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72
Composition and Quality of the Metropolitan Water.

February 14, 1879. Mr. SHOOIBRED gave an account of electric lighting, Jablochkoff waxed for a period short compared to that in illustrated by diagrams of the most recent magneto- and which it waned, in London it waxed for longer than it dynamo-electric machines and examples of the lamps in waned, which was of course an improvement; and Mr. vogue. The only surviving magneto-machine is that of Shoolbred suggested that it might be due to the fact that De Meriten's, which is incomparably superior to the older the engine worked at a speed nearer to that of the machine, ones. of Nollet and Holmes.' The dynamo-electric ma- and that the machine was founded more solidly in London chines described were the continuous-current machines of than in Paris. Siemens, Gramme, Wallace-Farmer, and the alternating

Mr. WERDERMAN said that it was a mistake to cali his current machines of Wilde, Gramme, and Lontin. lamp an incandescent one, the fact being that all carbon Wilde's machine is the first of these, or parent machine, lamps gave light from the incandescence of the positive and Lontin's so resembles it that the latter cannot be carbon, and that a small arc was formed in his lamp beused in England. In these machines the current from a tween the two electrodes, which could be varied by the continuous machine is passed through a second machine, pressure between them. He maintained that it was as which yields the alternating currents. In Lontin's ma- easy to produce 500 lights as 10 from the electric light by chine, also, a number of distinct currents are generated in sub-division, as he hoped soon to show, and stated that separate circuits, each of which is capable of feeding the size of the carbons greatly controlled the intensity of several lights. There is now one in use on the Western the light. Railway of France which gives three distinct currents, Prof. Ayrton held that the obstacle to the sub-division each of which supplies four different lamps, making a of the electric light was not an electrical one, but was due total of twelve lights. The American Brush machine was to the fact that the amount of light produced by the current also mentioned. The Dubosq lamp, which was the first is not in direct proportion to the amount of the heat proregulator, is well adapted for laboratory purposes, but for duced. practical purposes the Serrin is preferable. Rapieff's lamp In contradiction to Prof. Ayrton, Mr. WerderMAN is used in the Times office. The De Mersanne, which stated that in the electric arc the opposing electromotive was highly spoken of at tue Paris Exhibition, moves the force was proportional to the original electromotive force. carbons by bevelled gearings. The Wallace-Farmer lamp, Prof. SYLVANUS P. THOMSON pointed out that residual though durable, is unsteady, perhaps because only inferior magnetism in the cores of the bobbins of dynamo-electric gas carbon has yet been used. Jablochkoff's candle was machines lowered their efficiency, and hence short cores, found to be defective from the solid insulator, such as

as in the Wallace-Farmer machine, were an improvement. plaster, used between the carbon. This made it very expensive also. Experiments in Paris had shown that whereas Jablochkoff's system cost rod. per hour per light, EDINBURGH UNIVERSITY CHEMICAL SOCIETY the other systems cost only one half of that. In Wilde's

January 29, 1879. candle the solid insulator was dispensed with, air taking its place, the arc always tending to keep at the top of the ALEXANDER MACFARLANE, D.Sc., F.R.S.E., in the Chair. candle by electro-dynamic repulsion. In the De Meriten's candle three strips of carbon were used, the intermediate A PAPER was read by Mr. J. S. THOMSON, on “Parafin one being a stepping-stone to the arc which passes be- and what is got from it, as illustrated by · Exhibits at the tween the two outer ones. Werdermann's and Reynier's Paris Exhibition of 1878.'A full account was given of so-called incandescent lamps were also shown. Mr. the modes of preparation of these exbibits, which conShoolbred, after alluding to the fact that the upper (posi- sisted of specimens of all the commercial products of the tive) carbon takes a crater form, and hence becomes a re- Addiewell Chemical Works. These included naphtha, flector shedding the light downwards, stated that experi- burning oils, lubricating oils, solid paraffin in blocks ments had proved the line of maximum intensity of light (weighing not less than 7 cwts. each), sulphate of ammo. to pass downward at an angle of 60° to the axis of the nia, and candles of various kinds made from the paraffin vertical carbons. By giving the positive carbon a hori- The methods of preparation of other products uf zontal displacement behind the lower negative one, Mr. paraffin were also explained ; of normal paraffins, alkaline Douglas, of the Trinity House, had been able to raise bases of the leucoline series found in the acid tars, phenols this line till it became horizontal, an advantage in light and analogous bodies found in the soda tars, chrysin and houses. He also pointed out that, whe eas in Paris the paraffins of various melting points, from 21° to 65-5° C. COMPOSITION AND QUALITY OF THE METROPOLITAN WATER.

JANUARY, 1879.

wax.

The following are the returns of the Society of Medical Officers of Health:

Ammonia,

Hardness on Clark's Scale,

Appearance in

2 foot Tube.

Organic.

Nitrogen as Ni

trates, &c.

Oxygen used to
Oxidise Organic

Matter.

Saline.

Total Solids.

Magnesia

Sulphuric An.

hydride.

Lime.

Chlorine

Before
Boiling,

Alter Boiling.

Grs.

Grs.

Grs.

Grs.

Grs.
Grs. Grs. Grs.

Grs. Degs. Degs
Thames Water Companies.
Grand Junction

Slightly turbid 0'000 0'012 0·165 0'130 21:40 9'230 0*720 0.72 r.600 1362 5'10 West Middlesex

Clear

0'000 0'015 0·165 0'120 20.00 9:120 0.648 0-72 1'330 14'3 4.60 Southwark and Vauxhall Slightly turbid O'000 o'on 0.105 0135 18·20 6*770 0*756 0*72 1.230 11'5 5'10 Chelsea

Clear

0'000 0'007 0-210 0.033 20:10 9010 0648 0*72 1'530 1362 3:30 Lambeth ..

Clear
0'000 0'009 Oʻ135 0'037 21:30 7*590 0.612 072

I•100 1397 3970
Other Companies.
Kent..

Clear

0'000 0'003 0435 0·002 29-30 10.580 0.936 1629 3.260 19:446-50 New River

Clear

0'000 0.007 0'165 0·030 2130 8.730 0.684 0972 I 200 14'33470 East London

Clear

o'oni 0°135 0*049 23.0J 7*630 0*720 0*79 1'160 14.343.70 The quantities of the several constituents are stated in grains per imperial gallon. Note.-The amount of oxygen required to oxidise the organic matter, nitrites, &c., is determined by a standard solution of permanganate of potash acting for three hours.

C. MEYMOTT TIDY, M.B.

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CHEMICAL NEWS;}
February 14, 1879.
Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources.

73 CHEMICAL NOTICES FROM FOREIGN | mining the free acid in sulphate of alumina, &c. So long

as no free acid is present the yellow colouring-matter SOURCES.

remains unchanged. If there is the smallest excess of

hydrochloric acid the colour turns first to magenta, then Nore.-All degrees of temperature are Centigrade, unless otherwis

to orange, and after a few seconds disappears entirely. expressed.

The author has tested a number of the azo colouring

matters, and has found thai they are all indifferent to free Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances, l'Académie de carbonic acid, and are capable of marked changes of des Sciences. No. 3, January 20, 1879.

colour in presence of the slightest excess of mineral acid,

or inversely. These changes are most beautifully shown Observations on M. Pasteur's Second Reply:-M. by Poirrier's Orange III. (dimethyl-anilin.diazosulpho, Berthelot.—The author points out that M. Pasteur, though benzolic acid), by diazo-a-sulpho-naphthylic acid, and declaring beer to be anærobian, admits that this supposi- amido-benzol." Tropeolin 000 is suitable for the detection has not been demonstrated.

tion of alkali (caustic or carbonated), as it undergoes the Reply to the Notes of M. Trécul of Dec. 30 and opposite change of colour from tropeolin 00, being yellow Jan. 13.-M. Pasteur. A continuation of the controversy in an acid solution and magenta-red in alkaline liquids. on aạrobian and anærobian organisms.

Weaker acids-such as the sulphurous, oxalic, &c.-proTemporary Magnetic Powers Developed by Influ- duce less distinály marked changes of colour. Acetic ence in certain Specimens of Nickel and. Cobalt as acid, like the carbonic, is indifferent to the azo-compounds. Compared with Iron.-Henri Becquerel.-Bars of nickel | Hyposulphite of soda behaves exactly like the salts of become saturated more rapidly than bars of iron, and strong mineral acid. With the aid of these indicators consequently setting out from a certain intensity a bar of soda-ash, &c., may be titrated in the cold. pickel becomes a temporary magnet almost constant, while iron becomes magnetised more for growing intensities. The difference between the magnetic properties of bars of iron and nickel are so much the more consider.

Les Mondes, Revue Hebdomadaire des Sciences.

No. 16, December 19, 1878. able as the conditions of magnetic are nearer to those which determine saturation in one or the other.

This issue contains no original chemical matter. Classification of Colours and the Means of Re-pro. ducing Coloured Appearances by Three Special

No. 17, December 26, 1878. Photographic Proofs.-C. Gros.- The author distin- The only original chemical matter in this issue is a guishes two categories comprised under the word colours : description of the celebrated aniline-colour works of A. lights and pigments. The elementary lights which by Poirrier, at St. Denis, and of the dyes which have been their mixture produce all kinds of shades are the green, either invented or at least manufactured there. The violet, and orange rays. The elementary pigments which writer enumerates as such-Violet (produced with potasby their mixture produce all kinds of shades are red, sium bichromate); dimethyl-anilin violet, otherwise yellow, and blue. "To obtain directly the elementary tints known as Paris violet; benzylated dimethyl-anilin violet, of rays and of pigments it is sufficient to look through a purer in tone than Paris violet, and capable of being prism at a white stripe upon a black ground, and at a applied upon wool in presence of acids ; methyl-anilin black stripe upon a white ground. In the first case we

green, formed by acting upon the violet with methylsee an orange, green, and violet spectrum, and in the chloride ; dibenzyl-anilin green, which has not proved latter case a blue, red, and yellow spectrum. In the commercially successful by reason of its very sparing former case the orange, green, and violet are elementary solubility; phenylen-diamin brown and chrysoidin; cachou rays, and in the latter the red, blue, and yellow are rays de Laval, otherwise known as the patent colours of Croiscombined two and two. The author then exhibits and sant and Bretonnière, formed by the action of sodium describes an apparatus, which he names the chromometer, sulphide upon organic matter. (This colour does not and by means of which he produces the protographic seem to possess any distinctive novelty, and, though exeffect above mentioned.

ceedingly fast, yields dull shades.) Mention is next made Researches on the Effects of Induction Across of the oranges and rocellin. The last of these colours is Telephonic Circuits by Means of the Microphone obtained by the reaction of the diazoic derivative of and the Telephone.-D. Hughes.—Taken from an

sulpho-conjugated naphthylamin upon naphthol B ; the English source.

shade produced is very like that of orchil, but brighter,

faster, and more economical. New Voltaic Element with a Constant Current, A. Héraud.—The author uses as an exciting liquid hydro

Nos. 1 and 2, January 2 and 9, 1879. chlorate of ammonia ; the depolarising body is mercurous chloride. When the circuit is closed the hydrochlorate

These issues contain no original chemical matter. of ammonia in presence of zinc gives zinc chloride, forming ammonia and hydrogen, which two bodies go to the positive electrode. The hydrogen reduces the mer.

Revue Universelle des Mines, de la Metallurgie, &c., curous chloride, producing metallic mercury, hydrochloric

Tome 4, No. 2, September and October, 1878. acid, and consequently hydrochlorate of ammonia. As long as there exists mercurous chloride around the posi- Caldwell on the determination of phosphorus in ores of

The only chemical paper here is a note by Prof. J. B. tive electrode, hydrochlorate of ammonia will be regenerated.

iron, and in cast-iron and steel, taken from the New York Tetric Acid and its Homologues.-Eug. Demargay.

Metallurgical Review. -An account of the tetric, pentic, hexic, isohexic, and heptic acids. These acids agree very closely in their Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft zu Berlin, chemical properties, and are coloured a violet-red by

No. 14, 1879 11,176 seirous chloride.

Transformation of Dibromethylen into a Keton

with Four Atoms of Carbon by Means of HypoReimann's Färber Zeitung,

bromous Acid.-E. Demole.-The author considers it No. 47, 1878.

as established that on the oxidation of dibromethylen Dr. Lunge confirms the statements of Miller on the there is really formed a transition compound, bromacetylen, use of cropeolin 00 for the titration of soda, for deter. l in the nascent state. At low temperatures this compound

74
Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources.

í
CHEMICAL NEWS,

February 14, 1879. becomes polymerised, resuming HBr, whilst at higher | that Baron Muller, of Melbourne, who discovered the temperatures it takes up simultaneously oxygen and hydro- species, also denies that it contains quinin. bromic acid, and is converted into bromacetyl-bromide.

On Diphenyl Benzols.-H. Schmidt and G. Schultz. Separation of Zinc and Nickel.-F. Beilstein.-The - The authors seek to ascertain the relation-if any-of sufficiently diluted solution of the nitrates or sulphates is violanilin to diphenyl-benzol. mixed with ammonia till an alkaline reaction is obtained, Amidins and Thiamids of Mono-basic Organic and then acidified with pure citric acid. When the solu. Acids.-A. Bernthsen and H. Trompetter.—The authors tion is perfectly cold sulphuretted hydrogen is introduced give an account of ethenyl-tolyl-amidin, benzenyl-naphtill the liquid has a distinct smell, which is generally thyl-amidin, ethenyl-naphthyl-amidin and certain of its effected in five to ten minutes. If much zinc is present salts, benzo-thio-toluidid, ' aceto-thio-toluidid, benzosulphuretted hydrogen is introduced for five minutes at a naphthyl-thiamid, aceto-naphthyl-thiamid, benzamidotime, letting the liquid stand after each introduction, and tolyl-thiamid, benzyl-anilin, and ethyl-naphthyl.amin. repeating this till the smell of the gas does not disappear

Certain Double Salts of Bivalent Iridium.-C. on standing. In this manner we avoid a needlessly long Seubert.-An examination of the iridic double salts of treatment with sulphuretted hydrogen by which traces of sodic bisulphite. nickel sulphide may be carried down. The precipitate of zinc sulphide is allowed to stand for twenty-four hours Atomic Weight of Iridium.-C. Seubert.— The in the cold, and is then weighed as such. The filtrate is author's determinations give as a mean result 192744 evaporated to a small volume, and after supersaturation (H=1); He points out that Berzelius admits the presence with ammonia the nickel is thrown down electrolyticaily, of osmium in the iridium which he employed. in which operation care must be taken that no sal-am- On Absorption Spectra.-J. Landauer.-A spectromoniac is present, as it hinders the precipitation of nickel. scopic examination of safranin. The author not merely The solution should be a nitrate.

agrees with Vogel in doubting the universal applicability On B.Chlorcymol from Thymol.-E. v. Gerichten.-specific spearum, but concludes that absorption speara

of the proposition that every chemical compound has its A hypothetical and controversial paper, not susceptible of throw light upon the constituents of a compound only in useful abstraction.

so far as the colour of a body can be regarded as characCertain Fluorine Compounds of Vanadium.-H. teristic of its chemical composition. For the accura:e Baker.-A valuable and detailed account of the formation determination of colours the spectroscope is as serviceable and properties of the fluoxy-vanadiates of potassium, am. as is the microscope for the determination of forms. monium, and zinc, and of fluoxy-hypo-vanadiate of am. Action of Dry Gaseous Hydrochloric Acid upon monium.

Sulphates.-C. Hensgen.-In this memoir the author Certain New Derivatives of Benzoic Acid.-P. describes the action of dry hydrochloric acid gas upon Griess.—The author describes r-nitramido.benzoic acid, ferrous sulphate. At elevated temperatures the anhydrous E-oxy-nitro-benzoic acid, a.oxy-nitro-benzoic acid, and salt is decomposed, and pure anhydrous ferric chloride is 2-oxy-nitro-benzoic acid.

formed.

From the hepta-hydrated salt was obtained Halogen Substitution - products of Ethan and Fe,C162H20 in green acicular crystals, and FeS0,6H20 Ethylen (Eleventh Communication).-W. Stædel. -An in tabular plates. account of the hexa-chloride of carbon and of the some. what numerous chlorobromo- and bromo-substitution products of ethan and ethylen. Compounds of Organic Bases with Mercuric

MISCELLANEOUS. Chloride.-Otto Klein. In this "memoir the author describes certain mercuric compounds of dimethyl-anilin. On Isoindol (Thirteenth Communication).-W. Stædel appointment of Mr. Warington W. Smyth, F.R.S., Sir

Royal Commission. The Queen has approved the and M. Kleinschmidt.- 1scindol presents one of the most George Elliot, M.P., Mr. F. A. Abel, C.B., Mr. Thomas Burt, interesting cases of pleochroism. If a columnar crystal M.P., Mr. Robert Bellamy Clifton, F.R.S., Prof. Tyndall, is held to the light and slowly turned on its axis it appears F.R.š., Mr. Lindsay Wood, and Mr. William Thomas in succession green, yellow, deep red, blue, and indigo. Lewis, as Her Majesty's Commissioners for the purpose of blue.

inquiring and reporting whether, with respect to the influence Dinitro benzo-phenon and Dioxy-benzo-phenon.- of fluctuations of atmospheric pressure upon the issue of W. Stædel and e. Sauer.—Dinitro-benzo-phenon is most fire-damp from coal, to the adoption and efficient applicareadily obtained by the oxidation of dinitro-diphenyl. tion of trustworthy indicators of the presence of fire-damp, methan. Dioxy-benzo-phenon is best prepared from the and generally to systematic observation of the air in mines, hydrochlorate of diamido-benzo-phenon.

to improved methods of ventilation and illumination, to Brom-nitro- and Brom-amido-anisols.-W. Stædel the employment of explosive agents in the getting of and G. Damm.-Not suitable for abstraction.

minerals, and to other particulars relating to mines and On Uvic Acid.-W. Slædel.-During an attempt to

mining operations, the resources of science furnish any resolve synthetic uvic acid into dextro- and lævo-tartaric pracicable expedients that are not now in use and are acid a solution of the neutral sodium-ammonium salt was

calculated to prevent the occurrence of accidents or limit prepared. From this solution there were at first deposited

their disastrous consequences.—Times. large well-developed crystals of the monoclinar system, on

Moist Water Colours for Siudents.—Lechr tier which there were no hemihedral surfaces, and whose Barbe, and Co. have issued a set of student's moist water solution was optically inactive. In the mother-liquor of colours in tin pans. These moist colours are said to be these crystals there appeared the thembic crystals of the pure, unadulterated pigments. The use of water colours in two sodium-ammonium tartrates, with their usual hemi- the moist state, with artists, has almost superseded that hedral surfaces.

of dry cake colours. The latter may have a superiority in On Diphenyl Bases.-H. Schmidt and G. Schultz.- with more fredom and rapiditiy, have come to be gene

some instances, yet the moist, affording a supply of colour The authors have undertaken a complete examination of rally preferred, and the only obstacle to their being more all the known amido.compounds of diphenyl.

extensively use still has hitherto been their high price. Supplementary Remarks on Alstonia Constrica. The shilling box contains the ten colours and three O. Hesse.—The author, in the former paper, questioned brushes as recommended by the Society of Arts. The the presence of quinin in Alstonia bark. 'He now learns main and novel feature of the box is that the colours are

A (

Notes on the analysis Manager of Tar and Ammonia Distillery will

" On

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Situation wanted by a Competent Analyst as
Wanted, a Situation in Works, Laboratory,

CHEMICAL NEWS,

Meetings for the Week. February 14, 1879.

75 contained in small tin pans; that these pans are remov. 420 pp., Royal 32mo., French morocco, gilt edges, price 58., able, and that, when used upon any of their can be replaced A POCKET-BOOK FOR CHEMISTS,

CHEMICAL MANUFACTURERS, METALLURGISTS, of the most useful moist colours are manufactured and | DYERS, DISTILLERS, BREWERS, SUGAR. REFINERS, sold in those small tin pans; so that additional colours PHOTOGRAPHERS, STUDENTS, &c, &c. By THOMAS BAYLEY,

Assoc. R.C. Sc. Ireland, Analytical and Consulting Chemist, nemonmay be put in the box, in order to bring it fully within

strator of Practical Chemistry, Analysis, and Assaying, in the Mining any object in view in water-colour drawing.

School, Bristol.

Synopsis of Contents.

Atomic Weights and Factors--Useful Data-Chemical Calculations MEETINGS FOR THE WEEK.

-Rules for Indirect Analysis-Weights and Measures-Thermo

meters and Barometers-Chemical Physics-Boiling points, &c.MONDAY, 17th.-Medical, 8.30.

Solubility of Substances-Methods of obtaining Specific GravityLondon Institution, 5.

Conversion of Hydrometers-Strength of Solutions by Specific Gra. Society of Arts, 8. "Dwelling Houses : Their vity--Analysis-Gas Analysis-Water Analysis-Qualitative Analysis Sanitary Construction and Arrangements," by

and Reactions-Volumetric Analysis-Manipulation-MineralogyDr. W. H. Corfield, M.A. (Cantor Lectures.)

Assaying - Alcohol — Beer-Sugar - Miscellaneous Technological TUESDAY, 18th.-Civil Engineers, 8.

Matter relating to Potash, Soda, Sulphuric Acid, Chlorine, Tar ProRoyal Institution, 3. “Animal Development," ducts, Petroleum, Milk, Tallow, Photography, Prices, Wages, &c. Prof. Schäfer.

London: E. and F. N. SPON, 46, Charing Cross.
Zoological. 8.30.
WEDNESDAY, 19th.-Society of Arts, 8. " Turkish Resources and

New York: 446, Broome Street.
their Ready Development," by J. L. Haddan.
Meteorological, 7.
Society of Public Analysts, 8. “On the Influ.

three years in the Laboratory of a Chemical Works. Period ence of the Decomposition in Butters from Age

of instruction two years.-Address, F. W. S., 47, Neclell's Place,

Birmingham.
on the Specific Gravity of the Fat and the Per.
centage of Soluble and Insoluble Acids," by E.
W. T. Jones, F.C.S.
of Butter," by J. M. Milne, M.D. “On Con.

be disengaged on February 10, and will be open for Re-engage

ment. densed Milk," by O. Hehner, F.C.S.

Advertiser has a good practical knowledge of the business, Analysis of Coffee Leaves," by O. Hehner,

and is a steady energetic man.-Address No. 60, CHEMICAL News F.C.S. “On the Falsification of Milk," by C.

Ofice, Boy Court, Ludgate Hill, London, E.C.
A. Cameron, M.D.
THURSDAY, 2oth.--Royal, 8.30.
Royal Insitution, 3. “Sound,” Prof. Tyndall.

Assistant or Principal. Good teacher. Apply, Public Analyst,
Royal Society Club, 6.30.

CHEMICAL News Office, Boy Court, Ludgate Hill, London, E.C.
Chemical, 8. "Investigations into the Action of
Substances in the Nascent and Occluded Con-
ditions: Hydrogen (continued), by Dr. Gladstone

Patent Office, or as Teacher of Chemistry and Chemical Techand Mr. Tribe. "On some Methods of Vapour nology by a Scientific Chemist of great practical experience, and well Density Determination," J. T. Brown. " On the

in English, German, and French.- Address, P. 1)., Chemical Quantitative Blowpipe Assay of Mercury," by G. News Office, Boy Court, Ludgate Hill, London, E.C.

Artwood.
FRIDAY, 21st.-Royal Institution, 9. "A New Chemical Industry," TO PAPER MAKERS, CHEMICAL MANUFACTURERS,
Prof. Roscoe..

AND OTHERS.
SATURDAY, 22nd.-Royal Institution, 3. “Lessing,” by Reginald W.
Macan

LET, at Low Rentals, Works and Land
Physical, 3. “On a Current Regulator," by Dr. in Plots of Two to Ten Acres, near Swansca. Coals obtainable
C. W. Siemens, F.R.S. "On a New Theory of from 48. 6d. per ton. Water good and abundant. Any description of
Terrestrial Magnetism," by Profs. Ayrton and manufactory can be carried on. Excellent Railway, Canal, and Dock
Perry. "On the Spectrum of Lightning," by accommodation close at hand.--Apply to Richard Hall, Esq., 37, Great
Dr. A. Schuster.

George Street, Westminster, or Mr. Thomas Williams, Aberdulais,

Neath, Glamorganshire.
TO CORRESPONDENTS.

he Authors of “A Practical Treatise on the

Manufacture of By an oversight the source of the article by Profs. Thomson and

SULPHURIC ACID," Houston in our last number was omitted. It was taken from the with rearly 100 new illustrations (Sampson, Low, and Co., 188, Fleet Journal of the Franklin Institute.

Street, E.C.) are prepared to furnish plans and advice and superintend

the erection of plant in all parts of the world. --Address, L. and L., THE

Chemical News Office, Boy Court, Ludgate Hill, London, E.C. MONTHLY JOURNAL OF BIOLOGY, ASTRONOMY, GEOLOGY, INDUSTRIAL ARTS

Instruction and preparation in CHEMISTRY and the EXPERI. MANUFACTURES, AND TECHNOLOGY.

MENTAL SCIENCES under the direction of Professor E. V

GARDNER, F.A.S., M.S.A.
Edited by WILLIAM CROOKES, F.R.S., &c.

The Class Rooms are open from a to s a.m. and from 7 to 10 p.m

daily. The first number of the Monthly Series (February, 1879) is

Especial facilities for persons preparin for Government and other Now Ready.

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Private Pupils will find every convenience.

Analyses, Assays, and Practica Investigations connected with CONTENTS.

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at Berners College, 44, Berners-strect, W. 11. Matier Dead-Roger Bacon and John Dalton. III. A Contribution to the History of Electric Lighting. By W. Matrieu Williams, F.C.S., F.R.A.S.

WILLIAM AND WILLIAM T. FIELD, IV. The Problem of Flight-Ballooning in Arctic Exploration. V. Electric Lighting. By Prof. W.E. Ayrton.

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Chemical Plant, i.e., Acid Towers, &c. Also all other kinds of Best VIII. Safe Anästhesia.

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Pross. Elihu 'Thomson and Edwin J. Houston.

TESTIMONIAL.
Correspondence-The Band-Pattern in Animals—The Sea-Sei pent.
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Towers, &c., manufactured by Messrs. Field, for the last fifteen years, London : 3, Horse-Stoe Court, Ludgate Hill.

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The

SCIENCE BERNERS COLLEGE of CHEMISTRY.

AND ANNALS OF

MANUFACTURERS

76

NEWTON, KEATES, & CO.,

EARP & CHASTER,

TOWNSON & MERCER,

Manufacturer of Benzole, Toluole, Xylol,

Advertisements.

{ February 14, 1975:

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produced, being clean, crystallised, free from Lime, NEW CATALOGUE OF SECONDHAND AND NEW BOOKS, and of the highest test.

NOW READY.
JAMES R. GREGORY,

MINERALOGIST,
88, CHARLOTTE STREET, FITZROY SQUARE.
S. A. SADLER,

RUNCORN,
CLEVELAND CHEMICAL WORKS,

MAKERS OF
MIDDLESBROUGH;

CHEMICALLY PURE MINERAL ACI JS
Newfall Tar Works, Carlton;

LIQUOR AMMONIA, &c.
Ammonia Works, Stockton-on-Tees;
and Stamshaw Chemical Works, Portsmouth.
And also of the Furness Tar Products Co., Ulverston.

89, Bishopsgate Street Within, Solvent and Burning Naphthas, Carbolic Acid and Disinfecting Powder, Refined Anthracene , Naphthaline, Black Varnish, Refined

LONDON.
Tar, Crude Liquid Ammonia, Coal-Tar, Pitch, Creosote, Grease,
Sulphate of Ammonia, Pyroligneous Acid, Acetate of Lime, Wood

Wholesale and Export Dealers and Manufacturers of
Naphtha, Charcoal, &c., &c.

CHEMICAL & SCIENTIFIC APPARATUS S. A. S. is always a buyer of Coal-Tar Naphthas, Crude Anthracene and all Tar Products.

PURE CHEMICALS, &c., All communications to be addressed to the offices at Middlesbrough For Analysis and the general Laboratory Use of Manufacturers BISULPHITE OF LIME,

and Professors of Universities, Schools, Mines, &c., BISULPHITE OF SODA.

Now ready,

TOWNSON & MERCER'S COMPLETE CATALOGUE of WILLIAM MARRIOTT

Chemical and Scientific Instruments, Pure Chemicals, &c. Demy

8vo. I.lustrated with upwards of 800 Woodcuts. Price 25. 60. CHEMICAL WORKS, HUDDERSFIELD

post rce. PATENTS.-Mr. Vaughan, F.C.S., British, TETRACHLORIDE OF CARBON.

Foreign, and Colonial PATENT AGENT. Special attention given to Inventions relating to Chemistry, Mining, and Metallurgy

BISULPHIDE OF CARBON.
Guide to Inventors ” Free by Post.-Offices, 67, Chancery Lane

CHLORIDE OF SULPHUR.
London, W.C., and 8, Houndgate, Darlington.
SCIENTIFIC
ENGRAVINGS carefully

JESSE FISHER & SON, executed, enlarged, or reduced from photographs. DIAGRAM'S Phenix Chemical Works Ironbridge. drawn and engraved on wood. Electrolypes supplied at Moderate Prices. Specimens and Estimates sent post free. Fac Simile of Signature for 3s. A perfect re-production of any name guaranteed. IMPORTANT TO MANUFACTURING EXPERIMENTAL CHEMISTS Address

AND OTHERS.
EDWIN MOORE & CO'S.

PRIZE MEDAL

TRANSPARENT CEMENT 75, Fleet STREET, LONDON, E.C.

(ESTABLISHED 25 YEARS)

Is the only article of any real use for mending Glass, Porcelain ARTISTIC.

Retorts, Bottles, &c.

GUARANTEED TO STAND HOT WATER.

Prices, 6d., Is., and is. 6d. of all Chemists, Druggists, and Oilmen time, desiring to supplement their incomes, an opportunity is goynes; Walton, Hassall, and Port. offered of acquiring the ART of DRAWING and ENGRAVING on Wood in a thoroughly satisfactory and per.ect s'yle. The terms

E. MOORE AND CO., are moderate, and the hours can be made to suit the convenience of 29, POLYGON, AND HENRY St., MARYLEBONE RD., N.W. Pupils. Persons residing in the country can receive full instruction by correspondence. For further particulars ca or address,

ater-glass, or Soluble Silicates of Soua Mr. J. FRANKLIN NASH Artist and Engraver, or in solution, at KOLERI RUMAY'S, Ardwick (hemical 75 FLEET STREET LONDON, E,C.

Works Manchester.

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