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A New Test for Arsenic.
1 January 17, 1879. The PRESIDENT-I will remind the members at this formulæ given below (in thesis 10) may be capable of still stage that Mr. Cookson's paper will come on for dis- further simplification.' cussion at another meeting; meantime I propose a very We give an abstract of the author's theses:-cordial vote of thanks to Mr. Cookson. The description 1. All have arisen out of the so-called cosmic ether, the which he has given is very interesting, and we are all one primitive matter which fills infinite space. much indebted to him for such an able paper on this im. 2. This primitive matter, whose motions make them. portant question.
selves known by the phenomena of light, beat, electricity, The motion on being seconded was carried unanimously. and magnetism is not infinitely divisible.
3. The portion of the original matter, which after con. tinued division resists all further comminution, is the
primary atom. NOTICES OF BOOKS.
4. All primary atoms have identical (regular) form and equally great mass (weight), and are amongst themselves
perfectly congruent. Fourth Annual Report of the Commissioner of the Imperial
5. The cosmic ether, the initial state of all nascent Mint, Osaka, Japan. Hiogo : Hiogo News Office.
bodies, is formed of primary atoms lying beside of each
other without definite law. This report contains nothing of special scientific interest.
6. In these primary atoms there inheres a power or It appears that the foreign staff of the Japanese mint now
tendency to combine with each other. consists of two persons only, the chemist, Mr. W. Gow
7. By these combinations of the primary atoms there land, F.C.S., and the engineer, M. R. Maclagan, M.I.M.E.,
arise molecules of new bodies different from the primary all the other posts being now filled by natives. The
matter. sanitary condition of the Mint department does not seen
18. The combinations of the primary atoms take place satisfactory; 411 cases of illness and 11 deaths out of a total of 602 men in their best years are remarkable, espe.
according to the following law : cially as none of the deaths were due to accidents. How much of this is due to the climate and how much to the
3 nature of the employment cannot be known, especially as i.e., primary atoms unite together either by twos and threes, we can find no mention of the number of men in each
or by the third and fifth powers of two and three. department.
9. These six primary compounds form the basis of all
known bodies, the molecules of the so-called elements The Magic Lantern Manual. By W. J. CHADBURN. With
being formed by combinations of such primary compounds. 100 Illustrations. London: Warne and Co., 1878.
10. These combinations take place simply according to
the law of multiple proportions. If in series (1) Poor Artemus Ward used to call himself a "jokist," so Mr. Chadburn takes liberties with Her Majesty's English
21=2-a ; 28 = 8A; 25 =32=a and calls himself a "Lanternist.” Whether he will and in series (2) succeed in adding a new word to the dictionary or not we
31=3=b; 33 =27=B; 3s = 243= b cannot venture to prophesy, but in any case he has presented his brother i lanternists” with a capital little book the molecules of bodies consiilered as elements are formed on the magic lantern. He first of all describes the ordinary old fashioned oil lantern and its objectives, and
azb a=2 x 2 + 2x 3= 10=H. then proceeds to give us an account of the Sciopticon, an
azb 2=2x32 + 2x 3= 70= Li. American invention, which ranks half way between the
azbio= 2 X 32+10 x 3= 94 = Be. old fashioned instrument and the oxyhydrogen and electric
ajb4=1X32 + 4x27= 140=N. &c. lanterns. The pyrohydrogen and magnesium lanterns 11. If the mass (weight) of the primary atom = 1 the are also described, as well as all the accessory instru above numbers show not merely the number of original ments connected with them. Clear directions are also atoms in the compound molecules, but also their molecular given for the preparation of the slides, both by hand and i weights. by photography, whether by the silver or carbon process. | 12. The conditions under which the original atoms comThe part, however, which will most interest our readers bine together, and under which, inversely, compounds are is that on scientific projections. For exhibiting diagrams, resolved into their original matter are hitherto unknown, optical effects, the decomposition of water, crystallisation, and are probably of a nature scarcely to be realised by &c., Mr. Chadburn tells us that the Sciopticon will serve the temperatures and pressures at the command of our every ordinary purpose for class demonstration. This is present science and technology." a fact that is evidently but little known to science teachers, On this proposed law criticism would be obviously prewho always look on lantern demonstration as involving mature. But we do not see on what principle the author endless trouble and an enormous outlay. We cordially selects the factors by which a, A, and a, and b, B, and b recommend Mr. Chadburn's little book to all science are respectively multiplied. teachers and lecturers.
The Unity of Matter : A Hypothesis. (Die Einheit des
Zürich : Zürcher and Furren.
A NEW TEST FOR ARSENIC.
To the Editor of the Chemical News. atomic weights of the so-called chemical elements. He Sir,- In the CHEMICAL News, vol. xxxviii., p. 301, it undertook this investigation in June last (1878), but did appears that Mr. Oris Johnson claims the discovery that not make his results public, as no facts were known to when pctassium hydrate is allowed to act upon aluminium prove that these elements were capable of surther decom- in the presence of arsenic and antimony, that AsHz is position. The recent researches of Mr. Norman Lockyer evolved without the evolution of SbHz. The above reand his experiments on the transformation of the metals action is not new, having been discovered by M. Filhol, have induced him to publish his hypothesis, which they professor at Toulouse, prior to July, 1876. Prof. Filhol seem to confirm. He considers it possible that the proposed the following, viz., if hydrogen is allowed to act
January 17, 1879. on arsenic by means of zinc or aluminium and caustic Action of Trimethylamin on the Sulphide of potash, and not by Zn and dilute sulphuric acid, as has Carbon.-A. Bleunard.--These two substances react always been customary in the Marsh apparatus, AsHz is upon each other with some violence, forming sulpho. readily evolved, but if tried with antimony compounds carbamate of trimethylamin. not the least trace of SbHz is observable. It is thus possible in the case of a mixture of As and Sb to disengage all the As and leave the pure Sb behind. It is
Biedermann's Central-blatt. also worthy of notice that when hydrogen is evolved by
Heft 12. action of Zn, or still better Al, on potassium hydrate, if |
On the Requirement and the Transformation of phosphorus be present, the colour of the ignited gas will
Matter in Saccharomyces Mycoderma.-A. Schulz.be a beautiful green. The least traces of phosphorus
Not suitable for abstraction. can in this way be detected.-I am, &c.,
Salicylic Acid as a Disinfectant.-Prof. Feser.-The WILLIAM JOHNSTONE.
author, in a prolonged series of experiments, found Analytical Laboratory, Lowther Hill,
salicylic acid of no value, either as a prophylactic or in the Forest Hill, December 28, 1878.
treatment of putrid infectious disease, carbuncle, &c.
Revolution in Tanning.-Prof. Knapp proposes the use of a basic ferric sulphate instead of oak-bark or other
tanniferrous material. He adds to a boiling solution of CHEMICAL NOTICES FROM FOREIGN copperas the quantity of nitric acid requisite for the per.
oxidation of the iron, and after the reaction is over adds SOURCES.
more copperas. The hides are suspended in the cold solu.
tion at a suitable degree of concentration, and are ready Nota.-All degrees of temperature are Centigrade, unless otherwis
in from two to four days. expressed.
Chemiker Zeitung. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances, l'Académie de
No. 50, 1878. des Sciences. No. 26, December 23, 1878.
According to Dr. Deite most of the French manufac. Explosion of Deflagrating Matter.-M. Dupuy de turers of iodine who buy their weed-ash from the varecLome.--The author examines into the causes of an ex. burners obtain only 3:15 kilos. of iodine from a ton. plosion by which a M. Zédé had been severely wounded. The yearly production of potash in France is estimated The latter was endeavouring to find a compound which at 14,000 tons, 10,000 of which are obtained from beetwithout exploding should be entirely resolved at the ashes and 1000 tons from the suint of wool. lowest possible temperature into gases and vapours, and
The importation of American leather into Germany has which should serve as a motive power. For this purpose he employed a mixture of gun-cotton and of nitrate of
increased from 23,738 cwts. in 1868 to 155,773 cwis. in ammonia. After finding the most suitable proportions he
1875. A strong demand for prote&ive duties has arise.) was studying in how far the speed of combustion, very
among the German tanners. slow in the open air, might be modified under increased
A successful competitor at the late Paris Exhibition pressure. On one occasion, when setting fire to the
offers his bronze-medal as a contribution to the lottery, as mixture contained in his apparatus, there occurred a) it was awarded him without any examination of the quality violent explosion, attended by a flash of light. The tube, of his exhibits. which had been tested up to fifty atmospheres, was! A long list is given of the substances used--apparently shattered to pieces, and the experimentalist was seriously | in France--for “denaturating" common salt to be used for wounded. It would appear that a slight decrease in the agricultural or technical purposes. Some of these orifice through which the gases escaped had changed the additions must greatly increase the price. nature of the process from deflagration to detonation. Melted gallium dissolves aluminium even below 15',
Magnetic Rotation of the Plane of Polarisation of forming liquid or semi-liquid amalgams which oxidise Light under the Influence of the Earth.-H. Bec. very slightly on exposure to the air, but decomposed querel.-The author points out that the experiment water powerfully, the gallium being liberated in the form described in M. Joubert's paper (Comptes Rendus, lxxxvii., of metallic globules. p. 984), is a reproduction of one which he had described
Dr. Kayser, after examining pigments such as white. on p. 1075 of the preceding volume.
lead, zinc-white, chrome-yellow, &c., finds that in addition Novel Phenomenon of Static Electricity.-M. Duter. to the heavy-spar, the quantity of which is stated by the A continuation of the controversy between the author and seller and is allowed for in the price, gypsum is likewise M. Govi.
present. Preparation of the Cobalto-cyanide of Potassium Prof. Schwalbe contributes a judicious essay on chemical and of some of its Derivatives.-A. Descamps.-On nomenclature. He considers it unwise to attempt the inpouring a cold solution of cyanide of potassium into Iroduction of new names for long-known compounds, and chloride of cobalt there is formed a reddish brown pre thus to carry us further and further away from the desired cipitate of cobaltous cyanide. Care must be taken not goal,-a universally intelligible terminology. to pass the limit of decomposition. This precipitate is
Doubts are expressed whether the electric light can kept at oo, carefully washed in water, and then dissolved
compete with coal-gas from a commercial point of view. in a slight excess of cyanide of potassium at the same
| The dangerous character of lead-compounds is shown by temperature. The liquid if diluted with alcohol deposits
the fact that in the years from 1838 to 1847 no fewer than crystals of a deep amethyst blue. These are washed in
3142 patients suffering from lead.cholic were admitted alcohol to remove the excess of cyanide of potassium, and
into the hospitals of Paris, although there were at that are then preserved in alcohol at 95°. This salt is un.!
time only two white- and red-lead works in the city. Of stable and soon turns red. If dissolved in a little water it gives a deep red solution, which yields several reactions.
these cases 112 proved fatal. With acetate of lead it yields an orange-yellow precipi. Plicque estimates the total yearly production of artificial tate of cobalto-cyanide of lead. With chloride of cobalt, ultramarine at 10,000,000 kiloes. absolutely free from nickel, it gives a deep green precipi.! Incrustation of Lead Pipes with Sulphide of Lead. tate, the cobalto-cyanide of cobalt and potassium.
--A hot concentrated solution of sulphide of sodium is
S CHEMICAL NEWS, 34 Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources.
1 January 17, 1879. allowed to flow through the pipes for ten to fifteen minutes., Dibrom-metaxylol-sulphonic Acid.-0. Jacobsen and They then appear as if coated within with a grey glaze, E. Weinberg.— The authors examine the soda-salt, the and water afterwards passed through them remains free acid chloride, and the amid. from lead.
On Paraxylidin.-W. Schaumann.- Paraxylidin is an According to Dingler's Polyt. Fournal the skin of the oily liquid lighter than water, colourless when recently sting-ray(Raia clavata) is now used in place of isinglass prepared, but turning yellow on exposure to the air ; for the clarification of liquids, e.g., beer.
abundantly soluble in hot water, and boiling at 220° to 221'. It forms with acids well-defined salts.
Action of Potassa upon Tetra-nitro-diphenyl-urea. Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft zu Berlin,
-S, M. Losanitch.—The result of the reaction is a green,
solid body of the composition C13H6N60,K2. No. 13, 1879.
On Lotura Bark.-0. Hesse.-The author has isolated Conversion of the Nitriles into Imides (Fourth from this bark three alkaloids, which he names loturin, memoir).-A. Pinner and F. Klein.-The authors here colloturin, and loturidin, the properties and compounds of examine the action of hydrochloric acid and alcohol upon which he here describes. hydrocyanic acid, which gives rise to ammonium chloride, ethyl chloride, formic ether, diethyl-glyoxylic amide, and !
il Certain Substitutes for Quinin.-0. Hesse.—The diethyl-glyoxylic ether. When the same compounds
Australian tree Alstonia constricta was formerly supposed
o quinin : recent observation has instead merely react upon cyanogen the result is a predominating quan
detected alstonin, a bitter principle not possessing basic tity of oximidic ether, and secondarily chlor-ethyl, formic ether, and urethan. The authors have also studied the
properties. Ditain, a principle obtained from the bark of
A. scholaris is also no alkaloid. Crossopteryx bark has action of hydrochloric acid and alcohol upon propionitrile.
been stated to contain quinin, but in the author's opinion On Butyl-chloral-cyanhydrate.-A. Pinner and F. it is little better than bad fire-wood. Klein.-The authors study the behaviour of this com- Remarks on Mr. Rice's Memoir on the Cinchona pound with ammonia, urea, acetyl-chloride, concentrated | Alkaloids.-O. Hesse.-The salts of quinidin, which sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid with alcohol, and other Rice takes to be conchinin, do not contain the latter base. compounds. They attach particular interest to the action
Reduction of Aceto-phenon.-K. Buchka.-A preof ammonia upon trichloroxy-valerianic acid.
liminary reply to Engler's paper (Berichte, xi., p. 934). On Naphthyl-phospho. and Arsenio-Compounds. Adulteration of Wine.-F. v. Lepel.—The author -W. Kelbe.-An account of naphthyl-phosphorous acid, gives the spectroscopic reactions of a mixture of magenta diethyl-naphthyl-phosphin, triethyl-naphthyl-phospho.
and the juice of Beta vulgaris. nium iodide, dinaphthyl-phosphinic, and naphthyl-arsinic
On Aurin.-R. S. Dale and C. Schorlemmer.-The acid.
authors explain the formation of aurin by the following Determinations of Specific Weights.-F.W. Clarke.
equation :-Not susceptible of useful abstraction.
3C6H60+C2H204=C19H1403+CH202+2H20. Etherification of Primary Alcohols.-N. Menschutkin.-The author points out and rectifies certain errors in
Determination of Nitric Acid as Ammonia.-E. A.
Grete.-The author, on heating pure saltpetre with his paper, Berichte, X., p. 1728.
xanthogenate and soda-lime, obtained almost exactly the Action of Nitrous Acid upon Non-saturated whole of the nitrogen present in the state of ammonia. Hydrocarbons.- Paul Tönnies. - In this preliminary communication the author mentions that if a saturated solution of potassium nitrite is brought in contact with a
MISCELLANEOUS. solution of the above compounds in glacial acetic acid, substances are formed which appear as addition-products Royal Institution’of Great Britain.-The Managers of N203.
have decided that the next Actonian Prize shall be awarded Preparation of a Series of Magnetic Compounds of in 1879 to an Essay illustrative of the Wisdom and Benethe General Formula RO,Fe), or R"Feo..--Karī | ficence of the Almighty; the subject being “ The Structure List. The author has obtained and examined the ferrates and
| and Functions of the Retina in all Classes of Animals, of lime, magnesia, manganese, zinc, nickel, copper, and viewed in relation with the Theory of Evolution.” The lead.
Prize is One Hundred Guineas, and will be awarded or On Cinchonin and Cinchonidin.-Z. K. Skraup.-To
| withheld as the Managers shall think proper. Competitors the former of these the author ascribes the formula
1 for the Prize are requested to send their essays (with or C19H22N2O, and considers that cinchonidin has exactly
without their names being affixed) to the Royal Instituthe same composition.
tion, addressed to the Secretary, on or before October 1, Remarks on the Previous Paper.-O. Hesse.- The
1879. The adjudication will be made by the Managers in author finds the amount of carbon in cinchonin decidedly
1879. higher than does Skraup. Analysis of the Mineral Spring “ Tenniger Bad"
NOTES AND QUERIES. in Somvixer Tobel.-R. Meyer.—The water contains
Oils.-(Reply to R. J.).-I think that your correspondent R. J. will an unusual quantity of strontium.
find the information he requires in the article on Oils in “Ure's Angelicic Acids of Different Origins.-W. v. Miller.
Dictionary." F. C. Calvert has also published a paper in the Phar. -Frankland and Duppa's methyl-crotonic acid is distinct
maceutical Society's Journal, xiii., 56, upon the Analysis and
Detection of Impurities in Oils.-H. A. LAWRANCE. from Neubauer's angelicic acid. The author's is a new isomer, of the formula CsH802. Preservation of Drinking Water.-Hugo Schiff.
TO CORRESPONDENTS. The author recommends salicylic acid for the preserva. Max Jordan.-We regret that we are unable to give our corres. tion of drinking water and bring with i part per 1000 of Ipondent the information he desires. purified carbon clisulphide for the preservation of zoolo- !
Lavon.-Morfit's treatise on Soap, published by Trübner and Co.
Merrick.-- Apply to the Secretary of the Society at Burlington gical specimens.
House for a nomination form, which has to be signed by a certain Oxidation of Metaxylol-sulphamids.-Oscar Jacob.
number of Fellows of the Society, some of whom must have personal sen.-A controversial paper with reference to the com
knowledge and others general knowledge of a candidate. munication by Iles and Remsen (Berichte, xi., 1326).
J. C. Harvey.--"Sutton's Volumetric Analysis," published by I Churchill,
CHEMICAL. News, ļ Direct Process of Making Wrought Iron and Steel.
1. Steel Plates. THE CHEMICAL NEWS.
Carbon .. .. 0'2go 0'300 0'180 0'234
Manganese .. 0'380 0'412 0'275 0:178
o. i. o'015 O'OII O'oro O'021 SILICIURETTED HYDROGEN.
II. Iron Plates (Average Analysis). We have received from Dr. Theodor Schuchardt, of
Carbon .. .. .. .. .. 0'110 per cent.
Manganese .. .. .. Goerlitz, a specimen of a new body, which he calls silicium
Sulphur.. .. .. strontium. It is formed from the preparation of metallic
Phosphorus .. .. .. .. 0'004 strontium by electrolysis, but no particulars are given as
1 Silicon ..
O'008 to the substances present or the rea&ion by which it is
.. formed. As received from Dr. Schuchardt the compound
Copper .. .. .. .. .. traces , is a grey powder with a slight odour resembling phos. In the steel plates, in Nos. II. and III., traces of phuretted hydrogen. When mixed with dilute hydro- copper were observed. The other two steel plates conchloric acid a rapid evolution of the spontaneously in.
tained no copper. flammable siliciuretted hydrogen takes place. No par.
In the annexed table is shown the loss of the plates ticulars as to price are mentioned, but if obtainable in
during the action of the sea-water upon them. quantity this compound will probably be the readiest source of siliciuretted hydrogen.
III. Action of 100 litres of Sea-water (Sp. Gr. 1•027) on W. C.
one Square Metre of Iron and Steel. f-inch Plates.
Loss in Grms.
I. Steel . . .. .. . MEANS OF DETECTING THE ADULTERATION
22:34 OF SAFFRON.
3. 1 . .
.. . 2183
.. .. .. .. .. 21'96 To detect adulteration with Calendula flowers (Feminelle),
1. Iron .. .
25.78 it is merely required to moisten a few flowers, and to rub
.. .. .. .. .. .. 25954 them singly with the finger on white paper. The genuine
.. .. .. .. .. 26'04 flowers will give a fine rich yellow colour, whilst the
.. .. .. .. .. 27:44 Feminelle will only yield a violet reddish hue. It can
To come to some conclusion further experiments are also be easily detected by soaking the suspicious flowers in pure or, better still, distilled water. The real saffron
wanted, which are at the present time commenced, but will retain its fine red colour after hours, whilst the
the author believes that it is preferable to use steel for the Feminelle will lose its artificial tint within a short
skin of the ships. Certainly, in using steel much will
depend on the manufacture and the composition of it, time. To detect an admixture of Honey and Barytes it is
and many equivocal results may be obtained duriog merely required to put a pinch of saffron in a tumbler
experiments on the action of sea-water, owing to the with pure clear water (also in this case distilled water is
more or less compactness of the plates. The best control preferable), and agitating it for a few minutes. Adulte.
in this case may be the determination of the specific rated saffron will at once turn the water cloudy, and even
gravity of the plates. small particles of dust may be seen falling to the bottom, which, on pouring the water carefully out, will be found to be a slimy, sand-like mass. With puré saffron the
ON THE DIRECT PROCESS OF MAKING water will remain clear, showing a fine pure yellow colour, which, according to the quality of the flowers, will be more
WROUGHT-IRON AND STEEL.* or less intense. Five or ten minutes suffice for these ex.
By CHARLESJM. DU PUY, C.E. periments.
ABOUT one year ago I had the honour of addressing this PRELIMINARY NOTE
Institute on the direct manufacture of iron from the ore. ON THE ACTION OF SEA-WATER ON
I then briefly referred to the various efforts that had been
made in that direction, reaching over the best part of the THIN IRON AND STEEL PLATES.
past century, and closed the paper by describing a method, By SERGIUS KERN, M.E., St. Petersburg.
which, from various experimental and practical tests, seemed likely to promise usefulness in the arts.
It may be remembered, by this process the ore, carbona. Thin iron and steel plates were subjected to the action of ceous matter, and fluxes, in the proper proportions, are sea-water in the following manner :-
ground together and mixed at the same time, and then The specimens were 0'076 metre square and 0'00317 1 ölled into annular sheet-iron cases, holding from 100 to metre thick (one-eighth of an inch): They were placed 200 pounds. Ten to twenty of these cases, with spaces (four samples of iron, four samples of steel plates) in
between them, are subjected to the gradually increasing wooden boxes containing sea-water, 2 litres in each box.
heat of a reverberatory furnace, and in about five hours The sea-salt was obtained from the north shores of France
on the average the ore and cases settle down, without and dissolved in water; the specific gravity was 1'027
work upon them, to about one-third their original height, when the salt was added.
becoming welded into quite compact lumps of iron, interThe specimens were immersed in this solution for
spersed with liquid slag. These metal lumps are either thirty days, next dried between filter paper, and finally I then removed separately from the furnace. or several of in an air-bath at 35° to 40°; then they were weighed.
them being welded together at the same heat, are forged All the plates before the experiments had a smooth
or squeezed and rolled to “muck-bar." surface, and were of the best manufacture. The chemical composition of them being as follows:
* A Paper read before the Franklin Institute, November 20, 1878.
This process differs from all others, and it is exactly the sulphur for sulphuric acid from the iron pyrites, at the reverse of the forge-fire and the blast-furnace methods. New Jersey Chemical Works (commonly known to the In those, a tuyere conducts a stream of oxygen into close trade as "Blue Billy'), was also reduced by this process contact with the particles of ore, while in this process the with anthracite coal dust, and forged well into a bloom. moderate heat prevents the combination of phosphorus This specimen was some time afterwards re-heated, rolled, with the iron, while atmospheric contact is excluded cut up, and piled with about one-third of its weight of during reduction, and a reflected heat from the roof is muck-bar from common puddled iron, and plated out well furnished, for absorption during the transition to metal. into smooth sheets of No. 26 iron. This last experiment It is to this peculiar treatment that is ascribed the high is not of much value for this country, because very little quality of the iron for steel purposes. It is what may be sulphuric acid is made from pyrites, but in Europe probably termed a baking process, which is conducted at a com- | not less than a mijlion tons of this refuse ore is now paratively moderate heat to eliminate phosphorus, and in annually almost wasted, because of the difficulty of which the ore is kept out of the reach of oxidising influ- | economically utilising it. ences, and to this the high value for steel is attributable. | These Reading experiments were the more gratifying
At the time I addressed you I had licensed Messrs. Miller, from the fact that the process was quite successfully conMetcalf, and Parkin, of Pittsburg, Pa., to work the process ducted in a reverberatory furnace, not well adapted to the at their Crescent Steel Works. Their forge and surnace purpose. This furnace had some time before been speci. was not completed until some time in last January, when ally arranged to test the use of anthracite coal-slack, by for seveal months thereafter they carefully tested the iron burning it in fires of 4 or 5 inches thickness, on what is which was deoxidised with charcoal by this method, in the commonly termed “the Wooten grate-bars.” As these thin various ways customary to determine the value of iron for fires required renewal every 15 or 20 minutes, the frehigh grades of steel. The result of these investigations quent opening of the door for replenishment exposed the brought forth the unqualified endorsement of this firm that ore so often to atmospheric re-oxidation as to make the the iron so produced from our native ores, for steel purposes, furnace unsuited to the process. Besides this, the fire and is equal in every respect to the most costly grades of fue bridge-walls, which had been constructed very low, Swedish iron.
and could not be very well raised owing to the lowness of Although the production of fine steel iron, reduced with the roof, caused the cases of ore to be exposed to the direct charcoal by this process, was a step forward, yet the con action of the blast and draught as it passed through the sumption of high grades of steel is comparatively limited, furnace into the stack. being mostly used only for tools of various kinds requiring Following up these interesting experiments during the great endurance. In order to enlarge the uses of this month of September last, a sand-bottom scrap-heating superior make of iron, it became apparent that its cost furnace was altered at the Sligo Iron Works at Pittsburg must be cheapened by deoxidising the ore with waste an for the purpose of testing this process further, by throwing thracite dust or refuse coke-dust, instead of charcoal. the lumps of metal into a Burden Squeezer, and then rolling
To determine the practical value of anthracite dust, a them to “muck-bar" at the same heat. Hitherto they had series of more than fifty experiments were conducted, usually been forged to blooms under a hammer, and afterduring the month of August last, at the forge at Reading, wards re-heated to be drawn to bars. Pa. In these experiments, with anthracite dust, were This furnace was operated experimentally with 32 heats. used magnetic ore from near West Point, N.Y., Dickinson There was found no difficulty in making balls to pass ore from northern New Jersey, Cornwallore from Lebanon through the squeezer and muck rolls at the same heat, Co., Pa., Cumberland Valley ore from Maryland, Hematite just as ordinary puddle balls from pig-iron is squeezed and ore from near Newark, Del., besides several other ores rolled at the same heat to muck-bar; but in order to fill found near the line of the Philadelphia and Reading R.R. the squeezer, which required balls of 150 to 200 pounds to
These ores were worked both separately and variously secure a good compression, it became necessary to weld combined, and with one exception, in every case, were re. and press several of the lumps of meta! together in the duced and forged to blooms. The blooms, which were furnace at a heat so high as to cause the alkali to drip re-heated, were drawn out smoothly under the hammer. more or less from the mass, and soften the sand-bottom. The tensile strength of one of these bars was tried, and As the balls were thus compressed and rolled in the fused found to not exceed 45,000 pounds to the square inch. sand an unnecessarily large portion of the iron was
A couple of crucibles of steel were made from a part of thereby cut by the sand and wasted to a silicate of iron, the iron which had been re-heated and drawn out, and the so that the yield from Republic ore which, before the ingots where' forged and used for planing tools. They bottom became softened, produced 53 pounds of iron in stood forging and tempering well, comparing favourably, in muck-bar from 100 pounds of ore charged, and which it endurance, with steel usually used in planing iron.
was expected would have been brought up to 60 pounds The object of testing iron reduced from the ore with of iron from 100 pounds of ore, gradually became very anthracite coal-dust, for tool steel, was not so much with much lessened, showing conclusively that reduced yield the expectation that at the first trial it would work well in followed the sostening of the bottom, and determined the planing iron in competition with steel carefully prepared necessity of a “cinder-bottom" in order to save the iron. from charcoal iron, but to determine, in a general way, To compress and weld several of these masses of metal the quality of the metal for steel purposes, of superio together in the furnace, in order to have them enter and quality and in large quantities, by the open hearth.r fill the squeezer, really comprised all the labour required The result of this crucible test surpassed expectations and during the heat. The cases were 15 inches diameter and was very gratifying, from the fact that it is believed to 14 inches high, holding about 135 pounds of ore besides have been the first instance where good tool steel was ever the coke and fluxes. By making the cases very little made by a direct process, on a practical scale, from iron larger, say 16 inches diameter and 16 inches high, they deoxidised with anthracite coal-dust, and confirms the would each produce about 100 pounds of iron, and by belief that anthracite dust will eventually be largely used withdrawing each separately to the squeezer, all furnace to produce steel of high quality, cheaply and in large | manipulation of the metal would be avoided. Then, aside quantities.
| from maintaining the fire and charging and discharging Besides testing the ores before named, at the Reading the metal, all the labour really needed during the heat forge, iron scale from the rolls (which is almost pure oxide would be to change the damper once or twice, enabling of iron) was reduced alone with anthracite dust, and was an ordinary heater to regulate all the furnaces in the also mingled with ore and anthracite, and in both cases largest mill. was found to forge well into good blooms.
The fire- or grate-surface of this Pittsburg furnace was At the same time with the foregoing'experiments, the 4 feet square, and the space between the bridge-walls ul pho oxides or refuse ore remaining after extracting was g feet by 5 feet in width. The bottom was of sand,