Obrazy na stronie

set hard by heat. The flue-bridge was built up within / good enough when plated out from common puddle bar, 3 inches of the roof. The stack was 18 inches square and that the cases are very simply and cheaply made, inside. A fan-blast was used, part of the air passing under | needing neither tops nor bottoms. the grate-bars, and part, being heated, was passed through That two men, in ten hours, with a 15 horse-power and over the fire-bridge.

engine, will grind, mix, and fill the cases with the ore In these several experiments it was found that, although mixture for 7 tons of blooms. the opening between the fue-bridge and roof for the escape That the furnace work is confined to charging, disof the spent produas of combustion into the stack was charging, and firing the furnace, there being no necessity lessened more than one-half the size from what it was whatever for manipulating the metal from the time it is when, with less capacity, the furnace had been used for charged in ihe furnace until brought to the hammer or heating scrap-iron, still the heat was so intense as to squeezer, thus greatly simplifying and cheapening what soften and render useless the damper rod at the top of by the puddling process is excessively laborious and the stack, which had previously stood twelve years, re-expensive work. quiring renewal three times during these experiments. That the inasses of metal, as one by one they are The conclusion drawn from these accidents was that the squeezed to blooms, may then be transferred in the heated grate-surface of this furnace was amply sufficient to supply state to the open-hearth bath, and there quickly melted the accumulatir.g heat for a length of 14 or 15 feet between along with the other steel-making material for the highest the bridge-walls instead of 9 feet, thereby nearly doubling quality of steel. the capacity of the furnace with the same consumption When all these points are well considered it may be of fuel.

clearly understood that in localities as favourably situated Expensive fluxes, such as soda, manganese, &c., have for instance as the line of the Philadelphia and Reading been abandoned, as it has been now conclusively proved Railroad, where Cornwall and other ores can be laid down that a proper mixture of aluminous and silicious ores at an average of 3 dols. per ton, and where anthracite with lime, to produce a non-flowing glassy slag, is all fuel and coal-dust may be obtained proportionally lowthat is required. This glassy slag being mingled among that blooms on a large practical working scale, nearly the particles of ore, covers and seals them from re-oxida freed from phosphorus, may be manufactured equally as tion from furnace heat during the process of reduction. good for 18 dols. or 20 dols. per ton, as now cost from When either of these glass-making constituents are not 38 dols. to 50 dols. per ton. Similarly great inducements available in the proper proportion, in the ore, ordinary are likewise offered in Northern New Jersey, where fuel sand, or clay, in the proper proportions, may be added to and ore can be brought together at about the same cost. the lime and mixed together without injury to the metal, In the bituminous coal region fuel is correspondingly as the glass is readily compressed out of the iron by the low, and coke-dust can be had for the freight, offering hammer or squeezer.

favourable manufacturing advantages. During these experiments No. 26 sheet-iron was rolled In a few words, this process offers a cheap mode of out at the mill from common puddle bar, being found to making a high quality of metal for steel, by an inexpenanswer equally as well for cases as well finished sheets sive plani, enabling manufacturers to utilise idle rolling from the best iron.

mills at trifling cost. It has now been demonstrated that good steel can be made by this process from iron deoxidised either with charcoal, anthracite-dust, or coke-dust. The carbon in all these fuels being alike, and as the ash of either, along with the earthy impurities of the ore, be they more or less,

THE SEVEN FUNDAMENTAL TYPES OF may be readily reduced to a glass by a proper mixture of

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY, lime and ores through chemical analysis, and so utilised as a covering of the metal during deoxidation, and com. | AS Viewed AND INTERPRETED FROM THE STANDPOINT pressed from it afterwards-it follows the truest com

OF THE " TYPO-NUCLEUS” THEORY. mercial economy is found in using that form of carbon which is of least value,

By OTTO RICHTER, Ph.D. In the coke-making bituminous regions, the refuse coke-dust is disposed of in waste heaps and often burnt; while from the beginning of anthracite mining, mountains IMPRESSED with the deep scientific import and significance of anthracite slack remain standing monuments of our of certain far-reaching and well-matured original ideas and wastefulness. These wasted fuels by this process offer a speculations of my own, I have deemed it my duty of again premium for the production of cheap steel.

addressing the Chemical Profession in order to submit to Any process that will not withstand the closest economic them for closer examination a second and even more scrutiny is justly recognised as valueless in the arts; it abundant crop of valuable and interesting generalisations is therefore proper to remark that the investigations at which I have been able to gather on the wide and fruitful Reading and Pittsburg during the past year, although field of speculative research. It may not be amiss to conducted in furnaces not specially adapted to the prostate here that the task set before me, and commenced in cess and often amid inconveniences inseparable from ex. | full earnest some thirty years ago, was persevered in with periments surrounded by the activity of regular mill-work, the avowed object of contributing my share also towards still nevertheless substantially confirm the view heretofore the foundation of a more rational, comprehensive, and asserted, that a true commercial economy cannot fail to harmoniously elaborated system of chemical philosophy, result from a systematic working of the process.

| As a further proof of the sincerity of my motives and When it is considered that this mode of making iron aspirations, I have now, I flatter myself, succeeded in frees it almost entirely from phosphorus, which goes almost concocting an entirely novel and original theory of molealtogether into the slag as explained in my former paper. cular substitution, which promises to meet all the more

That a furnace at present prices for material and labour, I pressing wants and requirements of modern organic and in which from 1 ton to id tons of blooms may be produced inorganic chemistry. It is with the aid of this latest and every twenty-four hours, will not cost over 800 dollars to still vigorously expanding offspring of my private medita1000 dollars.

tions, reared as it has been under the fostering care of That a little lime in combination with ore and waste those purer doctrines and principles which I had occasion coal-slack has been substituted for more expensive fluxes to broach and to discuss in a series of papers under the and is found sufficient to supply the glassy covering for head of my “ Typo-Nucleus " Theory, that I hope to shed the metal.

I a bright and powerful light upon sundry vexed and That No. 26 sheet-iron for cases is now found to be seeming'y insoluble questions, concerning which the

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history of our science has recorded so many stirring, but, Table of Chemical Elements, with their Symbols and in their final results comparatively barren and unprofit.

Atomic Weight Equivalents. able, controveisies. Having, in the course of my specula-1 First Division : Electro-positive Elements or Metals. tive travels, made the startling discovery that a grave and all-pervading error had been committed on the part | Atomic weights 2

Symbols .... H, K, Na, Ba, Ca, Mg, Zn, Pb, Fe, Cr, Al

78 46 137 40 24 055 207 Ju 34 of our leading theorists in not sufficiently discriminating Symbols .. .. Aga Pt, Au, Sn, Hgz Big Sb, As, P, between two in their modus operandi essentially different Atomic weights 216 197'5 197 118 400 210 122 75 31 — — chemical processes, I have considered it imperative on me

Second Division : Electro-negative Elements or Non-metals. to expose this fatal error, the offshoot no doubt of an overbold and over-hasty generalisation, and, as far as lay in

Symbols .. .. Si, C, Bo, Te, Se, S, T, Br, ci, Flę N, 0,

Atomic weights 28 12 1 128 79*5 32 254 160 71 38 14 16 my power, to counteract its evil influences and tendencies.

' In com.nenting on the contents of the preceding table The two processes just alluded to, and which are con- I am far from maintaining that the relative places assigned stantly encountered in our laboratories, and not unsre to the various elements in the general electro-polar order quently in one and the same reaction, are on the one hand of grouping are absolutely correct. I can only express my the process of direct chemical union by the addition of new regret that, for want of proper experimental data, my reelements to those already combined; and, on the other searches in this direction have not as yet led to any satishand, the process of indirect chemical union by the sub factory results, and I am bound to confess that, in order stitution of new elements for those already combined. to fill up the numerous gaps, I have reluctantly allowed Now, I venture to maintain, that our chief chemical myself to be guided by the uncertain glimmer of fancied authorities and advisers, from neglecting to draw a clear analogies and probabilities. Thus, for instance, I am and distina line of demarcation between these two radi unable to answer the question why K2 should occupy the cally different methods of proceeding, have beguiled them second place in the electro-polar order of grouping in selves and their numerous followers into the adoption of preference to the third or fourth place; and, similarly, a style of writing which, by inundating the chemical why Znz should precede Pb2 or any other metal. But, on market with a seemingly very plausible but really unsound the other hand, I hope to prove, with the aid of a great and unpalatable species of sham literature, threatens not variety of valuable experimental evidence, that Hy is really only to create a distaste for more solid work, but likewise the most ele&ro-positive of all the known elements, to seriously retard the healthy growth and development whereby it claims for itself the first or lowest place in the of theoretical chemistry.

ele&ro-polar order of grouping, while 0, is really the most With these well-intentioned and, I am afraid, well electro-negative of all the known elements, whereby it founded stridures and objeđions, I shall at once proceed claims for itself the last or highest place in that order. I to enlarge on some of the more salient doctrines and am further able to prove that the members of the nonprinciples of my own system, a brief exposition of which metallic series-C2; 52; 12; Bra; Cl2; F12; N2; 02-are will, I trust, enable the reader to appreciate the true merits given in their proper order; while I think it highly proand scientific value of my new substitution theory. bable that the members of the metallic series

In striking contrast with the prevailing biatownic hypo- Biz; Sb2; Asz; Pa-are really succeeding each other in thesis, according to which the different kinds of elemen- | the manner indicated. This conjecture derives considertar; molecules are represented as consisting of two chemi-able support, at all events, from the unmistakable analogy cally identical atoms, cemented together by means of one, which the series before us bears to the series two, three, or more reciprocally attracing centres of 12; Brz; C12; Fl2, the atomic weights of whose members force, my system is founded upon the polyatomic hypo- are observed to diminish as we ascend in the electro-polar thesis, according to which the different kinds of elementary order of grouping, a coincidence which, if not accidental, molecules, though likewise regarded as being composed must be the outcome of some general law, to the jurisdicof an equal number of atoms, are at the same time believed tion of which not only the series in question, but various to enclose within them a considerably larger number of other groups of cognate elements, may likewise be found such atoms than are generally assumed on the other side. amenable. These primordial, and in all probability spherical, particles Trusting that this particular field of speculative research of ponderable matter are held to differ from each other in may soon become better known and cultivated, I shall point of size, specific gravity, and electro-polar energy, now proceed to describe the general method whereby that according to the species they belong to, but they have, class of elementary molecules which form the theoretical each and all, this highly characteristic feature in common, basis of reasoning may become transformed into that that they are symmetrically disposed and grouped together other class of elementary molecules which are capable of in their respective molecules with reference to the three enjoying a separate and independent state of existence, conjugate axes of space, and in obedience to some omni and through them into that endless multiplicity and diverpotert fundamental law of atomic collocation and arrange sity of compound molecules, the internal structure and ment. Another remarkable and noteworthy feature of the organisation of which still continues to defy the argumenmolecules before us, which in my notation are expressed tative skill and ingenuity of our shrewdest and most keenby the general symbol E2 consists in this, that, while they sighted speculative chemists and physicists. are not held to correspond to entities enjoying a separate | In pondering this momentous and seemingly inaccessible and independent state of existence, they are at the same problem my efforts were at length rewarded with the im. time held to be of immense theoretical value and import. I portant discovery that directly or indirectly the former ance, inasmuch as they furnish the only solid and sub. class of molecules are destined to furnish the materials stantial basis on which I believe it possible to erect a truly for the construdion of seven distinct fundamental types or rational and comprehensive system of chemical philo forms of molecular grouping, which, by their combination sophy. A select number of these theoretically indispen with each other, are further destined to furnish a vast numsable molecules have, as a reference, been embodied in ber and variety of composite types, under which the whole the accompanying table, together with their respective immensity of organic and inorganic compounds may be symbols and atomic weight-equivalents, and it deserves systematically arranged and classified. The proper treatspecial mention that the particular order in which these ment of this subject requires that I should divide the symbols are made to succeed each other is intended to before-mentioned seven fundamental types into three convey an approximate idea of the relative electro-polar separate sets on the ground that each set owes its origin positions which the corresponding molecules are believed and formation to the aid and intervention of a distinct to occupy in the atomic edifice in conformity with the fundamental principle or agency. Accordingly, the first general electro-polar law of molecular collocation and set of types is believed to stand under the immediate conarrangement.

| trol of the principle of parality or physical principle, and to embrace three fundamental types called respectively the It oxidises rapidly, and forms a red crystalline compound Nucleus Type, the Outer Conjunct Type, and the Inner with picric acid. By heating the sodium derivative of or Conjuna Typé. Again, the second set is believed to stand the hydride of salicyl itself, with isobutyric acid, ortho. under the immediate control of the principle of calority or hutenyl-phenol, C10H 120, was obtained as a colourless oil, thermal principle, and to embrace two fundamental types, boiling 223° to 225°, having a smoky and cedar-like odour ; : called respectively the Outer Subjunct Type and the Inner specific gravity = 1.0171. Many reactions of this sub. Subjund Type. Finally, the third set is believed to stand stance are given in the paper. By treating paroxy-benzoic under the immediate control of the principle of polarity | aldehyd in a similar way para-butenyl-phenol was obtained, or chemical principle, aad to embrace two fundamental boiling at 230° to 235°, crystallising at low temperatures. types, called respectively the Outer Adjund Type and the Similarly, from anisic aldehyd, B-para-butylen-anisoil was Inner Adjund Type.

obtained, fusing at +7°, C H140; it boils at 236° to 237o. (To be continued)

In conclusion the author discusses the isomerism existing between the bodies obtained in the present research and those obtained previously by using normal butyric acid,

and especially that of the butenyi benzenes. PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES.

After some remarks by the President and Drs. FRANKLAND and ARMSTRONG on the theoretical part of thë above paper,

Dr. DUPRE read a communication « On Twò New CHEMICAL SOCIETY.

Methods for the Estimation of Minute Quantities of Car. Thursday, January 16, 1879.

bon: (1) Gravimetric ; (2) Chromometric; and their Abpli. :

cation to Water Analysis," by A. DUPB and H. WILSON · Dr. J. H. GladstONE, F.R.S., President, in the Chair.

HAKE. (1) The Gravimetric Method :--This method con

sists essentially in burning the small quantity of carbon in AFTER the announcement of visitors, the minutes of the

a stream of oxygen in an ordinary combustion-tube con

taining some granulated cupric oxide. One end of the previous meeting were confirmed. The following certifi.

combustion-tube is drawn out and bent downwards at an cates were read for the first time :-W. Spottiswoode, P.R.S., T. Whitaker, J. L. MacMillan, J. A. Ogilvie, W.

angle of 120°, so that it can easily be attached to a Petten

koler tube charged with a perfectly bright solution cf barium S. Lawson, V. H. Veley.

hydrate. The streain of oxygen passes through a long The first communication was made by W. H. PERKIN' | tube containing caustic potash before entering the com. F.R.S., “On the Action of Isobutyric Anhydride on the bustion-tube, and before commencing the combustion the Aromatic Aldehyds." When an aromatic aldehyd is

tube with the cupric oxide is heated to redness, and the heated with normal butyric anhydride and à butyrate an oxygen passed until carbonic acid cease to be evolved, angelic acid is obtained containing the hydrocarbon radi as tested by passing through bright baryta-water. The cal of the aldehyd employed. Thus, benzoic aldehyd Pettenkofer tube is charged with baryta-water, various yields phenyl-angelic acid, &c. The author has studied

precautions being taken to prevent the slightest access of an; in the present paper the reaction which takes place when air containing carbonic anhydride, and connected with the isobutyric is substituted for butyric anhydride. A mixture combustion-tube. The substance is introduced and of cuminic aldehyd, isobutyric anhydride, and sodium iso- burned in the usual way. The carbonic acid is com: butyrate was heated in sealed tubes to about 150° C. for pletely absorbed by the baryta-water. At the conclusion twenty-four hours. On opening the tubes much carbonic of the combustion the barium carbonate formed is filtered anhydride escaped. The produa was mixed with water, and washed by an ingenious arrangement completely out and boiled in a retort until the distillate was nearly free l of contact with ordinary air, first with water saturated from oily matter. On cooling, the aqueous portion was with barium carbonate, and finally with pure water. The separated from the thick oily product, and the latter boiled Pettenkoier tube is then rinsed out with dilute hydrowith an excess of a solution of sodium carbonate. The chloric acid, and the washings poured on the filter containboiling alkaline solution was acidified, and deposited a ing the barium carbonate. The barium chloride solution is : thick oily acid. This was dissolved in petroleum spirit, then evaporated in a very small platinum dish, converted and after some time the soluțion deposited oblique crystals. into sulphate by ignition with sulphuric acid, moistened These proved on analysis to be a compound of cumenyl. with nitric acid, again ignited, and weighed on an assay crotonic and isobutyric acids. A similar experiment with balance. The following are results thus obtained with benzoic aldehyd gave phenyl-crotonic acid. When iso- known quantities of sugar :butyric acid, prepared by repeated fractioning, and so, as far as possible, freed from propionic anhydride, was used,

Carbon Taken.

Carbon Found. very much smaller quantities of the crotonic acids were


0'01340 obtained. The author estimated the amount of carbonic


0'00748 anhydride produced in the above reaction, and examined


0'00551 the oily matter which distilled over on boiling the products


O‘00398 of the above readions with water. It proved to consist


0'00163 principally of butenyl benzene, C10H12 (when hydride of


O'00085 benzoyl was used), boiling at 184° to 186°, yielding, on


0'00027 oxidation with chromic acid, benzoic and acetic acids. The method is therefore quite accurate enough for deterThe author proposés to call it B-båtenyl-benzenc. Its mining the carbon obtained from a litre of a first class dibromide and bromo derivative and the dibromide of the potable water. The authors found the error of several latter were prepared and examined. With cuminic alde

blank experiments to be equal to three-tenths of a milli. hyd B-isopropyl-butenyl-benzene was obtained,

gramme of carbon : they therefore subtract this quantity

from each result. The chromometric method, or, as the C6H.(C3H)COH+(C.H,0)20=

authors name it, the nephelometric method, consists C6H2,377 +C H80,+CO2. essentially in burning the carbon as above, but the car

bonic acid is conducted into a standard solution of basic It boils 8" lower than the a body. When cinnamic alde

acetate of lead (2 per cent), and estimating the turbidity hyd was used, butenyl-cinnamene was obtained,

produced, as compared with that produced by the carbonic

acid evolved under similar circumstances by a known and C6H,CHỊeoH+(C,H,O) =

nearly equal quantity of carbon (sugar), the difference be. CoH5,C2H2,C,H7, +C.H80a+COz. tween the two being estimated by a Mills's colorimeter.

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Derivatives of Di-Isobutyl.

CHEMICAL NEWS 1 January 24, 1879.

The authors find that the precipitate produced in the ace-, acetone and ethylic oxalate. It aas slightly on benzoic tate of lead is very similar in appearance under widely aldehyd. At ordinary temperature neither ammonia, different circumstances, and that it settles slowly. This carbonic anhydride, carbonic oxide, cyanogen, nitric method is extremely delicate, and a difference produced oxide, oxygen, nor sulphuretted hydrogen affect it. Sulby 3-100ths of a milligrm, can be clearly estimated. The phurous acid is slowly absorbed, a crop of crystals being authors also propose, to prevent any chance of loss in formed after some weeks. These were soluble in ether, scraping out a residue, the use of a collapsible silver-foil and proved to be stantriethylic sulphate, identical with dish, which is placed inside a platinum dish for support, the sulphate of sesquistanethyl of Cahours and Buckston. and when the residue is dry the silver dish with the resi- The syrupy liquid, from which the above crystals had due is rolled up, and the roll introduced bodily into the separated was found to contain stantriethylic hydrate combustion-tube. These dishes hold about 50 C.c. (They combined with ethyl-sulphonic acid. The reaction was are made by Johnson and Matthey, and cost about 35. 60.) probably-SnEt4+50 +0=S02Et(SnEt20). The reUsing these methods, the authors estimated the carbon in action was tried when air was rigorously excluded during a water, using 200, 100, 50 c.c., with the following results: the absorption of SO2; but the final products were the Carbon in residue from 200 c.c. water gravimetric method

same ; much metallic tin was, however, formed. The

authors therefore infer that oxidation occurred during equal o'34 per 100,000.

the soluticn and evaporation of the products. Carbon in residue from 100 c.c. water nephelometric method equal oʻ31 per 100,000.

The President said the above paper furnished us with

a ready method of preparing stannic ethide, so that we Carbon in residue from 50 c.c. water nephelometric method

could obtain it with facility if it was required as a reagent; equal o 26 per 100,000.

it was singular that it should resist the action of so It must be understood that the authors do not recommend

many substances. the use of such small quantities of water, but the results The next paper was read by the SecRETARY; it was show the delicacy of the processes. In conclusion, the entitleå “Oii Aurin," Part II., by R. S. Dale and C. authors suggest the use of the above methods for estima SchoRLEMMER. In previous researches the authors ting the carbon in iron and the carbonic acid in air. stated that by the action of alcoholic ammonia on aurin, Dr. FRANKLAND said that every chemist must feel in

rosanilin was obtained, and a dilemma arose, that if aurin debted to the authors for the very ingenious methods they

had the formula C20H140g, rosanilin could not have the · had brought forward, methods which seemed to be suffi.

formula which Hofmann had proved it to have, C20H19N3. ciently accurate and delicate for the purpose intended :

The authors therefore again prepared pure aurin and conthere still remained, however, the estimation of the nitro- | firmed their previous analysis. Gräbe and Caro also gen, which was of equal importance with the determina

assigned the same formula to aurin. Zulkowsky states, tion of the carbon. "He would like to ask whether the

however, that the method employed by the authors yields condition of the precipitate in the plumbic acetate did not wretched results, and cannot be used on the manufacturing vary somewhat with different conditions, e.g., the rate at scale. The authors, however, affirm in the present paper which the carbonic anhydride was evolved.

that under certain conditions, which they are not at liberty Dr. ARMSTRONG asked how the complete combustion of

| to divulge, a fairly good yield can be obtained. Tne all the carbon could be ensured with the silver dish? ) authors have used two methods to purify aurin ; one by Alkaline carbonates might be formed.

conversion into ammonia aurin and the decomposition of Mr. THORPE said that he had scraped out many water the latter by hydrochloric acid, and a second by taking residues, and had never experienced any difficulty in the

advantage of the fact that the solubility of aurin in alcohol operation. An apparatus similar to that used by the

decreases with the removal of the by-products. The authors had been employed by Fleming at Cheltenham

analyses of pure aurin thus obtained completely conCollege. He, however, decomposed the barium carbonate,

firmed the formula C20H1403. The correctness of the and read off the carbonic anhydride evolved.

formula was also proved by E. and O. Fischer, who exProf. Hartley remarked that Dittmar had suggested

plained the above discrepancy by showing that the methods for easily estimating the C and N in water resi rosanilin obtained from aurin was para-rosanilin, C19H17Nz: dues : he absorbed the carbonic acid by soda-lime. The

The authors next consider the formation of aurin, which nitrogen was converted into ammonia by soda-lime, the

they consider takes place as follows:ammonia absorbed in weak acid and Nesslerised. Dr. DUPRÉ replied that the precipitate in the basic ace

C2H204+3C6H60=C19H1403+CH2O2+2H20. tate of lead seemed to be remarkably uniform ; that the The paper contains the examination of several compounds water was evaporated with phosphoric acid, so that no and derivatives of aurin, Ammonia aurin, C19H1403(NH3)2. alkaline carbonates could be formed ; that although the

Tetra-brom-aurin, C19H10Br403. The authors have residue from a litre of water might easily be removed, that studied the action of acetyl-chloride and acetic anhydride c.c. could

on aurin. A white compound easily decomposed by without loss.

hydrochloric acid was obtained with the formula Dr. FRANKLAND then read a communication “ On C19H1403+C4H603, melting at 168o. Aurin forms unStannic Ethide,” by E. FRANKLAND and A. LAWRANCE. stable compounds with bases, but combines with acids In endeavouring to prepare stannous ethide by the action to form stable salts, which crystallise well. The bodies of zinc ethyl upon dry stannous chloride the authors formed with acetic, hydrochloric, sulphuric, and nitric discovered that the reaction was

acids were prepared and examined. Aurin also combines 2SnCl2 +42nEt2=Sn+SnEta+42nEtci,

with sulphur dioxide to form a compound, and that by its means stannic ethide could be prepared

(C19H1403)2SO3 H2+4H20. more conveniently and in larger quantities than has | Rosolic acid resembles aurin in the fact that it, combines been possible hitherto. Fragments of fused stannous with acids to form salts; the authors therefore propose chloride were added to zinc ethyl contained in a flask to call it rosaurin. In conclusion the authors thank Mr. cooled by immersion in water. As soon as the mixture O'Shea, who has performed the analytical work in the ceases to sume in the air, when a sample is taken on the paper. Some beautiful specimens were exhibited in conend of a glass rod, enough chloride has been added. The nection with this paper. pasty mass is distilled in an oil bath. The distillate, i The next paper was On the Derivatives of Di-isobutyl," which should contain some free zinc ethyl, is poured into by W. CARLETON WILLIAMS. Di-isobutyl prepared by the water, the zincic hydrate dissolved in dilute sulphuric action of sodium on isobutyl-bromide boils at 108°, 745 m.in., acid, and the heavy oily layer of crude stannic ethide and does not solidify at - 17o. Sp. gr., at oo, 0.7088; separated and purified. The pure substance has, at ref. ind., at 16°, 1.3901 for the red K line; refra&ion 180° C., no action on aluminium, sodium, magnesium, equivalent, 63*78. The isoprimary alcohol from the


ad transfer


January 24, 1879.
hydrocarbon has an orange-like odour and hot burning i INFLUENCE OF CHLOROFORM ON
taste. It is liquid at -17°; boils, 179° to 180°, 765 m.m.;

sp. gr., at oo, 0:841. On oxidation it yields iso-octylic
acid, an oily liquid boiling at 218° to 220°; soluble in

To the Editor of the Chemical News. alcohol and ether; almost insoluble in water; sp. gr., at Sir, I am at a loss to understand Mr. Hehner's notion o', o'926. The most characteristic salts are those of of nitrification. I have always imagined that “ nitrifica. strontium, calcium, and copper. Ethyl-iso-octylate is

tion” implied the production of nitric acid. This produclighter than water; boils at 175°. The isosecondary

tion of nitric acid, according to Schlesing, Müntz, and alcohol is obtained in smaller quantities than the iso

myself is prevented by the presence of chloroform. Mr. primary; boils at 1600 to 163°; sp. gr., at 15°, 0.820. On Hehner says that nitrification is not prevented by the oxidation it yields a keton, boiling at 1599 to 161°; sp.gr., presence of small quantities of chloroform, and he comes at 14', 0·865. The keton on oxidation splits into acetic,

to this conclusion from experiments showing that amand probably isobutyric acids.

monia increases in amount when a small quantity of The next paper was “ On the Action of Chlorine upon

chloroform is present. This increase in the ammonia he Iodine," by J. B. HANNAY. The author has re-examined

he author has re-examined supposes to be due to a reduction of the nitrates in the the question as to the existence of the compound ICly, and solution by bacteria. How can these experiments prove has come to the conclusion that such a body has no ex. | that chloroform does not prevent nitrification ? Does istence for two reasons. First, that the reaction for its Mr. Hehner understand by nitrification" the destruction formation is impossible, as to high chloride of iodine can of nitrates, or does he suppose that the destruction and exist in the presence of free iodine ; and, secondly, that

production of nitrates are allied phenomena, both of which careful experiments by which chlorine is added to iodine

are due to the action of bacteria ? in the most advantageous manner for the formation of a I can only repeat, in conclusion, that chloroform prehigh chloride fail to indicate such a body.

vents the formation of nitrates. No statement has been The Society then adjourned to February 6, when the

made by myself, nor, as far as I am aware, by the French discussion on Dr. Tidy's paper “ The Processes for

experimenters, regarding its influence upon the destrucDetermining the Organic Purity of Potable Waters" will tion of nitrates.-I am, &c., take place.




To the Editor of the Chemical News.

NOTR.-All degrees of temperature are Centigrade, unless otherwis

expressed, SIR, I am much obliged to Mr. S. E. Phillips for pointing out, in last week's CHEMICAL News, an error of which I am guilty (in vol. xxxviii., p. 259) in inadvertently putting

Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft zu Berlin, violuric (and dilituric) acids under the head of tartronic

No. 13, 1879. instead of malonic acid, to which latter they seem to be Determination of Nitrogenous Organic Substances. more directly related.-I am, &c.,

E. A. Grete.-The author finds great advantage in

P. T. MAIN. treating horn, woul, leather, &c., with concentrated sulJanuary 20, 1879.

phuric acid at a gentle heat previous to combustion. He

suggests that the proportion of nitrogen in albuminoid. THE NEW ARSENIC TEST.

bodies has been given too low.

Penta-brom-resorcin.-R. Benedikt.- On bringing To the Editor of the Chemical News.

penta-brom-resorcin and aniline in contact there are formed Sir,-If your your correspondents Messrs. Otis Johnson tribrom-anilin and tribrom-resorcin. Under similar cir. and William Johnstone will take the trouble to examine cumstances phenol yields tribrom-phenol. Penta-bromthe CHEMICAL News of April 18, 1873, they will there see

resorcin, if boiled with tin and hydrochloric acid, yields described by myself the reaction of aluminium and an first tribrom-resorcin and then resorcin. The tribromalkali on arsenical and antimonial solutions, together with reso-quinon on boiling with tin and hydrochloric acid the limits of the test.

yields tetra-brom-diresorcin. The reaction involved is certainly not new, and was On Mono-sulpho-lactic Acid.-C. Böttinger.-C. first published by me as a convenient modification of the Schact obtained this acid from a-chloro-propionic acid, Fleitman test, Al being used instead of Zn. My pupils | and the author has prepared it from pyruvic acid. Both have constantly used the test since the above date, and acids are identical. prefer it in rapidity and certainty to all others.-- I am, &c.,

On Glyoxylic Acid.-C. Böttinger.-In this fourth J. W. GATEHOUSE, F.I.C.,

memoir the author describes the action of aniline upon Public Analyst for the City of Bath.

glyoxylic acid. The City Analytical Laboratory, 36, Broad Street, Bath, Jan, 17, 1879.

Difference of the Absorption Spedra of one and the same Substance: A Reply to H. J. Moser.-H.

W. Vogel.—The author points out that Moser has not OXIDATIONS AND REDUCTIONS.

given experimental proof for his assertions, and has im.

puted to him views which he has neither implicitly nor To the Editor of the Chemical News.

explicitly put forward. SIR,-In my table of “Oxidations and Reductions,” |

Synthesis of Pyruvic Acid.-L. Claisen and J. published in the CHEMICAL News, vol. xxxviii., p. 228, is Shadwell. The authors prove that acetyl-formic acid, an error which I desire to correct. Iodine is stated to prepared from cyanacetyl, is identical with pyruvic acid. react with oxalic acid, forming hydriodic acid and car. bonic anhydri de, while, in fact, no reaction occurs.

On Dioxy-benzoic Acid.-L. Barth. The author I am, &c.,

seeks to obtain from the formation and the behaviour of Henry B. Parsons,

the etheroid and anhydroid derivatives of resorcin corroU.S. Dept. of Agriculture.

boration of their views on the constitution of dioxy-benzoic Washington, D.C., Jan 7, 1879.


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