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Gautengasta The Seven Fundamental Types of Organic Chemistry. 47

In working the apparatus it is only necessary to place to serve as repositories for the exclusive accommodation of sufficient water in B to cover end of c, in order to secure that particular class of molecules only which bear upon exclusion of air. The most certain source of heat is a them the stamp of the presiding fundamental type. It is sand-bath. Using this I have never had a case of upon the basis of this, io my mind, perfe&ly natural and untimely regurgitation. Immediately the required solu. reasonable hypothesis that I shall now proceed to expound

the main features of this wonderfully simple, yet all. accomodating seven-chamber system, with the view of

determining not only the exa& relative position of each B

chamber in our model molecule, but likewise what are the

most salient chemical properties and fun&ions with which C

its respective occupants are more or less liberally marked and endowed.

Commencing with the middle chamber, and bearing in D

mind that in my system the principal nucleus is invariably

regarded as forming the common central point of attrac. E

tion, towards which all the other component groups are, dire&ly or indirealy, made to tend and to gravitate, it stands to reason that this identical nucleus is justly entitled to become the chief and only occupant of this middle chamber. The middle chamber, which is thus shown to claim for itself a prominently central position, is supposed to be flanked on the one side by the outer conjunct chamber, which I hold to be reserved for the exclusive accommodation of that particular class of molecules which were formerly described by me as components of the envelope, but for which the more appropriate term “outer conjunct molecules "will henceforth be substituted. Again, the middle chamber is supposed to be flanked on the other side by the inner conjunct chamber, which I hold to be

reserved for the exclusive accommodation of that particular tion is effected, the apparatus is removed from the source

class of molecules which were formerly described by me of heat, and recently-boiled water is run into the funnel priate term " Inner Conjunc Molecules” will henceforth

as hydrocarbon adjuncts, but for which the more appro. B to the required extent.

be substituted. Continuing our survey, the outer conjunct Laboratory and Assay Office, Darlington, January 22, 1879.

chamber is supposed to be flanked by the outer subjunct chamber, which I hold to be reserved for the exclusive accommodation of that particular set of substituted con.

stituents which, from their chemical character and comTHE SEVEN FUNDAMENTAL TYPES OF position, are denied free admission into the outer conjunct ORGANIC CHEMISTRY,

chamber. Again, the inner conjunct chamber is supposed

to be flanked by the inner subjuna chamber, which I hold AS VIEWED AND INTERPRETED FROM THR STANDPOINT

to be reserved for the exclusive accommodation of that TYPO-NUCLEUS

particular set of substituted constituents which, from their

chemical character and composition, are denied free adBy OTTO RICHTER, Ph.D.

mission into the inner conjunct chamber. Completing our (Continued from p. 39).

survey, the outer subjunct chamber is supposed to be flanked by the outer adjun& chamber, which I hold to be

reserved for the exclusive accommodation of that particu. In order to enable the reader to comprehend the full | lar class of co-ordinately allied poly-basic and poly-acid theoretical import and significance which attaches to this molecules, whose parent molecule is above poly-atomic hypothesis of seven fundamental types, it becomes neces- alcohol, while the inner subjunct chamber is supposed to sary for me to direct his attention to that most complex be flanked by the inner adjunct chamber, which I hold to and elaborately finished specimen of molecular architec. be reserved for the exclusive accommodation of that parture in which the whole of our seven types are supposed ticular class of subordinately allied poly-basic and poly. to be collectively and completely represented, and to join acid molecules, whose parent molecule is a pseudo-polyme in a rapid survey of its general internal structure and atomic alcohol. organisation. Let it first of all be distinctly understood Having now, with the aid of our model molecule, subthat in this our model-molecule, which relatively to the mitted to the reader a tolerably complete general outline three conjugate axes of space is held to exhibit the most of the internal stru&ure and organisation of every conperfed symmetry of form and atomic arrangement, the ceivable variety and complexity of chemical combinations, primary constituent groups are placed side by side along strictly so-called, I shall in the next place endeavour to the whole extent of one of these axes, to which I shall explain :o him the precise nature and efficacy of those henceforth apply the term “ Operative Axis,” because it three fundamental agencies or principles which are supcoincides with the particular line or direction in which posed to over-rule and set in motion the wonderful mechachemically conflicting molecules are invariably brought to nism with which this magnificent heptarchial system of attack and to react upon each other. Let all ihis be taken types has been so knowingly and sapiently furnished. for granted, and we may readily conceive the practicability Commencing with the nucleus type, I proceed upon the of a mode and order of grouping, wherein our seven very simple and intelligible hypothesis that all the members fundamental types have each one alloted to them a cer. of this class are formed by the direct union of two chemi. tain definite portion of space, within whose limits the cally identical but physically dissimilar elementary moleprimary groups are symmetrically distributed in obedience cules, E2, and that these physical differences, supposed to to their own special laws of molecular collocation and be due to certain variations in the vibratory movements of arrangement. It is further argued that the seven portions their constituent atoms, are held to constitute an efficient of space just alluded to, and which in their collective cause for their coalition into a molecule of double the capacity may not inaptly be compared to a suite of con- atomic weight. The class of molecules before us will, terminous closets or chambers, are each of them destined therefore, be expressed by the general symbol 2Ez; and

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The Seven Fundamental Types of Organic Chemistry. {Clasa IINIMAS; t is of importance to bear in mind that the two thus firmly | sophy most wrongfully insisted upon attaching such an welded and interlaced molecules have now as a whole be- undue weight and preponderance. come endowed with sundry very marked and langible che- As regards the two types which follow next in the list, mical properties and functions.

namely, the outer and inner subjunct types, their origin Turning from this to the second or outer conjuna type, and mode of formation have already to a certain extent it is conjectured that all the members of this class owe

been traced and foreshadowed in my closing remarks on their origin and formation to the union of two not differently the preceding types. The presiding agency is supposed to but similarly modified elementary molecules, E2. These be the principle of calority or thermal principle, and the molecules will therefore likewise be expressed by the entire process of molecular substitution, which is the outgeneral symbol 2E2; but from the peculiar conditions of come of the practical application of that principle to moletheir generation, which invariably require the presence cular statics and dynamics, will be best understood from a and co-operation of an over-ruling nucleus, it follows that, descriptive analysis of its three principal stages. In the whereas the nucleus molecules possess in a high degree first stage, the particular outer or inner conjunct molecule the character of consistency and stability, the outer con.

which is destined for conversion in the corresponding subjuna molecules are, on the contrary, entirely destitute of junc inolecule is first of all made to part company with these qualities. Hence it becomes impossible for them to

the principal nucleus, and becoming instantly subjected to exist apart from the dominating nucleus, to which alone the powerful influence of the ever-present physical prin. they are indebted for their seeming firmness and ready ciple, it is speedily brought to remerge under the more associability. It is clear, therefore, that, in the act of permanent typical form of an ordinary nucleus. In this being withdrawn from under the constraining influence of act of dissociation the newly generated subjuna molecule that powerful centre of attraction, the liberated molecules is supposed to move away from the principal nucleus, will instantly become re-converted again into molecules of without, however, passing beyond the critical point where, the nucleus type, from which they are understood to have at a high temperature, the simultaneously formed thermai originally sprung, or else into molecules of the inner con bond, as I will call it, and which is now destined to serve junct type, provided always that the chemical nature of as the only cementing link between the principal nucleus their constituent atoms is not opposed to this species of and its similarly constituted subjuna, becomes suddenly molecular metamorphosis. It is, moreover, worthy of and forcibly torn asunder, It is, of course, impossible to note that, while and so long as the molecules under con determine a priori the exact number and degree of elasti. sideration continue to subsist in the aforesaid compulsory city of the various kinds of thermal bonds by means of state of bondage and confinement, they seem to be desti. which subjunct nuclei may remain attached to their printute of any special chemical properties and fun&ions, cipal nucleus. There exists, however, abundance of valu. whereas these same molecules, after their conversion into able experimental evidence to prove that in this first stage the corresponding subjuna molecules, are destined to play of the process certain outer subjunc nuclei, like chlorine a very prominent part in the molecular economy by co

and its congeners, remain attached to the principal nucleus operating with the principal nucleus towards the proper by means of one thermal bond only; others, again, like conduction and consummation of that identical process oxygen and sulphur, by means of two thermal bonds; of molecular substitution which, as already pointed out on

while a third class of outer subjunc nuclei, like nitrogen a former page, became so unduly magnified and so unwisely and phosphorus, remain attached thereto by means of selected by our leading theorists as an all-sufficient ground three thermal bonds, that being the highest number, so far for the eredion of a solid and comprehensive chemical alucidation and analysis of this interesting and instructive

as my system is concerned, which suffices for the complete theory. As regards the inner conjunct type, which falls next to abundance of valuable experimental evidence to prove that

order of chemical phenomena. There exists, morever, be considered, I have come to the conclusion that all the inner subjunct nuclei with hydrogen for their component members of this class require for their realisation the joint element remain attached to the principal nucleus by action of neither more nor less than four primary and chemically identical hydrocarbon molecules, as expressed with carbon for their component element, remain attached

means of one thermal bond only; while subjuna nuclei, by the general formula H2PC29 (p and 9.=0, 1, 2, 3, 4, &c.); thereto by two thermal bonds, and not at all by means of a formula which is seen to include likewise the exceptional four thermal bonds, as is still persistently taught and cases, when pure hydrogen or pure carbon are made to

maintained on the other side. play the part of inner conjunct molecules. The cementing agent is again believed to be the physical principle which,

(To be continued). by causing one of these molecules to become differently modified from the remainder, determines their coalition into one single and four times heavier molecule with the THE CULTIVATION OF CHEMISTRY." general fornula 4H2pCzq. I may observe, in addition, ihat the resulting simple hydrocarbon molecules share

By F. W. CLARKE, S.B., with those of the nucleus type the character of great con

Professor of Chemistry in the University of Cincinnati. sistency and stability, while, in complete analogy with the members of the outer conjunct type, these same hydro-Once a year it is our pleasure and our privilege to meet carbon molecules, from the simplest to the most complex, together, for the interchange of views upon the questions are capable of entering into direct chemical union with a of chemical science; for the comparison of notes in our given principal nucleus, no matter whether that nucleus various lines of research ; for mutual help, sympathy, and happens to be presented to them from without, or whether, improvement. It is also, I suppose, a part of our work to as is frequently the case, it has first of all been moulded attract public attention to the subjeas that interest us, out of one or other of their own component hydrogen or and to do what we can to secure for chemistry a wider carbon molecules. A second very striking and remarkable appreciation and greater means for development. No feature which the inner conjunct molecules share with branch of science has done more for civilisation than those of the outer conjunct chamber consists in the cir- ours. Old industries have been revolutionised, and new cumstance that, thanks to their direct chemical union with ones created ; things which were once the luxuries of the a principal nucleus, the component hydrogen and carbon few have been made the daily necessities of the many; molecules have now acquired the singular power and all arts and all manufactures owe tribute to the chemist. faculty of co-operating with the said nucleus towards the A comparatively small number of men, a majority of them proper conduction and consummation of that identical process of molecular substitution to which–I repeat it * Address before the Permanent Sub-section of Chemistry of the with emphasis—the founder of our modern school of philo. American Association for the Advancement of Science, at the

, 1878.


The Cultivation of Chemistry. January 31, 1879.

49 teachers, working only in their intervals of leisure, | In short, the results of this single invention, direct and established the principles which have brought about these indirect, can be traced into nearly every department of wonderful results. If small means, widely scattered and human industry. These results have been exclusively unsystematically used, have wrought such marvels, what beneficial. All of us share in their advantages, and no may we not expect from the greater opportunities which a one has been injured. They have given employment to more general comprehension of the value of our labours many thousands of labourers, and that without prejudice must eventually bring ?

to older occupations. And thus it is in some degree with To the members of this sub-section, the economical every discovery of the chemist. Each one is like a grain achievements of chemistry are familiar as household words. of corn, small in itself, and yet a germ from which may As we look about us in our daily lives, we see in every spring the food of numberless future generations. In the direâion the fruits of chemical investigations. Every course of our labours, many grains may fall by the wayside scrap of metal ; all paints, varnishes, fats, oils, and and bring but small return; still, that which sinks into fertilisers; every bit of glass or porcelain ; every cake of fertile soil will yield a thousand fold reward to the sower, soap or box of matches, embodies some improvement I need build no argument upon the facts I have just which chemistry has made. Our linen is bleached and given. They stand before us, not only on the pages of our outer garments are dyed with the products of the books, but embodied in countless manufactories scattered laboratory. Whether we burn candles, gas, or kerosene, all over the civilised world. They render life pleasanter, we still have chemistry to thank for nearly all there is of easier, more comfortable. They are the sources from cleanliness, convenience, brilliancy, purity, and cheapness which future discoveries shall flow, and help to make in the light. In many articles of food, and in a long list certain the steady growth of civilisation. If the general of medicines; in the photograph and the galvanic battery; public is not interested in chemistry, it is because we as by the conversion of waste rubbish into articles of beauty chemists have neglected a part of our duty. We have and usefulness ; in short, through a vast network of im- but to speak in order to command the public ear. Our provements and discoveries, our still infant science has work is work of national importance, and is sure in time established its claims to recognition as a benefactor of of national recognition. Let us ask ourselves to-day how mankind. Would that the multitudes who have enjoyed the splendid achievenients of the past may be made more these benefits might see their sources as clearly as we fruitful, and what measures and what researches will best do! Then would science be fostered and encouraged, advance the interests of our science in the future. where now it struggles feebly to secure a grudging and It is safe to assert that in every science there is some scanty support.

central line of growth, to which all details are subordinated, A single discovery of the chemist may work peaceful and along which its fundamental principles find their revolutions in many departments of labour. Pardon me readiest and most logical development. . Here lie the if I pause to illustrate this truism by a very familiar ex- germs of future generalisations; whatever promise there ample. Even for us it is not a waste of time to look may be of greater exactness, either in methods or in data; backward occasionally, and to consider the consequences and all those deeper conceptions which most intimately developed from one great research or invention. Such connect a given science with other branches of thought considerations may well strengthen us in our hopes for and knowledge. Without such a main stem, each science the future of chemistry.

would be but a mass of scattered details, isolated facts, Nearly ninety years ago, Le Blanc discovered his famous fragmentary principles, with little coherence or order. process for converting common salt into soda. No pro- | True, we may fail to recognise a real line of growth, or we cess could be much simpler than this, and yet in its rami- may follow a false clue, and yet make discoveries of great fications it has affected every branch of civilised society. value; but without clear ideas upon this subject the highest In the first place, it widened the field of labour. Certain work is impossible. In physics, the doctrines of the conmaterials were needed at the start, namely: salt itself, servation of energy and the correlation of forces are points charcoal, limestone, and sulphuric acid ; and inany work- on the central line. In the study of organised life, the men found employment in their production. By the new theory of evolution indicates a main stem. How is it demand for sulphuric acid, this important compound was with chemistry? rendered cheaper, and every other chemical industry was Among chemists to-day there seem to be two schools ; thus directly facilitated. If the familiar saying be true at least practically, if not in point of abstract theory. It that the degree of civilisation to which any country has is almost as if the line of growth had divided, so that we attained may be measured by the amount of sulphuric can hardly tell which is the greater, and which the lesser acid it consumes, then the importance of this single item stem. One school, represented by a large majority of can scarcely be over-estimated. Passing from the modern working chemists, seems to take an interest only materials employed to the process itself, we find that in- in the statical side of the science; its chief aim is to cidentally, as a by-product, it furnishes immense quan- discover immense numbers of new compounds, and to tities of hydrochloric acid at a minimum of cost, and that theorise upon their constitution. Strangely enough, these here again all branches of manufacturing chemistry re. chemists have devoted nine-tenths of their energy to the ceive direct benefit. As a final result—if, indeed,' any compounds of a single element, carbon; scarcely regarding result can properly be called final—we find that the soda, other substances save in so far as they unite with this or for which the process was devised, has been enormously with bodies containing it. To me it sometimes seems as cheapened. In 1814, soda crystals were worth about if, in the light of their labours, chemistry was to be de. 300 dols. per ton. By 1861, the price had fallen to 22 dols.; fined as the science of speculating upon the possible 5000 tons a week were produced, and 10,000 labourers position of theoretical atoms within imaginary molecules found direct employment. This does not include the Do not think, however, that I underiate the value of the labour engaged in furnishing materials for the process, work they have done. I fully recognise its importance, nor that incidentally stimulated through other industries. although I consider it unfortunate that so much time and By the cheapening of soda, other things of more generally energy should have been spent in this one line of research, familiar utility were cheapened also. Chief among these to the neglect of other, and I believe greater, fields of we may mention glass and soap, two articles in which investigation. soda is a leading ingredient. Such a reduction in the The other school of chemists, a school which seems to price of soda as that just indicated could not but work be rapidly growing in England and to be gaining in. wonders here. As glass and soap became cheaper, the dustrious votaries elsewhere, may be described as essendemand for them naturally increased ; and hence, through tially dynamical in its ideas. It sees in every chemical Le Blanc's invention, our houses are better lighted, cleanli- reaction three objects of study: first, the substances which ness has been encouraged, and the public health, because enter into the reaction; secondly, the phenomena which of these steps forward, has unquestionably been improved, occur during the reaction; thirdly, the substances produced

CHEMICAL NEWS, 50 Cultivation of Chemistry.

January 31, 1879. by the reaction. The second term, the term which involves | philosopher, that the power to search after truth is more all the transformations of energy, is to them of at least precious than truth itself. Were it possible for any science equal importance with the others. In this they study the to become absolutely perfect, we should but idly sold our play of forces attendant upon the formation and destruc- hands and enjoy its fruits, caring little for the history tion of compounds, the appearance or disappearance of behind us, or for a future which could bring us nothing heat, the velocity of the change, the effects of pressure, more. Perhaps, in the beneficence of Nature, we might the alterations in volume, and so on. To them, every

even lapse into forgetfulness, in order that our descendants element and every reaction is important and interesting; could enjoy the pleasure of a re-discovery. Speaking they strive to see each change of composition in all its simply in a relative sense, chemistry is an eminently im. relations; to study processes as well as results; to perfect science. In experimental resources it is wonder. recognise the intimate connection between chemistry and fully rich; in delicate methods of investigation no other other sciences. Does it not seem as if these workers science can surpass it; but in those principles which were pretty nearly on the right track? Is not their render foresight possible, chemistry is poor and meagre. method of study the deepest and broadest? Does it not We may guess the existence of some undiscovered comreally include all there is of permanent value in the other pound, but until we have prepared it what can we tell of school? To me, at least, it seems as if here the great its properties ? A little perhaps, a very little; and that advances are to be made, and the central line of growth only approximately. Of its relations to the great forces discovered.

of Nature, we know in advance almost nothing. We are This feeling is justified, I believe by history. Much of able only to devise for it some "structural formula" which the best progress in chemical science has been made on shall last for about five years, and then be replaced by the physical side. In truth, chemistry and physics are another of equally perishable quality. We are, in fact, but one at bottom, having their roots in the same funda- to-day but laying the foundations of a future science, mental principles. Ele&ricity cannot be studied apart which shall be to the chemistry of the present what that from chemical considerations, neither can light nor heat. is to the alchemy of the past. What the chemist has Nor are we able to understand truly a chemical operation already done for humanity has been done in spite of until we know a good deal about the physical forces which difficulties and defeas; it is but a trifle compared with it necessarily involves. Neither science can be mastered that which shall be accomplished in the better time to apart from the other; for they are but two great branches come. Enough has been done to prove the possibility of from one common line of growth. The molecular theory, more; to encourage the investigator in his labours; to without which modern chemistry could hardly have existed, show the public that here is something worthy of study, rests mainly upon physical foundations. Apart from the of help, and of applause. laws of Avogadro and Ampère, of Dulong and Petit, of There are three great objects of investigation in che. Boyle and Mariotte, of Gay-Lussac and Charles, muchmistry as seen under its present aspect ; three central which is now plain and orderly to the chemist would be problems upon which all else depends. First, what laws chaotic and unmanageable. Doubtless, at some future govern the transformations of energy that occur during time, the investigations of Mitscherlich and others into chemical changes ? Second, how do the properties of comisomorphism, of Kopp into molecular volumes, of Thomsen pounds stand related to those of the elements contained in and Berthelot into thermo-chemistry, of Gladstone into them? Third, what is the nature of chemical union ? refractive indices, of Harcourt and Esson, and Boguski These problems must be studied largely together ; each and Kajander into the velocity of chemical changes, will one in the light of the other two. The first and second, lead to generalisations of equal importance with these. however, are more practical in character than the third, The workers I have named, with many others equally and involve less speculation. They need for their soluworthy of naming, have already done enough to give us tion severe experimental researches, the exact determinaglimpses of great laws which we are as yet unable to see tion of numerical data, and reasoning of a rigidly mathein their entirety. These glimpses forward are like matical kind. Under the third problem we encounter the promises made by Nature; sometime to be fulfilled, cer- chief speculations of chemistry, hypotheses which serve tainly never to be broken. Were we to take from che. to suggest and stimulate investigations with regard to the mistry all that has been done upon the physical side, other two, while at the same time dependent upon these how little true science would remain! We should have latter for the security of their foundations. The nature of left but little law and little order ; scarcely more than a the elements, whether one or many ; the truth or falsity vast mass of scattered fa&ts and details, unconnected with of the atomic theory; all questions of inter-molecular any fundamental conceptions or any definite method of structure; the validity of certain formulæ; the value of scientific research. Physics, stripped of its chemical por such doctrines as that of quantivalence; these are the tion, might make a somewhat better showing; but even ideas with which this problem has to do. Each one of then it would be little more than a skeleton of what it these theoretical questions is but a special case depending now is. Neither science can be strong without the other. for its answer upon our views concerning the main point

One of the main objects of science is to render prevision of all. Plainly, the first thing for chemistry to do is to possible. The more thoroughly our knowledge is co- make sure of its foundations ; using speculation only as a ordinated, the better are we able to predict the nearer line by which parts of the work may possibly be helped discoveries of the future, and to see what lines of research and guided. will be most fruitful. Science is ccntinually striving after The only foundations which can stand the test of time, exa&ness; of which this prevision is one of the results. in such a science as ours, are exact, rigorous, quantitative The line, therefore, which leads most direaly to definite measurements. We already know tolerably well in a ness and precision in any department of knowledge, is qualitative way what transformations of energy occur in evidently the true line of growth which we should seek chemical changes; the question now is as to their definite to find and to follow. Nature marks out pathways for numerical relations. How much heat appears or vanishes us, even though we close our eyes to her indications. in any given reaction ? what is the exact electromotive

To-day, notwithstanding its brilliant achievements in force of any specified couple? what laws of quantity conthe past, chemistry is an inexact science. From top to nect a&inic energy with particular combinations or decombottom, from beginning to end, it shows signs of imper. positions ? These are the questions which science now fection. Indeed, to most minds, this incompleteness is a asks, and for which in a few cases we are just beginning great charm. There is so much to be done in chemistry, to find answers. The physicist approaches these quesso many lines of research to follow out, so many dis. tions from one side, the chemist from another; eventually coveries to be made, so much glory to be won and good the two will meet, and a general solution will be found. to be accomplished, that an ađive mind can hardly fail of From our knowledge of forces on the one hand, and of being attracted. We may well feel, with the German 'substances on the other, we shall become able to compute

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January 31, 1879.
Salts of Trimethyl-sulphine.

51 the dynamical relations of every possible chemical change, | results of an investigation carried on by Prof. Crumand perhaps even to determine in advance what reactions Brown and the author. can and what cannot take place.

The decomposition product of the hyposulphite of tri(To be continued)

methyl-sulphine (CHEMICAL News, vol. xxxvii., p. 130) was found by analysis to be represented by the following


2S2O3 =


The methyl-hyposulphite of trimethyl-sulphine thus ob. PHYSICAL SOCIETY.

tained is very hygroscopic, and is gradually oxidised to a

sulphate. The solution of the substance does not de. Fanuary 25, 1879.

colourise iodine solution. These results point to

(CH3)35-0 Prosessor G. C. Foster, Vice-President, in the Chair.

as the probable rational formula of the substance. Prof. E. Ray LANKESTER and Mr. Alex. Macdonald, B.A., The sulphite of trimethyl-sulphine was obtained by the were elected members.

action of sulphurous acid on the hydrate. It crystallises Dr. Erck exhibited a constant bichromate of potash well, but there is some difficulty in preparing a perfealy battery. The ordinary, bichromate battery soon loses normal salt. The salt, as neariy normal as possible, does power when in use, and in order to secure a powerful con- not, like the hyposulphite, give up its water of crystallisastant battery to drive a small astronomical clock, Dr. tion in the cold over' anhydrous phosphoric acid; at 140° Erck devised the modified form shown. It consists of a C., however, it becomes anhydrous. * Heated to 175° C. narrow lead trough, 12 ins. long by 3 ins. wide and i in. it gives off sulphide of methyl —8.3 grms. lost 2'32 grms., deep, lined along both sides with the carbon plates. The

or 27'95 per cent. On cooling, the clear liquid residue zinc plate, 10 ins. long, is immersed in the solution to solidifies, forming a hard, very hygroscopic, crystalline the depth of an inch midway between the two carbons.

This substance was so deliquescent that no A continual circulation of the bichromate solution is kept analysis of it was made. This mode of formation leads up by allowing fresh solution to drop into the cell at one toend, and the exhausted solution to drop away by a tap at the other end. As the space between the two carbons is

(CH3)3S! only about half an inch wide, there is merely a thin layer of solution between the positive and negative poles. The as its most probable formula. internal resistance of the cell is therefore very low when

In order to ascertain the nature of this substance the short circuited, only about 4 ohm. To obtain the maxi. authors converted it, by double decomposition with iodide mum current, about 8 ozs. of solution per hour should be of potassium, into the corresponding potash salt, which supplied. Dr. Erck also showed a battery formed of zinc

was purified from the iodide of trimethyl-sulphine by and carbon circular plates mounted on an axle, which is crystallisationrotated by wheelwork, thus mechanically stirring the bi- (CH3)3S

K chromate solution.

CH,/s03+(CH3)3ST Dr. GUTHRIE, F.R.S., described some the results he had This potash salt was found to agree in properties and obtained from experiments on the vibration of metal rods composition with the "sulpho-metholate" of " methylor lathes fixed in a vice at one end and free to vibrate at sulphonate" of potash. the other. The experiments were carried on by dusting

KO O sand on the rod and observing the nodal lines formed by it when the rod was vibrated so as to give out notes deter. mined by a monochord. Dr. Guthrie's results showed that the two final segments at the free end are equal in

CH3 o length to the inner segment at the fixed end. It appears from these experiments that if a free lathe, vibrating with The bearing of this fad on the constitution of mephites a node in the middle but having an even number of seg. is obvious. ments, be clamped at where there is a node we alter its The acetate of trimethyl-sulphine is formed by treating conditions of vibration. When the lathe is half free the the iodide of trimethyl-sulphine with acetate of silver. end segment breaks up into two parts together equal to (CH3),SI+CH2-COO Ag-(CH3);S-OOC-CH3+AgI the segment at the fixed end. In the case of torsional vibration of the lathe the position of the longitudinal On leaving the strong solution over sulphuric acid in vacuo nodal lines depended to some extent on the clamping of for three weeks no crystallisation took place. The strong the lathe in the vice.

solution on being heated to 100° decomposed into water Prof. Foster pointed out that in a natural node the acetate of methyl and sulphide of methyl. dire&ion of the tangent is varying, whereas in an artificial

CH3-C00-S(CH3)3=CH-COO-CH3 +S(CH3)2. node it is always horizontal. Prof. Unwin explained that the sand accumulated at

The benzoate of trimethyl-sulphine is formed by treating nodes because the particles when thrown off the lathe the iodide of trimethyl-sulphine with benzoate of silver, make certain horizontal excursions, which tend to move (CH3)3SI+C6H5-C00Ag= them nearer the points of repose of the lathe.

C6H5-C00-S(CH3)3 + Agl. Messrs. Elliot Brothers exhibited sundry electric com- This salt is very soluble in water. On standing for two mutators and resistance boxes.

weeks over sulphuric acid in vacuo only a very few crystals

were formed, which it is difficult to separate from the very EDINBURGH UNIVERSITY CHEMICAL SOCIETY. thick mother-liquor. It is slightly less soluble in alcohol. Third Meeting, Fanuary 15, 1879.

The imperfectly dried salt on being heated to 110° decomposes into water, benzoate of methyl, and sulphide of

methyl. Mr. G. CarR ROBINSON, F.R.S.E., in the Chair.

C6H5-C00-S(CH3)3=C6H5-C00--CH:+S(CH3)2. A PAPER was read by Mr. J. ADRIAN BLAIKIR, B.Sc., on The dithionate of trimethyl-sulphine is obtained by the "Salts of Trimethyl-sulphine," containing further (neutralising an aqueous solution of dithionic acid with

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