Obrazy na stronie


,} Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources. June 20, 1879.

277 thermic study. Sodium amalgam with water shows soluble in ammoniacal tartrate. The former group is +32:6 cals., and potassium amalgam +27'0 cals. per precipitated, and generally very completely, by potassic equivalent of metal dissolved. With hydrochloric acid ferrocyanide, whilst those of the latter group remain perso diluted that i equiv. = 2 litres the results were for rectly dissclved in the basic ammonic tartrate. sodium +46'5, and for potassium + 41'2 cals. The Volumetro-Chemical Studies.-W. Ostwald.--The alkaline amalgams in hydrogenising reactions always contractions or dilatations experienced on mixing the disengage more heat than does free hydrogen. This solutions of salts may serve for the measurement of their thermic excess explains the hydrogenising power of respective affinities, and have furnished the author with amalgams, and throws a light upon the general theory of results analogous to those obtained with the calorimeter the reactions formerly ascribed to the nascent state. by M. Berthelo: and M. Thomsen.

Stanno-propyls and Iso-stanno-propyls.-MM. A. Cahours and E. Demarçay,—The use of an alloy con

Atti della R. Accademia dei Lincei. taining less than 10 per cent of sodium yields a mixture

Fasc. 4, March 1879. of the diniodide of distanno-propyl and of the moniodide

Researches of tristanno-propyl, the separation of which is scarcely author dissolved 15 grms. cinchonin in a slight excess of

Cinchonin. - Prof. Filetti. - The possible. To obtain the former of these compounds pure hydrochloric acid, diluted the solution to 4 litres, saturated the product of the reaction of propyl-iodide upon tin must not be distilled except in a vacuum. Its composition is it with chlorine, and exposed it to the direct action of represented by Sna(C6H2)212. The iodide of tristanno- light. A white or slightly yellow substance was deposited propyl is Sn2(C6H)31. The properties of these com

on the sides of the beaker. This deposit dissolves in

glacial acetic acid, and is re.precipitated by water. On pounds are described at length.

heating cinchonin with bromine and water for several Quantity of Nitric Acid Contained in the Water days in a closed tube he obtained products, the examina. of the Nile before and after its Rise.-M. d'Abbadie. tion of which is still incomplete. -The quantities of nitric acid per litre of water before, during, and after the floods are represented as being o'oi,

Verhandlungen des Vereins zur Beforderung des 0'0038, and 0.002 grm.

Gewerbfleisses. April, 1879.
Origin of Sound in the Telephone.—Th. du Moncel.
-It is certain that the induction currents produced by a

This number contains no chemico-technological matter. Bell's telephone can occasion the reproduction of speech in a magnetic disk surrounded with a helix without any

MISCELLANEOUS. need for a diaphragm influenced by such disk.

Rays of the Vapour of Sodium.-Mr. N. Lockyer. The Royal Society.-On Thursday, the 12th inst., New Arrangement for Increasing the Sensibi:ity the following fifteen candidates were elected Fellows of of the Vibrating Plate of the Telephone.-M. c. the Royal Society :-). Anderson, M.D., Rev. M. J. Decharme.—The author proposes to fix such plates by Berkeley, H. Bessemer, Prof. A. Crum-Brown, W, L. their centre only.

Buller, Sc.D., G. H. Darwin, Prof. J. D. Everett, Prof. F. A Compound of Alumina and Carbonic Acid.-S. B: François de Chaumont, Prof. G. D. Liveing, G. MM. Urbain and Renoul.-If alumina is precipitated Seeley, B. Williamson, and T. Wright, M.D.

Matthey, G. J. Romanes, A. Schuster, Ph.D., Prof. H. G.

The fol. from alum by means of sodic carbonate two bodies are lowing have been elected Foreign Members of the obtained differing in aspect according as the liquid was

Society :-Arthur Auwers, Berlin ; Luigi Cremona, Rome; boiling or of the common temperature of the atmosphere. Jean Louis Armand de Quatrefages, Paris; Georg HerIn the former case the precipitate is gelatinous, trans

mann Quinke, Heidelberg; Theodor Schwann, Liege ; parent, and filters slowly, whilst in the latter case it is opaque, separates readily from the liquid, and absorbs Jean Servais Stas, Brussels. colouring matters much more abundantly than the transparent variety. The author finds that the opaque variety

NOTES AND QUERIES. contains carbonic acid in such proportions that it may be represented by the formula, CO2,2Al2O3,8H0.

Liquid Perchloride of Iron.--I should be glad if any of your

correspondents could tell me where there is a good market for liquid Mr. Lawrence Smith remarked that a natural carbonate perchloride of iron in quantities isp. gr. 1.400°, and the price that of alumina and soda existed at Montreal.

would be given. Also protochloride of iron (sp. gr. 10400°).

convenience for making large quantities.-SCARLET.
Bulletin de la Société Chimique de Paris,

No. 10, May 20, 1879.
Oxy.ferrocyanide of Ammoniacal Copper.–Antony MONDAY, 23rd. --Royal Geographical, 8.30.
Guyard.-Thé precipitate obtained by adding, potassic | Wednesday, 25th.–Society of Arts, 4. (Anniversary.)
ferrocyanide to ammoniacal sulphate of copper if washed

Geological, 8.
and dried in the air at about 150° loses cyanogen and am. THURSDAY, 26th.-Royal Society Club, 6.30. (Anniversary.)
monia, absorbs oxygen, and takes a violet tone.


FRIDAY, 27th.-Quekett, 8.

SATURDAY, 28th.-Physical, 3. material should be spread out in a thin layer, and stirred continually till the heat reaches 170°, when the reaction is

THE YORKSHIRE COLLEGE. complete. The colour does not seem available either in painting or in the pigment style in calico-printing. If heated up to 200° the colour changes to a blue, and at The Worshipful Company of Clothworkers of from 240° to 250° to a green, neither of them remarkable the City of London having increased their Endowment of the for brightness.

Textile Industry Department of the College so as to include instruc

tion in Dyeing, the Council of the College is prepared to receive A Law Peculiar to the Metallic Ferrocyanides.- applications for the post of Instructor; Stipend, £300 a year and half Antony Guyard.—The hydrated oxides, as existing in

the Fees. Preference will be given to Candidates who are familiar

with the processes of French and German Dyeing and with the their soluble salts, may be divided into two great groups Methods of Instruction pursued in the Continental Schools. Applicaaccording to their behaviour with aqueous ammonia : tions, accompanied by a statement of the Candidate's experience, Ist. Oxides soluble in ammonia and in ammoniuretted together with copies of Testimonials, to be sent not later than ammoniacal salts, including, of course, the tartrate. August 11th to the Secretary of the Yorkshire College, from whom

further information may be obtained. The work of instruction wil 2nd. Oxides insoluble, or very sparingly soluble, in am- begin in January, 1880. moniuretted ammoniacal salts, but, on the other hand, Leeds, June 18th, 1879.

W. F. HUSBAND, Secretary.


Superior Iron Filter-Press for Sale, made to



DAVID HILL, Consulting Chemist in

278 Advertisements.


June 20, 1879.

London 18th June 1879 Analytical Chemist desires an appointment. Would be willing to make himself useful in any capacity; London

NOTICE-ARTIFICIAL ALIZARINE preferred.- Address, Chemist, 351, Middleton Road, Oldham. A German Chemist (Ph.D.), holding diplomas WE the undersigned the Owners respectively from University and Polytechnicum, who has already had ex

of the Patents for the Manufacture of Alizarine perience in a manufactory, seeks a Situation in a Chemical Manu

A D 1869

No. 1936 factory in England. -Address, K.D., CHEMICAL News Office, Boy

A D 1869

No. 1948 Court, Ludgate Hill, London, E C.

A D 1869

No. 3318

HEREBY GIVE NOTICE That we recently commenced Legal Required by an Associate of the Royal School Proceedings against The Aligarine and Anthabascoe Company Limited of a Chemical or Metallurgical Works, or on a Mine, in England or

and for an Injunction to restrain the said Alizarine and Authracene abroad. Highest references.-Address, A.R.S.M., CHEMICAL News Company Limited from manufacturing selling or from offering for Office, Boy Court, Ludgate Hill, London, E.C.

sale or disposing of or parting with any Artificial Alizarine or other

Coloring Matters manufactured or prepared in contravention of our TO MANURE MANUFACTURERS.

rights under the said Patents or either of them respectively Aod

that after obtaining an interim injunction on the terms of out applia FOR SALE: About 150 tons Monthly of cation we at the request of the said Alizarine and Anthracene Com.

Woollen Shoddy; free from grease; containing nitrogen pany Limited agreed to stay our Action upon the following terms equal to from 5 to 10 per cent ammonia.-Apply to David Shaw and a. That the said Alizarine and Anthracene Company Limited Co., Clayton, near Manchester,

should submit to a perpetual Injunction
b. That they should admit the validity of the said Patents

c. That they should pay damages for past infringements order and of extra quality, by Messrs. Needham and Kite. It

d. That they should pay our Costs of the Legal Proceedings

A perpetual injunction against the Alizarine and Anthracene Com. contains ten chambers, each 19x214 inches; is provided with a 3-inch

pany Limited have been granted and all proceedings in the Action gun-metal pump to work by hand or steam, and with fittings for

have been stayed on the above terms washing and steaming, which can be used or not at discretion. The

AND WE HEREBY GIVE FURTHER NOTICE that we whole is quite equal to new, and is in perfect working order.-Address L. B. S., CHEMICAL News' Office, Boy Court, Ludgate Hill, London, recently were about to institute legal proceedings against Messrs.

Arthur and Henshaw Drysalters and Oil Merchants in Glasgow and E.C.

Matthew Clark and William Andrew Jamieson Drysalters and Oil WAGGONS. Wanted two for

Merchants Glasgow the individual partners of the said Arm of Arthur

and Henshaw to obtain interdict against their infringing the said Creosote; secondhand if in good condition -Full particulars to Letters Patent or any of them and damages for infringements thereof be addressed " Tank,” CHEMICAL News Office, Boy Court, Ludgate by them in time past and i hat we have agreed to discontinue and disHill, London, E.C.

charge the said threatened proceeedings upon certain conditions

embodied in an Agreement entered into between us and them Under Fittings to be sold with the Lease of an Eligible Dwelling- said Matthew Clark and William Andrew Jamieson the individual House. Rent very moderate.-Further particulars of E. and S. Smith, partners of the said firm admit and acknowledge Auctioneers and Agents, 22, Southampton Buildings, Chancery Lane, a. That the said Letters Patent are valid in every respect W.C.

b. That they have infringed the said Letters Patent by importing

vending and selling Artificial Alizarine manufactured ac

cording to one or other of the processes described in tbe Technical Processes, late of Deans Terrace, South Shields.

Specifications respectively filed in connection with the said

Letters Patent Letters to be addressed care of Messrs. Bulloch and Co., 79, Mark

c. That the Letters Patent of the 28th May 1869 No. 1642 granted Lane, London, E.C. Special attention given to questions relating to 4 Noxious Vapours."

to Franz Julius Brönner (therein named Julius Bronner) and Hermann Gutzkow are and always have been null and


d. They undertake during the subsistence of our said Letters PLYMOUTH, Makers of Plant for Sulphuric Acid and Super

Patent not to import into or sell within the United phosphate Works, alsu for Tar and Ammonia Distilling.

Kingdom any Artificial Alizarine produced by any of the NORRINGTON'S PATENT,

Lieferses described in the Specifications of any of our sald For the prevention of escape of gases during the charging of kilns WE LASTLY GIVE NOTICE that any person or persons in. and nitre pots. The success of this invention being assured, we are prepared to Contract for fixing this Patent Apparatus to 'Pyrites fringing our above-mentioned Patents whether by purchasing (except Furnaces throughout the Kingdom.

from us or our Licensees) or selling importing or being concerned in Estimates and Plans furnished on application.

importing or in anyway using Artificial Alizarine in the United Kingdom other than Alizarine made here by us or imported by us or

A REWARD will be given to any person who will give the under , or

signed information sufficient to undertake legal proceedings against quality, suited for the manufacture of Scap and other purposes, any such Infringers upplied on best terms by W. GOSSAGE and Sons, Soap

BURT BOULTON and HAYWOOD Works, Widnes, Lancashire.

64 Cannon Street City London London Agents, COSTE and Co., 19 and 20, Water Lane, Tower

Badische Anilin and Soda Fabrik Street, E.C., who bold stock ready for delivery.



NEW LIST of Collections of Minerals, Fossils, and Rocks, with • Optical Instrument Maker, 44, Gloucester Street, Queen's

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and Sizes of Cabinets for Natural History and other purposes. New scientific work.

Catalogue of Secondhand and New Books on Geology and Kindred
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of Rocks and Minerals for the Microscope. New List of Prices and S. A. SADLER,

Patterns for Geological Hammers. New List of Blowpipe Cabinets, CLEVELAND CHEMICAL WORKS, practical work in Geology and Mineralogy

Apparatus, and Materials. Also Implements and Appliances for MIDDLESBROUGH;

Post free on application to JAMES R. GREGORY, Geologists

and Mineralogists' Repository, 88, Charlotte Street, Fitzroy Square, Newfall Tar Works, Carlton;

Ammonia Works, Stockton-on-Tees;

IMPORTANT TO SULPHURIC ACID MANUFACTURERS. and Stamshaw Chemical Works, Portsmouth.

NORRINGTON'S PATENT. And also of the Furness Tar Products Co., Ulverston.

the ordinary method of Manufacture, at the

time of charging the Kilns, a considerable escape of gases takes Solvent and Burning Naphthas, Carbolic Acid and Disinfecting

place. This is attended with proportionate loss of Sulphur, and Powder, Refined Anthracepe Naphthaline, Black Varnish, Refined

with much inconvenience to the workmen, as well as annoyance Tar, Crude Liquid Ammonia, Coal-Tar, Pitch, Creosote, Grease,

to the vicinity of the Works. This may be entirely avoided Sulphate of Ammonia, Pyroligneous Acid, Acetate of Lime, Wood

by the adoption of C. Norrington's patented invention, which Naphtha, Charcoal, &c., &c.

can be applied at moderate cost to existing Plant, as well as in tbe S.A.S. is always a buyer of Coal-Tar Naphtbas, Crude Anthracene

erection of new Works. It may be seen in full operation on extensiv e ad all Tar Products.

Plant at Messrs. C. Norrington and Co.'s Chemical and Mabur e

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WILLOUGHBY BROS., Central Foundry,

Silicates of Soda and Potash in the state of

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,} Jane 27, 1879. Limited Oxidation of the Essential Oils.


interrupted my work, and even now I am only induced to THE CHEMICAL NEWS.

make this preliminary communication, since, from a paper read at the last meeting of the Chemical Society, I perceive

that Dr. Armstrong is working in some measure upon Vol. XXXIX. NO, 1022.

the same subject.

Having said so much, I will now give the notes of my recent experiments, all of which I intend to repeat and work out to their final conclusions as opportunity may


2. There is a great difference presented by different

essential oils, and even by various kinds of turpentine, as PART V.

regards the rate at which they individually absorb oxygen THE ATMOSPHERIC OXIDATION OF TURPENTINE. from the air ; and not only is this the case, but an oil of

turpentine which, say, absorbs oxygen at a given rate, By C. T. KINGZETT.

will absorb it much less rapidly if freed from contained

oxidised matters by distillation. In other words, when 1. In my previous papers,* which were communicated to once the process has begun, it continues more and inthe Chemical Society and the British Asscciation, I have creasingly rapidly, so that the greater the amount of shown that when the so-called essential oils are exposed oxidised matter contained in the oil the greater the oxidato atmospheric oxidation, peroxide of hydrogen is pro- tion under given conditions. The following table is duced in an indirect manner. In the case of turpentine, | interesting as illustrating the relative absorptive rates for which was more particularly studied, it seemed to me that atmospheric oxygen presented by the various oils experia camphoric peroxide (C10H1404) is first formed, and that mented with. The method employed was as follows: this is slowly decomposed by the action of water, yielding A number of very long tubes (made from combustion peroxide of hydrogen and camphoric acid, thus

tubing) and sealed at one end, were charged with equal C10H1404+2H20=C19H1604+H2O2.

volumes of air, water, and the various oils. After expo

sure to sunlight summer for a number of hours, and Certain it is that I obtained camphoric acid in my ex

before all the oxygen was absorbed in any case, the tubes periments, and analysed some of its compounds. I also

were removed to the laboratory and the residual gas in succeeded in showing that all hydrocarbons of the formula

each tube measured. Calling the largest amount of C10H:6 (terpenes) similarly give rise to the formation of peroxide of hydrogen, and that this property is shared by oxygen absorbed 100, then

Absorbed. menthene, C..H18. On the other hand, it was observed (a) Russian oil of turpentine that the hydrocarbons of the formula C15H24 did not

(6) Swedish behave in this way. The production of peroxide of c) Some oil which I obtained in Switzerland

89'4 hydrogen by the atmospheric oxidation of the specified

(d) American oil of turpentine..

78.9 hydrocarbons seemed to have some kind of connection

(e) Oil of Eucalyptus..

75'0 with another property of the same bodies. It had been

(1) An evidently adulterated Swedish turpentine 52:6 shown by Oppenheim and Wright that all the terpenes (g) “Scotch distilled American turpentine".. 42'1 yield cymene (C20H14) when subjected to suitable pro.

The oils a, b, d, and e were undoubtedly genuine comcesses, and, moreover, it appears that cymene as obtained from all sources is identical.' According to Fittica,

cymene mercial oils; the oil c was perhaps French oil of turpenis normal propyl-methyl-benzene, in which the methyl tine, and in this case only was the oil distilled before use, and propyl occupy the para position. This view has not

because to my knowledge it had undergone great oxidareceived universal acceptance, but whatever it may be tion by keeping for many years; the oils f and g were worth, there is apparently no satisfactory reason for evidently not genuine, and had been sent to me merely doubting the identity of cymene prepared from different

as samples; I should say that both had been adulterated compounds, and the researches of Paterno lend particular with so-called pine oil of commerce. It may be mentioned

that when the oils which absorbed atmospheric oxygen at confirmation to this statement.

Now, since all the terpenes and menthene give peroxide the relative rates indicated by 100, 100, 78.9, and 75 were of hydrogen as above stated, and since they also contain taken in equal amounts and placed in cylindrical glasses a cymene nucleus, the two facts seem to be related, and having their tops covered with paper treated with the this relation is confirmed by my observations, that

same amount of the same mixture of potassic iodide and

cymene itself yields peroxide of hydrogen also, while the hydro- starch, the papers became coloured owing to the formacarbon from oil of cloves, C15H24 (Church), does not yield tion of peroxide of hydrogen in their vicinity in the same

order. peroxide of hydrogen and (as I anticipated would be the

The same general result has been obtained in case) does not yield cymene by bromination (as shown by oxidising very large quantities of the same oils for com

mercial purposes. Wright). In the last part of my research the general features pre

3. In Parts II. and IV. I have described the general

nature and characters of the aqueous solution which is sented in the atmospheric oxidation of turpentine on a large scale were described in detail, and it was then shown obtained when oil of turpentine is, in the presence of that the compound which is primarily formed, and which water, exposed to the action of a blast of air, and it is afterwards (viz., when in contact with water) gives rise therefore unnecessary to do the same thing again in this to the formation of peroxide of hydrogen, may be obtained place. If this solution be evaporated on the water-bath in such amount that when the oil of turpentine containing to dryness, of course all the acetic acid is got rid of, and it is subjected to distillation decomposition occurs just mains behind a dark coloured matter, which when hot

all the peroxide of hydrogen is decomposed. There reabove the boiling-point with almost explosive violence. As is well known, the atmospheric oxidation of turpentine has a sugar-like odour and is viscid ; on cooling it sets is now conducted as a commercial operation (for producing into an adhesive but firm mass, which, when treated with the disinfectant callerl“Sanitas"), and I have been naturally concentrated sulphuric acid, gives a colour reaction someanxious to continue my experiments in order to obtain a

what resembling that bearing Pettenkofer's name. more perfect knowledge of the process and its products of the substance was dried at 100° C.,* and burnt with

To get some sort of knowledge of its composition a part Unfortunately, the performance of other duties has largely

• The weight did not become constant, the substance being eviPart I.-journal of the Chemical Society, June, 1874. Part II.- dently slowly volatile at 100° C. After being in the oven for forty or Ibid., March, 1875. Part 111.-CHEMICAL NEWS, vol. xxxii., p. 137. fifty hours the residual substance lost 10 per cent during the next Part IV.-Ibid., vol. xxxiv., p. 127.

forty hours.


Limited Oxidation of the Essential Oils.


June 17, 1879.

Per cent.

at wts.




Per cent.

at wts.

chromate of lead, using also in the tube a few pieces of process more carefully with a view to determine the tem. potassic perchlorate so as to be sure of persect combustion. peratures at which the different produas came over; 0-2450 grm. gave o‘2214 grm. H20 and 0-5766 grm. CO2. neither have I yet examined, analytically or otherwise, These figures give

either the crystalline matter or the liquid oils.

Again, if the body whose analytical numbers agree with

the formula C10H1803 be dissolved in water, and the solu. C.. 64'18 5*3483 3'31

tion acidified with dilute sulphuric acid, it grows milkyH..

10'0000 614 X3=C10H1803 and on standing a slightly coloured oily body of consider, O.. 25.83 1•6137


able quantity separates. This rea&ion will probably lead Of course this formula is only provisionally acceptable, but constitution of the substance C30H1803; and indeed I have

on further examination to a better understanding of the the information thus obtained is important. This substance exercises remarkable antiseptic powers, of its change there will be obtained very important evi

no doubt that with a knowledge of this and the products and indeed the similar qualities of " Sanitas.” are largely dence as regards the nature and constitution of the terdue to its presence, but they are supplemented by the properties of the accompanying peroxide of hydrogen and penes as a class. the substances which are dissipated during the evaporation obiained by oxidising Russian turpentine in the presence

5. Several litres of the aqueous solution (“ Sanitas "), of the solution.

When the substance whose analysis has been given of water, were treated with caustic soda in bare excess, above is heated with water it is found to be imperfectly and the mixture, which darkened very much at the point soluble: roughly, about 5 per cent remains as a viscid, in. of neutralisation, was evaporated nearly to dryness on the soluble, nearly black matter. In one experiment, working

water-bath. The dark-coloured soft resin-like residue thus with nearly half a pound of substance, this separation obtained was then treated with an excess of dilute sulwas effected, and for the time being the insoluble matter phuric acid. By this treatment there separated a dark was set on one side. The yellowish brown solution was

oily mass, from which the clear solution was filtered, and shaken with. purified animal charcoal, but this failed to

then subjected to distillation. As the acid solution became remove any of the colour, although the charcoal abstracted hot more oil separated out, and there passed over an acid a considerable amount of the substance itself. The solu- distillate accompanied by 20 or 30 c.c. of a slightly yellow tion was finally evaporated to dryness, and there was thus volatile oil, with an odour resembling that of mixed able odour, and showing itself to be volatile when heated identical with that obtained in (4) by treatment of the obtained a transparent varnish-like substance, of an agree cymene and eucalyptus. This oil, which gives a beautiful

colour-reaction with strong sulphuric acid, is probably in the air-bath at 100° C. It was analysed, observing the same precautions as before, but the manipulation of the CroH:103 substance with dilute sulphuric acid. At the

end of the distillation there remained in the retort a quarr substance was very difficult, owing to its semi-fluid state when hot, and its adhesive nature in the cold.

tity of black tarry matter floating in a fluid state on the O‘2884 grm. gave oʻ263 grm. H20 and 0.6688 grm. CO2 surface, and on cooling it set into a thick skin. The acid These figures give

distillate was separated from the oil, and then exaaly

neutralised with pure caustic soda, and the solution eva+0=1.

porated to the point of crystallisation. In this way crysC.. 63'245 5*2704 3:17)

ials of sodic acetate were obtained, and subsequently pure 10*132 10 132 60g *3=C10H1803

acetic acid and its other salts were made. The acetic 26.623 1.663

acid obtained did not amount to more than 0-25 grm. per

litre of fluid operated upon; nevertheless, this observation I believe that in this analysis the carbon came out a confirms similar facts which I stated in the second part of little too low on account of the difficulty just mentioned, this research. I could detect no other volatile acid. but practically it may be said that the removal of more If the aqueous solution which formed the subject of this than 5 per cent of matter from the originally analysed sub- last experiment be distilled alone, a certain amount of oil stance did not materially affect its composition. It will also passes over with the distillate. For instance, in one be convenient here to speak of that part of the residue experiment 1000 c.c. fluid yielded about 5 c.c.of oil. More soluble in water as the solutle part, and that which is left than double the amount, however, is obtained is the solu. undissolved by water as the insoluble part.

tion be acidified with sulphuric acid. Whether, however, The insoluble part does not give the vivid reaction with these oily distillates are identical in composition cannot strong sulphuric acid that is afforded by the other part, yet be stated, nor am I as yet assured that no other vola. and even when a drop of strong sugar solution is added tile matter soluble in water also passes over. but little purple colour is obtained. Although insoluble in 6. I have now sufficiently indicated the work that has water it readily dissolves in an oily matter (to be here- lately occupied ny attention, and I may add that I antiafterwards described) which accompanies it and the other cipate its further prosecution will be attended with very substance in the original solution; hence its insolubility interesting and important results. This is particularly the is explained.

case, since in my process of oxidation there is no violent The soluble part, C10H1803 (?), gives with strong sul. change like that resulting from the use, for example, of phuric acid a deep cherry-red colour reaction, and this is nitric acid, and hence the products are much more nearly not intensified by adding syrup. When heated on platinum. related to and comparable with the original terpene emfoil it melts, evolves inflammable gas, and leaves a char- | ployed : as a consequence the results are more intelligible, coal. Its aqueous solution reduces Fehling's solution just and the inferences to be drawn from them acceptable as glucose does, and exhibits very powerful antiseptic accordingly. characters.

7. It is much to be regretted that the recorded infor. 4. A quantity of this substance was subjected to distil- mation regarding other processes of the oxidation of lation. At first it melted, then boiled, and a small quan- turpentine and their products is not more complete and tity of an almost colourless oil passed over, which con- precise, for it is mainly by the light of such knowledge densed into a colourless, soft, crystalline mass on cooling. that chemists trust to ascertain the constitution of this After this, permanent oil passed over, which grew denser and the allied hydrocarbons. I trust I may be excused and darker as the distillation proceeded. The vapours in for saying chemists as a body are too fond of confining the retort seemed at the end to have a green colour. When their studies to a limited number of the produas of any the distillation was stopped there remained in the retort a one process, and they preferably choose of course the most black-looking liquid mass, which set on cooling, and then crystalline of these. I his is unfortunate, because any one resembled pitch in appearance. The experiment was reaction which may be worked out is not rarely regarded as quite a preliminary one, and I have not yet repeated the the only one which occurs in a given process, whereas the


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Nitric Nitrogen in Manure. June 27, 18 2 }

281 1879. truth is more often that it is only one of a large number | I did not follow them up. owing to the fact that about that that really occur.

time manures ceased to be analysed in our laboratory. I When turpentine is oxidised by heating it with plumbic showed that the partial decomposition of nitrates by soda. oxide, it is said to yield teretinic and formic acids, thus:- lime was well known, and was stated in, e.g., Fresenius's 2C10H 16+702= 2C,H,405+2CH202.

“Quantitative Analysis ” and Church's " Laboratory This reaction, undoubtedly, does not express the whole Guide.” I described encouraging results obtained by truth. Then, again, Hempel has stated that when turpen making a combustion of nitre with iron filings and sugar. tine is oxidised with chromic acid it yielus terpenylic acid, I was more successful when I adopted the following CyH1204. This is an important observation, but would plan:- The nitre was dissolved in caustic alkaline solu. be much more valuable if all the accompanying products tion, iron filings added, and distillation of the mixture to were also studied and defined.

a pasty state carried on in a retort. The results, in fact, By oxidising turpentine with nitric acid, toluic acid, erred on the side of excess. I proposed that, in a mixture C8H802, and terephthalic acid, C8H60m, are also said to containing nitrogen in the form of ammonia salt, nitrate, Tesult, but Wright has raised the question whether the and organic matter, the distillation should be carried on terephthalic acid thus obtained is not due merely to the to the above point, and that then the pasty residue should presence of cymene in the turpentine operated upon. be cooled. In this state it solidifies, and may be powdered,

More recently, however, Hempel has repeated the mixed with soda-lime, and a combustion of the mixture statement that these acids are obtained by the process made to determine the residue of the organic nitrogen. I above indicated. They are also said to be accompanied should be glad if Mr. Tatlock would carry out this idea. with terebic acid, C,H1004, terebenzic acid, C,H,O2, and terechrysic acid, Co HyOg.

This variety of products attending the use of such powerful oxidants as nitric acid or an acid solution of RELATIONS BETWEEN THE ATOMIC WEIGHTS potassic dichromate seems clearly to establish the great

AND CERTAIN PHYSICAL PROPERTIES advantage of employing the mildest possible oxidising agent where it is desired to obtain a knowledge of the (MELTING- AND BOILING-POINTS AND HEATS OF FORMATION) cinstitution of substances. Indeed, the presumption is OF ELEMENTS AND COMPOUNDS." that, since it is possible to resolve turpentine into carbonic

By THOMAS CARNELLEY, D.Sc., anhydride and water, if the oxidation with nitric acid be

Assistant Lecturer on Chemistry in Owens College, Manchester. continued for a sufficient period, not only the products previously indicated but a further vast number may be intermediately produced.

The object of the present paper is to trace the influence of the atomic weights on the melting, and boiling points and heats of formation of elements, and especially of their

compounds. It is shown that, as regards the elements, ON SOME ANALYSES OF IRON.

the melting points are a periodic function of their atomic

weights, whilst, for compounds, the following conclusions By SERGIUS KERN, M.E., St. Petersburg.

are drawn :

1. That the melting, and boiling points and heats of In several articles inserted in this journal the author has formation of the normal halogen compounds of the pointed out that in many cases the chemical analysis of elements are a periodic fundion of the atomic weights of iron or steel cannot give an idea of the quality of the the constituent elements. inetal. The following is a short account of some experi- II. That the influence of the halogen on these same ments executed some time ago. Some pieces of rolled iron (boiler plates) prepared from physical properties increases with the number of its atoms

in the compound. a very pure pig-iron were sent for analysis. The iron,

III. That in any normal halogen compound the influhowever, proved to be of a bad quality, and could not

ence of either of the elements on the meliing, or boiling. stand all the necessary tests. The following are the point increases with its own atomic weight, and decreases results of the analysis :

with the atomic weight of the other element. Silicon

O'oro per cent

IV. The melting- or boiling-point or heat of formation Manganese

of a bromide is always nearer to that of the corresponding Sulphur ..

chloride than to that of the corresponding iodide; and Phosphorus

that the melting- or boiling points of the halogen comCopper


pounds of the middle member of three consecutive eleThis analysis cannot show that the inferior quality of ments of the same group are always nearer to those of the iron was due to the presence of noxious elements. the first member (i.e., the one with least atomic weight) The author believes that the small quantity of copper than to those of the last member. could not have any influence on the quality of the irun.

The former of these phenomena probably depends on The production of bad plates from such a beautiful iron the fact that the atomic weight of Br is nearer to that of could take place only supposing that the rolling of the ci than to that of I, i.e., less than the mean of the two: metal was badly conducted.

and the latter on the fact that the atomic weight of the middle member of three consecutive elements of the same group is always less than the mean of those of the other

two elements. ON NITRIC NITROGEN IN MANURE. V. That the melting- and boiling points of the halogen

compounds of the elements belonging to the first and By BEAUMONT J. GROSJEAN, J. B. Lawes's Chemical Works, Millwall, E.

second groups of Mendelejeft's classification are widely separated from those of the other groups, being in fact

considerably higher. Different relations too often appear MR. TATLOCK (p. 268) has evidently not seen some results to exist between the melting points of the even members which I published in the Chemical News, vol. xxv., of these two groups to those which exist between groups p. 205, on the above subject, since he states that he is not (3 to 7) inclusive; while the compounds of the elements, aware that the complete decomposition of the nitrates in which are often placed in the odd divisions of the first guano—in the course of determining the nitrogen present and second groups, are generally altogether irregular. la --has till now been accomplished, or even the necessity for it admitted. My experiments were simply preliminary. * Abstract of a Paper read before the Royal Society, June 19, 18


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