These were Society of Arts has fourished as it never previously did, made by a spectroscope with two prisms, one for the red and owing in no small degree to his exertions it has and the other for the blue end of the spectrum, which were quadrupled its number of members and increased its shifted into the line of sight by a chamber arrangement. resources in a still greater proportion. Much of its work Three observations were made, one at Las Armas, one was originated by the late Secretary, and all of it was at Maniton, and one at Salt Lake City, last year. These carried out by him. showed the three nitrogen lines, with three well-defined From his boyhood upwards Mr. Foster took a keen bands, and one doubtsui band. The nitrogen lines cor- and enlightened interest in many branches of science. respond to the spectrum of air, and the bands appear to He was one of the first to take up and practice, as a Dr. Schus:er to agree with the spectrum of the light scientific amateur, the art of photography, and on this round the negative pole of the spark in a tube containing subject he has written a good deal in the pages of the oxygen with adulteration of carbonic oxide.

Photographic and other periodicals. He was one of the Prof. Ayrton then exhibited an Exisothermal Model of Founders of the Photographic Society, and was on its a Cooling Globe. If we imagine a globe initially heated Council for many years. He was President of the throughout to a uniform temperature (as was probably the Quekett Microscopical Club for a year, and also served earth), and then kept in a space having a constant tem- for some time on the Council of the British Association, perature but much lower than that to which the globe was the meetings of which he has attended regularly for the heated, then the temperature at every point of the ball past twenty years. For many years he acted as Secretary will fall, but at very different rates, the parts for example of the Mechanical Section of the Association. He read near the surface cooling comparatively rapidly, while several papers before the Society of Arts, and was, of those near the centre will cool very slowly. A surface course, a constant contributor to its Fournal, the whole coul), therefore, be constructed, such that the x of any series of which, from the middle of the first volume, was point on this surface represented its distance from the published under his direction. centre of the globe, the y the time t from the commence- Mr. Foster leaves behind him a very numerous body of ment of the cooling, and the x the temperature of that friends, to all of whom his genial and kindly character point at that moment. The nature of this surface would had endeared him. On the occasion of his completion of depend on the size of the globe, on the specific heat, con- twenty-five years' service as Secretary, a strong committee ductivity, and surface emissivity of the material. Now the was formed to present Mr. Foster with a testimonial. " Experiments on the Heat 'Conductivity in Stone” of The list for this was just about to be closed, the amount Pross. Ayrton and Perry, described in the Philosophical subscribed being over £1200. Under present circumMagazine for April, 1878, enables them to determine these stances it is probable that a fresh effort will be niade to constants accurately for a trachyte sphere, and by using increase this amount, so that a fitting memorial may be these data they have been enabled subsequently to con presented to Mrs. Foster. struct such a surface called by them an "exisothermal” one for a trachyte globe of 8000 miles in diameter, and which gives graphically the temperature of every single point of the earth from the moment when it was at the CHEMICAL NOTICES FROM FOREIGN temperature of molten trachyte down to eight hundred thousand million years afterwards, that is, until long after

SOURCES. the present era.

Note.-All degrees of temperature are Centigrade, unless otherwis

expressed. OBITUARY.

Bulletin de la Société d'Encouragement pour l'Industrie


No. 60, December, 1878.

Report Presented by M. Personne on the Process THE Society of Arts has just sustained a severe and sudden loss by the death of its well-known Secretary, phyll in Place of the Copper Salts Employed in the

of MM. Lecourt and Guillemare for Using ChloroMr. Peter Le Neve Foster. On Thursday, February 20, Preparation of Preserved Fruits, Green Vegetables immediately on his return to his own house at Wands. &c. -The patentecs find that if the vegetable fibre is worth, Mr. Foster was seized with a sudden attack of heart disease, and some of his family coming into the placed in contact with soluble chlorophyll it becomes

saturated with the colour at about 100°. room, where he had been sitting by himself for a few minutes reading the newspaper, found that he had fallen

Crystallisation of Sugar and the Manufacture of back from his chair, dead. So little expected was the Sugar-candy.-G. Flourens.-A lengthy paper not adapted illness that he had finished his ordinary day's work at

for useful abstraction. his office, and had even walked up from the sailway station to his own house.

Biedermann's Central-blatt. Mr. Foster was born August 17, 1809, and was the son

Heft 1, January, 1879. of Mr. Peter Le Neve Foster, of Lenwade, Norfolk. He was educated under Dr. Valpy, at the Norwich Grammar

Comparative Observations of Rain-fall According School, from whence he went up to Trinity Hall, Cam.

to Fautrat's Method.--A. Johnen.—The author found bridge. After having taken his degree as 'Thirty-eighth the quantity of rain in a beech-wood 13 per cent greater Wrangler in the Mathematical Tripos of 1830 he was

than in the open country. In a pine-wood the excess was eleaed Fellow of his College. He was called to the Bar only 2 per cent. at the Middle Temple in 1836, and practised as a Con

Cohesive Power of Various kinds of Soil.-Prof. F veyancer till he became Secretary to the Society of Arts Haberlandt.— The author moistened different kinds of in 1853.

earth with water, moulded them into cylinders of cqua Mr. Foster was intimately associated with all the size, and ascertained their breaking weight” in the earlier great exhibitions. He was appointed to carry into usual manner. The cohesive power is affected chiefly by effect the provisions of the AA for the Protection of its mechanical structure, not 'by its degree of fineness.



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94 Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources. { February 28, 1979

, Every soil has at some degree of moisture a minimum | regarded as a very valuable contribution, containing as cohesive power.

it does the results of years of work, and affording che. Heat-capacity of the Constituents of Soils. Dr. C mists another factor of value for judging of the character Lang:- The specific heat of the several constituents of of drinking water. There seems indeed too much tendency soils differs much less is referred to volume than to weight on the part of the adherents of one or the other system

Manure Experiments on the Agricultural Trial of water-analysis to swear by that method which they are field of the University of Giessen.-Prof. A. Thaer. accustomed to use and to pooh-pooh all others as unre

liable. Thus Dr. Frankland appears to suppose that cheThe quantity of nitrogen given to a selected "morgen” of mists who use any other method than his own do so to land in the form of manures during seven years amounted avoid the trouble of determining the organic carbon and to 89.5 lbs. The crops reaped during the same years con: nitrogen. As pointed out by Dr. Dupré, this assumption tained together 198.69 lbs. of nitrogen. Consequently is unwarrantable, though certainly the facility with which the soil had given 109:19 lbs. nitrogen more than it had received. Hence, whilst the manures furnished 45 per tion when there is a choice of alternative methods.

a process may be carried out is an important considera. cent of the nitrogen in the crops, the atmosphere had There is, however, a very widely spread feeling among yielded 55 per cent.

chemists that Dr. Frankland has never sufficiently met Trade Cattle Foods.-Dr. E. Wein, Prof. J. Nessler, Mr. Wanklyn's objection respecting the action of nitrates Prof. A. Mayer, and Prof. R. Heinrichs.-According to on readily decomposable organic matter. It is clearly not the above chemists the composition of an English cattle an answer to this objection to quote the figures obtained food is

by the analysis of sulphate of quinine, either in presence Nessler. Mayer.

or absence of nitrates, though we are unable to recall any Moisture


12'9 Albuminoids..

experiments to ascertain the effect of the presence of a 11'75 13'21 9'4

large excess of nitrates on the determination of the nitrogen Oily matter

4'24 3.6

of carbon of even such a stable body as the sulphate of Non-azotised extractive


quinine. Vegetable fibre


Dr. Tidy did good work by protesting against the attemp Ash


3:6 Wein and Mayer, from chemical and microscopical few simple tests. On the contrary, the more data the

to reduce water-analysis to the empirical application of a evidence, conclude that the food is composed of equal chemist has on which to base his opinion the more correct parts of bruised maize and locust-beans, and that the essential oil of a plant of the umbelliferous order has been that opinion is likely to be. added. Another English cattle food in the form of cake not sufficiently insisting on the consideration of the sup

We fear that Mr. Wanklyn has done extensive harm by contained also a large proportion of locust-beans.

plementary data, and by teaching chemists of limited ex. perience and knowledge of the science to rely too implicitly

on the indications given by the ammonia process. We Justus Liebig's Annalen der Chemie,

know of chemists who restrict their examination of drink. Band 194, Heft 2 and 3.

ing-waters solely to the ammonia process, and do not even Synthesis of Tin-phenyl.compounds.-Dr. B Aron supplement it by a determination of the chlorine and total heim.--This paper contains an account of tin-phenyl. solids as recommended by Mr. Wanklyn. There is also a chloride and of its derivatives tin-diphenyl-hydroxyl- widespread habit of ignoring the nitrates and nitrites on chloride, tin-phenyl-oxide, tin-phenyl-dichloride, tin- the ground that when

the oxidation has reached that stage phenyl-chloro-bromide, tin-phenyl-chloro-iodide, tin no objectionable impurity can remain. Those who argue phenyl-dibromide, and of the action of sodium ethylylate thus must be ignorant of the extreme readiness with which upon tin-diphenyl-dichloride and the formation of tin. ammonia undergoes oxidation in a pcrous soil

, whilst a triphenyl-chloride by the action of sodium amalgam or of change of weather, by choking the pores of the soil, will ammoniacal gas upon tin-phenyl-chloride.

cause a water which previously contained nitrates and Studies on Phosphates.-E. Erlenmeyer.--A very no ammonia to present the strongest evidences of the detailed account of mono-ferro-phosphate, including its presence of unoxidised sewage. behaviour with water and alcohol ; of mono-ferri-phos- Respecting the determination of the organic nitrogen of phate, of mono-diferri-phosphate, ditri-ferri-phosphate, carbon of drinking-water, it is interesting to note that tri-ferri-phosphate, mono-aluminium-phosphate, and tri- distinct advance has been made towards ready means of aluminium-phosphate.

obtaining these data. Thus Dittmar tas shown that Contributions to the History of the Naphthalin accurate determinations of the nitrogen could be obtained Series.-J. Stenhouse and C. E. Groves.-The authors by igniting the residue with soda and baryta-not with describe B-naphtho-quinon, nitro-3-naphtho-quinon, di- soda-lime, as stated by Mr. Hartley—and Dupré has quite naphthyl-diquinhydron, dinaphthyl-diquinon, dinaphthyl. recently described an easy method of estimating minute diquinol, and dinaph::hyl-diquinhydron.

The authors quantities of carbon. If these methods bear rigid exami. have observed that benzo-quinon and a-naphtho-quinon nation there is a future for the disciples of Dr. Frankland yield diquinons and diquinols on condensation.

that is very hopeful. Adion of Potassic Bibromate with Sulphuric Acid they leave it for a metal-broker to utilise the Bessemer

What have chemists been about all these years that upon Cholic Acid.-Dr. H. Tappeiner. --The products process for treating sulphides? Mr. Hollway's paper at obtained are cholesteric acid, stearic acid, lauric acid, and the Society of Arts fairly takes our breath away; Fancy cholanic acid, which are here successively described blowing a stream of air through molten sulphide of iron together with certain of their derivatives.

for ten consecutive hours, and keeping up the temperaOn Triphenyl-methan and Rosanilin.-E. and o. ture merely by the addition of lumps of raw pyrites. Mr. Fischer. This valuable treatise is unfortunately not sus- Hollway appears to have no difficulty in keeping up the ceptible of useful abstraction.

temperature, but whether he will succeed in obtaining a

{airly rich regulus without material loss of copper in the MISCELLANEOUS.

slag and by volatilisation is another question. One of the most curious points about the process is that more than

half the sulphur appears to be liberated in a free state. As Gossip in the Provinces.—(From a Correspondent). pyrites has always hitherto been treated in close vessels -The subject of the greatest interest for chemists just now at comparatively low temperatures it may very possibly is the new phase of the water-analysis question. Dr. be that a different reaction occurs at a white heat. At any Tidy's paper, read before the Chemical Society, is generally rate the analyses made seem to show that in the regulus

Meetings for the Week.


chemical elements can be demonstrated mathemati- TH


CHEMICALI NEWS, February 28, 1879.

95 obtained there is often much less sulphur than corresponds

WATTS'S DICTIONARY OF CHEMISTRY, to the formula FeS-a fact that points to the existence of

Seven Volumes, 8vo., price £10 165. 6d. a lower sulphide of iron than any hitherto recognised. The arguments which Mr. Lockyer hascomid before A DICTIONARY of CHEMISTRY, and the

Allied Branches of other Sciences; founded on that of the late chemists in support of his ideas respecting the dissocia- Dr. Ure. By Henry Watts,‘B.A., F.R.S.; assisted by eminent tion of the elements, though ingenious and dealing with

Scientific and Practical Chemists.

“The English language is not rich in lexicons of science. We highly interesting and suggestive facts, have produced would point to this work as a model upon which others might be some feeling of disappointment. The definite and some- framed. To the practical analyst this work must prove of the utmost what sensational reports which appeared in some of the

value-to the philosophical investigator it must, as the record of all daily papers had prepared chemists for facts more tangible studies, it will prove an ever-ready guide. Our manufacturers know

former labours, be a great gain-and to the student who is true to his than those ultimately adduced in support of the theory. the value of chemistry, and are many of them experts in the special Still Mr. Lockyer has got hold of a good idea, and one

branches of the science which bear on their particular industries. which will be certain to repay further investigation. They require to know the

latest discoveries, and to keep them as it

were in stock until the march of improvement renders it necessary Chemists will look forward to future accounts of his to apply them. This ‘ Dictionary places them in possession of these progress.


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(Vol. VIII.), completing the Record of Chemical Discovery to chlorine and hydrogen is, we believe, due to Prof. Clifford, price 36s. cloth.-Part II. in the Autumn. and affords a good illustration of the way in which che. “We cannot give this volume greater praise than by saying that it mists misapply algebraic symbols :

is worthy of the European reputation which Mr. Watts's Dictionary' HH+CICI=2HCI

has already acquired as a standard work of reference."-Bristol Mercury. HH+CICI - 2HCI=0

London : LONGMANS and CO. Then, extracting the square root from each side of the


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illustrated, Post Free, Six Stamps. Methylated Spirits. David Smith Kidd,

Licensed Maker, Commercial Street, Shoreditch, N.E., Also FINISH, FUSEL OIL, and RECT. NAPHTHA.

Siemens' Dynamo-Electric Engines for Hire.


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