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Oxide after ignition 0-6840



CHEMICAL NEWS 82 Some Complex Oxides of Cobalt and Nickel.

February 21, 1879. A quantity of cobalt nitrate was now mixed with soda When the oxide CozO5,4H20, cbtained as descritet and sodic hypochlorite, and allowed to stand in a warm above, is boiled for an hour or two in the solution in which place until effervescence had ceased. The precipitated it is precipitated, and the amount of iodine liberated then oxide of cobalt was then well washed with warm water and estimated, the result points to the formation of the oxide dried, till constant, under the air pump, over strong sul. C012019, intermediate between Coz05 and Co.03. phuric acid.

Co Theory of I for Theory of I for

Found. A sample of this oxide was then submitted in succession Taken. Co, Ogo

C020z. to various temperatures. The results were as follows:- Grm.



Grm. 0:1865 085343

0'4007 (1) 09453 Oxide taken 0.9278 (C0305,4H20) Oxide dried


(2) 0-463 at 100°C.; 0-8760 Theory for Co303-3H20.. 0.8770


(3) 0-462 Do., 138° C. 0.8223 » Coz03,2H,0.. 0·8263

Theory for C0,2019.

Found. Do., 310° C.

Grm. 0*7548 ,, Cozog, H20.. 0°7756


O'0620 After this experiment there was an appearance of change

0:1566 grm.

0'1556 on the surface of the oxide.

In the last experiment a fresh solution of cobalt, and a Grm.

Grm. fresh solution of potassium bichromate (to standardise the

thiosulphate), were used. Theory for Cog04..06798

A quantity of the oxide of cobalt prepared by precipitaAnother portion of the same sample :

ting with potash and sodic hypochlorite, and boiling for

some hours, then washing and drying over sulphuric acid Grm.

Grm. Oxide dried at 100° C. 0-4070 (=C0305,3H20).

in vacuo, was submitted to a current of air at a low red Oxide after ignition

heat, and the water collected and weighed in a calcium to redness ..

Theory for Co304..0'3154 chloride tube. The oxide was afterwards ignited to bright

redness in air. Another sample prepared in the same way, but left

Grms. longer over the air pump :

Oxide dried over H2SO4..

0*7455 Oxide taken dried over H2SO4 .. 0*7083

Oxide after ignition in tube (C012019). -6255 The oxide was now heated to low redness in a tube in

Oxide after ignition in air (C0304) 0'5975
Calcium chloride tube +OH2

65'5900 a current of dry oxygen, and the water given off collected in a tube filled with calcium chloride. The oxide was after

Calcium chloride tube

65-4645 wards ignited to bright redness in air. Grms.

O'1255 Calcium chloride tube 65'3250

=OH, Ca!c. chl, tube + water


Theory for CC,70,9,114,0. Found.

0112 ..




Co304 Oxide after ignition in a tube


095975 0'5493 Oxide after ignition in air


The results of this experiment are compared below with

Theory for C0,2019,11H,O. Found.

16 83
the theory for CozO5,4H20. For a reason which will be
seen further on, I have added the theory for Co203,3 H20.

C012019 .. 83:65


On attempting to prepare Nizos in the dry state by preTheory for Co,05,4H,0.



cipitating, washing, and drying in vacuo, I found that the Grm.


Grm. 4H20 0'1549 0-1428

moist precipitate gave off oxygen as soon as the liquid in Coz05

which it was precipitated was removed. The moist pre095534

0'5493 –0'004 C0304

cipitate was allowed to stand some days, and then left 0'5190 0:5293 to'or3

over the air-pump for abou: a week, in order to allow time Percentages.

for this change to be complete. Owing to some interrupC0,05,4H,0. Found. ,C0,02,3H,0.

tion, I have as yet had time to prepare only one sample by OH2.. 2r.86 2016


this means. The results of ihe analysis agree closely Co304 ... 7327

73'05 with the formula Nig021,9H20, one-ninth of the water

being lost at 100° C.
9513 94.84

Oxide Theory of Iodine


taken. for Nig01.9H,U. Winkelbleck obtained an oxide in the same way as I

Grm. Grm.

Grm. prepared my samples, only that he boiled his with strong

Dried over H2S04 O‘1705 0:1607 0 1661 potash before washing it. He dried his oxide over strong

0:1896 0'1895 sulphuric acid. According to him, the formula is C0203,3H20

0 2375 0'2238 0-2243 His results were as follows:

Dried at”100° °C. .. 0*2080 O'2005 0'2026 Per Cent.

The water in this oxide was determined by igniting the

Per cent. oxide in a platinum boat in a combustion-tube, and (I.) (II.)

Theory. weighing the water lost by means of a calcium chloride 2Co

53'93 53-64

21.62 21:46 21.82

Oxide taken.
Theory for

24'26 24:61 24:54


The question, which is the true formula of the oxide I ob.


0*1748 grm. OH2 0'1775 tained, is determined by the amount of iodine liberated by

Per Cent. the oxide on treatment with potassic iodide and hydro


20-34 chloric acid. According to the formula Co203,3H20, there

Per Cent. should be liberated 0-402 grm. by 0:1865 grm. of cobalt ;

Theory for Ni, 01.9H,0. Found. according to the formula Co305,4HO, 05343 grm. should


Grms. be liberated. I found in three experiments Oʻ5338, 0.5380,



(1) 74'15 and 0.5328.

(2) 74629






February 21, 1979:} Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources.

Further Note.- I have found by experiment that when Under the influence of the hypochlorite solution nickel any of these peroxides are decomposed by hydrochloric and cobalt form the oxides Nizós and Cozos. On boiling acid, and the evolved chlorine passed into a solution of the liquid containing Co30s it loses oxygen, and passes to potassic iodide, the amount of iodine liberated is exactly the form Co12019, intermediate between Co203 and Co30s. equal to that which is liberated by decomposing the same Under similar circumstances, Nizos appears to decom weight of the peroxide in a solution containing potassic pose without forming stable lower oxides, although it is iodide. The presence of caustic alkali in large quantity probable from the results that the formation of Ni2O3 is a appears to retard the passage of Coz@sinto C012019 during stage in the process. The oxides Coz0s and Co:2019 the boiling process. Co30s, indeed, seems to be more appear to be stable at a low read heat': they are distin stable in proportion as the amount of free alkali is greater. guished from Co304 by a slight difference of colour. Cozog has the following hydrates :

Coz05,4H20 (dried over H2SO4)
Co305,3H20 (dried at 100° C.),

CHEMICAL NOTICES FROM FOREIGN Cozos,2H20 (dried at 138° C.), and probably,

SOURCES. CO305, H20 (dried at 300° C.) Nizos decomposes while still moist when its precipitating Note.-A1l degrees of temperature are Ceatigrade, unless otherwis liquid is removed by washing. In the one experiment expressed. which was made, the resulting dried compound agreed closely with the formula Nis011,9H20. I have found that when Co305,4H20 is treated with cold dilute nitric acid Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances, l'Académie de part is dissolved with evolution of oxygen, and that part

des Sciences. No. 4, January 27, 1879. remains insoluble. I hope, in a future paper, to give the Third Reply to M. Berthelot.—M. Pasteur.—A conresults of some similar experiments undertaken for the tinuation of the wearisome Claude Bernard controversy. purpose of determining the proximate constitution of these oxides.

Researches on the Relations of Spectral Analysis It may at first sight appear that the formula Co12019 is stance of this paper will be found in the CHEMICAL News,

with the Solar Spectrum.-J. N. Lockyer.—The subinadmissible on account of its complexity, but as the iodine vol. xxxix., pp. 1, 11. method clearly shows that the oxide is exactly intermediate between Cozó, and Co203, and as the formula C012019 is

Composition of the Banana and the Utilisation of the simplest formula for such an oxide, it would seem that

this Fruit.-V. Marcano and A. Munt2.-In addition to we must accept it, especially when we consider the ten- the production of its fruit the banana tree is serviceable dency of cobalt to form compounds vieing in complexity for keeping the surrounding soil moist in dry seasons, a with many of the products of organic chemistry. It may

matter of great importance in the cultivation of coffee. be that the application of the iodine method to the ex

The fruit when ripe contains 10 per cent of cane sugar amination of the oxides of other metals would lead to the and 3 per cent of inverted sugar. acceptance of formulæ more complex than those now ad. Application of His Atomic Theory to certain mitted. The two oxides of cobalt described in this paper, Minerals.-A. Gaudin.-Nothing short of a full translaand indeed other oxides of cobalt, may be represented tion could give a satisfactory view of the speculation congraphically by rings somewhat analogous to the well. tained in this paper. known benzine “ ring" of the aromatic carbon compounds Displacement of Spectral Rays Due to the Rotatory and to the zinc "sing.” Thus,

Movement of the Sun.-L. Thollon.—The author by

making use of his newly invented spectroscope has'ob. Co

served a displacement of the solar rays perfeâly well A .

defined, and evidently approaching to the results of cal.

Co = Co"0,2Co"'"O2

Radiation of Incandescent Platinum.-J. Violle.

The author has made a number of measurements of the Ő

intensity of the red light emitted by platinum at different

temperatures, from 900° to 1775', the melting-point of the o 0

metal. The intensity of the red light, scarcely sensible Il

at 500°, increases at first very rapidly and then more Co-O-Co--0-Co

slowly. At 2910° its intensity is not greater than at the melting point of silver.

Illumination of the Lines of Molecular Pressure

and the Trajectory of Molecules.-W. Crookes, preCo=0

sented by Th. du Moncel.—The substance of this paper has appeared in the CHEMICAL News, vol. xxxviii., p. 279.

Ele&ro-dynamic Phenomena and in Particular on O=CO

Induction.-H. de Meaux.-The author concludes that in do

a closed circuit the intensity of a given current cannot be

changed by the induction of an indefinite cylindrical con. O= 5 Co'o,

ductor upon another of the same form by surrounding one

7C002 or other of these conductors, or even both, with a conCo=0

centric metallic covering communicating with the ground in its whole length.

A New Bell's Telephone, with a Loud Voice.—M. -0

Gower.—The peculiarities of this instrument are said to

be due to the fact that the poles are placed as in Faraday's a

electro-magnet. The diaphragm is thicker, larger, and

tighter than those commonly constructed. The case conThis investigation was conducted in the Chemical taining the whole is metallic, and forms a sounding-chest, Laboratory of the Royal College of Science, Dublin. and is furnished with a bell mouth which amplifies sound

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CAEMICAL NEWS, Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources.

February 21, 1879. On Amalgams of Chrome, Manganese, Iron, Cobalt, Further Observations on Pyrrol and its Derivatives. and Nickel, and a New Process for Preparing Metallic -Chichester A. Bell.--An examination of the so-called Chrome.-H. Moissan.-If a concentrated solution of ethyl-pyrrol of Lubawin, and of its behaviour with hydrochromous chloride is shaken up in water with sodium chloric acid and with bromine. amalgam, a part of the sodium decomposes water, gives Camphen Derived from Camphor, and the Synoff hydrogen, and forms soda, which precipitates a certain thesis of its Homologues.-F. V. Spitzer.—This paper quantity of chrome. The other part of the amalgam pro- treats of the camphen obtained from the most infusible duces by double decomposition chloride of sodium and an camphor-bichloride, and on ethyl-camphen and isobutylamalgam of chrome. To be certain that no sodium re- camphen. mains in the mercury the amalgam obtained is kept for an hour in boiling water, stirring from time to time. If bichloride discovered by the author is readily soluble in

Camphor Chlorides.-F. V. Spitzer.—The camphorthis amalgam is heated in a current of hydrogen to 350 alcohol and ether. It melts at 155° to 155.5o. If premetallic chrome is left as a black amorphous slightly served in a somewhat moist condition it easily gives off coherent substance. The same method serves for pre- hydrochloric acid. paring amalgams of manganese, iron, cobalt, and nickel.

Cinchonic Alkaloids.-A. Claus.-Not adapted for Preparation of Methyl-formic Ether and Pure

abstraction. Methylic Alcohol.-MM. Bardy and Bordet.-Not suitable for abstraction.

Imido-thio-ether.-A. Pinner and F. Klein.-This Active Principles of Sarracenia Purpurea.-F. product is obtained by a reaction to that which yields

imido-ether. Hétet.-From this plant the author has extraded an alkaloid whose characters agree with those of veratrin. It is curious that the Sarracenia, though belonging to a

Reimann's Färber Zeitung, remote family, should contain a poison similar to that of colchicum.

No. 1, 1879. Physiological Action of so-called “Garnet”-the This issue gives a very dismal account of the condition Residue of the Manufacture of Magenta.-M. Jousset of the once so prosperous and celebrated print-works of de Bellesme.-This substance dissolved in treacle is much Alsace. more used for colouring wines than is pure magenta,

No. 2, 1879. which would give a shade too much bordering upon a A silk merchant in Zurich is somewhat roughly handled rose. In a number of experiments made upon animals for having advertised his silks as “pure " and for having this colour always produced fatal results. One c.c. proved called public attention to the weighting system, which fatal to a cat in twelve days. The symptoms are per- Dr. Reimann declares is carried “ only to the extent of sistent diarrhea and rapid wasting.

150 per cent."

Since the cultivation of madder in France has dwindled Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft zu Berlin

to about one-eighth of its former extent it is proposed to

abolish the red trowsers of the French army. No. 14, 1879.

There is the commencement of a review of the speci: Adion of Hydrochloric Acid upon Certain Double Salts of Sulphuric Acid.-C. Hensgen.--The author

mens of calico-printing at the late Exhibition. Several divides the double sulphates into three classes : those in English exhibitors are praised, but we note the remark which each of the sulphates present is decomposable by red which is so admired in French work.

that none of the English furniture-prints display the fiery hydrochloric acid ; those in which one of the sulphates only is attacked; and those in which neither of the com

No. 3, 1879. ponent sulphates is affected. He has, in the first place, studied the behaviour of potassio-cupric sulphate, of

Following up the example about to be set by France it potassic iron, alum, and of ammonio-ferrous sulphate.

is proposed that the blue coats and grey trowsers of the

German army should be abolished, as they necessitate Iso-heptylic Acid from ß-Hexyl-iodide.--Otto Hecht | the use of indigo, and that alizarin browns or blacks and J. Munier.-Iso-heptylic acid' is a limpid oily liquid should be used in their stead. of faintly rancid odour, sparingly soluble in water, and boiling at 211° to 213o.

No. 4, 1879. Synthesis of Meta-nitro-cinnamic Acid.—R. Schiff. The principal articles in this issue are a dissertation in -The author obtains this acid by heating a mixture of favour of proteâion and complaints of injustice, or, at equal molecules of nitro-benzaldehyd, anhydrous acetic | least, negligence, in the award of prizes at the late Paris acid, and sodic acetate for eight hours in a vessel pro- | Exhibition. vided with an ascending cooler.

It is announced that the financial condition of the On Acetylen Urea.-C. Böttinger.-A further ex. Berlin Dyers' Association is very unsatisfactory. amination of bodies which the author obtained last year on treating urea with glyoxal in presence of hydrocyanic

No. 5, 1879. acid.

There is here an account of the sophistication of soaps On Hydroxylation by Direct Oxidation.-R. Meyer. with rosin, potato-flour, silicate of soda, and alumina, all -Not susceptible of useful abstraction.

of which additions except the last are declared to be posiOn Oxypropyl-benzoic Acid and its Derivatives.- tively injurious. R. Meyer and J. Rosicki.-A closer examination of the acid in question, which one of the authors recently obtained by the oxidation of cuminic acid.

Les Mondes, Revue Hebdomadaire des Sciences. Explanation on the Formula of Uric Acid.-R.

No. 3, January 16, 1879. Fittig.-A question of priority.

The Telemachon.-W. Wallace, of Connecticut, is New Analyses of the Mineral Springs of Passug, said to have invented a new apparatus under this name Solis, and Tiefenkasten in the Canton Grisons, by which motive power can be conveyed many hundred Switzerland.-A. von Planta-Reichenau.—Six pages of miles without loss or difficulty. analytical results ; possibly of medical interest.

The Telecroscope.-M. Senlecq, of Ardres, has subSpecific Rotation of Cane-sugar.-B. Tollens.-An mitted to the examination of M. du "Moncel a proje& for important paper, but not susceptible of useful abstra&ion. I re-producing telegraphically at a distance images obtained


February 21, 1879.
Meetings for the Week.

85 in the camera. The apparatus is based upon the property

WATTS'S DICTIONARY OF CHEMISTRY. possessed by selenium of offering an electric resistance

Seven Volumes, 8vo., price £10 16s. 6d. variable according to the degrees of light.

DICTIONARY of CHEMISTRY, and the No. 4, January 23, 1879.

Allied Branches of other Sciences; founded on that of the late

Dr. Ure. By HENRY WATTS, B.A., F.R.S.; assisted by eminent A man is said to have died in great torment from having Scientific and Practical Chemists. struck a match upon his thumb-nail, when a minute frag- "The English language is not rich in lexicons of science. We

would point to this work as a model upon which others might be ment of phosphorus lodged under the nail and brought on

framed. To the practical analyst this work must prove of the utmost a violent inflammation, which extended to the shoulder. value-to the philosophical investigator it must, as the record of all

former labours, be a great gain-and to the student who is true to his According to the Revue Britannique ether is in common

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desiderata."- Athenæum, M. Audouin recommends chromic oxide as the most "HIRD SUPPLEMENTARY VOLUME refractory material known for fire-bricks, crucibles, &c. (Vol. VIII.), completing the Record of Chemical Discovery to It resists the highest known temperatures, and is attacked the year 1877: In Two Parts, of which the First is now ready, pp. 844. neither by oxides of iron nor by silica.

price 36s, cloth.-Part II. in the Autumn.

“We cannot give this volume greater praise than by saying that it No. 5, January 30, 1879.

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London : LONGMANS and Co. been continuously decreasing since 1869. No. 6, February 6, 1879.


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FACTURES, and MINES, containing a Clear Exposition of of vineyards have been annihilated by the phylloxera. their Principles and Practice. The Seventh Edition, re-written and It appears that " green oysters” are sometimes fraudu- / enlarged: Edited by Robert Hunt, F.R.S., Keeper of Mining

Records; assisted by numerous Contributors eminent in Science and lently prepared by steeping them in a solution of a salt of familiar with Manufactures. copper.

*** Also Vol. IV. separately, completing the work to the present Simple Method of Detecting Magenta in Wines, time, 8vo. with 440 Woodcuts, price 425.

London : LONGMANS and Co. Fruit-syrups, &c.-Prof. Flückiger adds to portions of the sample, dilute if needful, recently-prepared chlorine PROFESSOR ALLEN MILLER'S CHEMISTRY. and bromine water. If genuine the colour in both becomes a faint yellow. If magenta is present chlorine produces ELEMENTS OF CHEMISTRY, Theoretical

and Practical. By WILLIAM ALLEN MILLER, M.D., F.R.S., &c., a deep dirty tint and bromine a violet colour, followed in late Professor of Chemistry in King's College, London. time by the formation of violet flocks. Neither reagent Part I.-CHEMICAL PHYSICS, Sixth Edition, redestroys the colour.

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Crucibles, cular metals and the conditions under which particular "lines are

cating by comparison with each other the lines which belong to partiassorted, Nos. 40, 60, 80, and 100; never been used; no reason- produced. But although no exact measurements are given, able offer refused.-Address, in first instance, G. Blower, 38, Whit. and although the photographs vary very perceptibly in length, nearly morereans, Wolverhampton.

all show lines which can be used as reference lines, by measurement

from which the wave-lengths of the metal lines can be determined. ALLIANCE AND DUBLIN CONSUMERS'

The advantages of the photographic method are noticed by GAS COMPANY.

the author as follows:- Absolute truth is everything in spectroscopic work, and the very best draughtsman, working with the most perfect

micrometer, cannot, even at the expense of a vast amount of labour, to receive Tenders for the Tar produced on the Dublin Works,

The the quantity being about 800,coo gallons per annum.

interesting. This is, as far as we know, the first extensive series of

The Contract to be for three or five years, to commence on the ist of March, 1880.

measurements of spectra obtained by the ignition of substances in the Further information can be obtained on application to the under

electric arc."-Philosophical Magazine. signed, with whom Tenders are to be lodged on or before Tuesday,

London: E. and F. N. SPON, 116, Charing Cross. the 25th inst., endorsed " Tenders for Tar." W. F. COTTON, Secretary and Manager.

ATTFIELD'S CHEMISTRY. Offices, 114, Grafton St. February 6, 1879.

Adapted to the Medicine ar Pharmacy of the Unit States.

Wanted, new or good secondhand, to turn
Wanted, a Situation in Chemical Works by a

Wanted, by a Hungarian Gentleman, a

Hungarian Gentleman, a PHOTOGRAPHED

Wanted, in a Chemical Laboratory in London,

The Directors of this Company are prepared equal in accuracy a good photograph of a set of spectral lines:

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offers his services on the usual terms. Twenty years' experience. Estimates for all description of plant, plans, &c.-Glenmohr House, New Charlton London, S.

Press the EIGHTH EDITION, Revised from the

Seventh Edition by the Author.
Publisher of English Editions-VAN VOORST, London,

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