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Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources.
In these experiments, too, either the time | requisite to produce a given amount of action is less or the temperature is lower with carbonic oxide than with hydrogen. The paper, of which the above is but a brief extract, contains about 70 pages.
paring this colouring matter, and gives its properties. In
"On Fractional Distillation," by F. D. BROWN. The author considers the theory and formulæ involved in the process of distillation. He sums up as follows: "The equation which represents the relation between the composition of the liquid and that of the vapour given off by it at a given pressure, together with that which represents the relation between the composition of the liquid and its boiling-point at the same pressure, contain all the experimental data which can be derived from the distillation, and form, together with the above formulæ, a complete history of it. If we can refer these relations to known laws we shall have arrived at an explanation of fractional distillation." The consideration of the distillation of mixtures divides itself into four heads-substances which are not miscible; substances which mix in all proportions but do not combine; substances which are soluble to a limited extent and do not combine; and substances which are mutually soluble and combine. The author then considers the researches of Magnus, Regnault, Pierre and Puchot, and A. Naumann as regards substances which do not mix. From these researches it was proved that the ratio of the molecules of the two liquids in the distillate is constant, and equal to that of their vapour-tensions at the CHEMICAL temperature of distillation. The author has taken up the study of substances which mix in all proportions but which do not combine. The substances chosen were benzene and carbon disulphide. The composition of the mixture was ascertained by taking its density. These liquids expand on mixing; the greatest expansion occurs when the molecules of each are present in about equal numbers. In a series of thirteen tables the author gives the results of Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances, l'Académie the fractional distillation of mixtures containing 61.95 per cent, 6176 per cent, 70-86 per cent, 40'81 per cent, and 18.33 per cent of carbon disulphide respectively. The temperatures at which the fractions distilled, their weights and composition, and the composition of the liquid remaining in the still are given. The author exhibited some of the apparatus used in his researches.
In the discussion which followed, in which the President, Dr. Wright, Dr. Armstrong, and Mr. Friswell joined, there seemed some slight uncertainty as to the exact conclusions to be deduced from the author's experiments.
NOTICES FROM FOREIGN
NOTE. All degrees of temperature are Centigrade, unless otherwise expressed.
des Sciences. No. 21, May 26, 1879. Refraction of Dark Heat.-P. Desains.-The author has never met with lenses so constructed as to collect to the same focus rays both from the beginning and the end of the dark spectrum. The study of the cold rays of the dark spectrum may lead to rules for constructing such lenses. If it is possible in the dark spectra to follow and recognise one and the same group of rays, then, in spite of the differences between the refractive and dispersive powers of the substances used, the absolute value of the refractions experienced by dark rays of one and the same wave-lengths in different diathermanous bodies may be determined.
Chemical Researches on the Formation of Coal.
Mr. HOWARD pointed out that substances might dissolve in the liquid condition but not when in a state of vapour. Amylic alcohol would distil at 96° in the vapour of water, but the presence of a small quantity of ethylic alcohol-E. would completely alter the composition of the vapour. The two following papers were then read by the "On Chlorstannic Acid," by J. W. MALLET. A bottle containing a strong aqueous solution of stannous chloride, after standing for a year or two, deposited a transparent jelly-like substance of yellowish colour. This was washed and dried on a glass plate at the temperature of the atmosphere it shrank up, cracked, and dried in fragments resembling gum arabic. Heated in a glass tube it evolved hydrochloric acid, leaving a white residue of stannic oxide free from chlorine. Its composition was SnO2HCl, its
It formed salts with soda and ammonia. Tce author has not been able to reproduce this substance.
"On Indigo-purpurin and Indirubin," by E. SCHUNCK. Baeyer and Emmerling (Ber. Deut. Chem. Gesell., iii., 514) described some years ago the formation of a red colouring matter with indigo-blue by the action of acetyl chloride, phosphorus trichloride, and phosphorus on isatin. This they named indigo-purpurin. Recently, Baeyer (Ber. Deut. Chem. Gesell., xii., 457) describes another method of pre
Fremy.-The author holds that there are several kinds of isomeric cellulose, constituting the skeleton of plants. Coal is not an organised substance. The vegetal impressions presented by coal are produced as in shales or other mineral matters. The chief substances contained in the cells of plants under the double influence of heat and pressure produce bodies having a great analogy to coal. The pigments, the resins, and the fats of leaves if submitted to heat and pressure yield compounds which approximate to bitumens. The vegetable matter which gave rise to coal has undergone firstly the peaty fermentation, the coal being then formed by a secondary trans
Fluorescence of the Salts of the Earthy Metals. -J. L. Soret.-The author has already pointed out the beautiful violet fluorescence of solutions of cerium sulphate and chloride elicited only by the extreme ultraviolet rays of the induction-spark, the solar rays not being sufficiently refrangible for its production. He has since found that the solutions of many salts of the earthy metals possess analogous properties. He enumerates lanthanum chloride, didymium chloride and sulphate; terbium, yttrium, erbium, ytterbium chlorides; philippium chloride; thorium sulphate; zirconium sulphate and chloride; aluminium and glucinium chlorides.
Determination of the Lengths of Heat-waves.- | hydrogen. Zinc tartrate is a scarcely soluble salt, easily M. Mouton. Not susceptible of useful abstraction.
Diffusion of Lithia and its Presence in Sea-water. -E. Marchand.-The author shows that as early as 1850 he demonstrated the presence of lithia in sea-water, more than fifteen years before the spectroscopic researches of M. Bunsen, to whom M. Dieulafait had in a recent paper ascribed the first discovery of this alkali in the sea. Salts of Guanidin.-L. Jousselin.-The author merely describes methods of preparing certain of these salts.
Chemiker Zeitung. No. 19, May 8, 1879.
Presence of Arsenic in Dark Water Colours.-Dr. H. Fleck.-Atttention has been drawn to this subject by the sudden death of a mechanical draftsman. On a postmortem examination the cause of death was first supposed to be an oxalate, and then a narcotic poison. Chemical investigation showed that the liver, kidneys, lungs, heart, and brain were impregnated with arsenic, though the œsophagus contained not a trace, and the stomach with its contents gave a barely perceptible arsenical mirror. The general circumstances of the case excluding the suspicions of suicide and of malicious poisoning, it was found that the deceased had been in the habit when drawing of drawing the pencil filled with colour between his lips in order to point it. The water-colours he had used were analysed, and whilst indian ink, gamboge, carmine, blue (? which), red eosin ink, and neutral tint were found perfectly free from arsenic, a sample of sepia contained 3'08 per cent of arsenious acid, terra di Sienna 3'14, and a reddish brown colour, the name of which was indistinct, 3.15. Burnt Sienna, Vandyck brown, bistre, bladder green, brown ochre, indian red, umber, raw and burnt, were also found arseniferous. Most of these colours are essentially iron lakes. Hence it appears that the mere presence of ferric oxide, except in a hydrated state and accompanied by free magnesia in quantity sufficient to neutralise the acids of the stomach, does not act as an antidote to arsenious acid. This case seems likewise to prove that arsenic taken in minute doses can accumulate in the system until it can be readily recognised in all organs, and can exert a dangerous action. This result seems to prove that the impunity with which the peasants of Styria consume small doses of arsenic must depend upon circumstances not yet fully understood. (The exclusion of arsenic from such colours, in which it seems to play no essential part, should be insisted on by the authorities.)
A congress of German vine-growers will meet at Coblentz in September next, when the following questions will be discussed:-When and from what is sugar formed in grapes? Under what circumstances does sugar escape fermentation in wine? What recent results have been attained by the use of artificial manures in the cultivation of the vine?
Non-existence of Pentathionic Acid.-According to the Bull. de l'Acad. Royale de Belgique, Prof. Spring endeavours to prove that the supposed pentathionic acid is merely tetrathionic acid.
obtained pure, even from very impure materials. The zinc sulphide obtained as by-product serves for the development of hydrogen sulphide, yielding a solution of zinc chloride, which is used for fresh precipitations of zinc tartrate.
Bulletin de la Société Chimique de Paris,
Preparation of Malonic Acid.-E. Grimaux and J. Tcherniak.-The authors first obtain cyanacetic acid and transform this into malonic acid by means of concentrated hydrochloric acid.
mel.-Phenol is converted into aurin by treatment with a
M. Berthelot.-Already noticed.
Certain Catalytic Phenomena due to Viscosity.Antony Guyard.-The author considers that viscosity, like porosity, is capable of modifying chemical reactions, and possesses a true catalytic power. Glycerin, as a viscous substance, acts in two manners upon the reactions of metallic salts; it modifies the behaviour of these salts with known reagents because it is a non-volatile organic body, and especially because it is a viscous substance. Thus, if glycerin is mixed with a solution of chromic chloride, and ammonic chloride and ammonia are added, the whole forms an emerald-green liquid, from which chromic oxide cannot be precipitated, just as if tartaric acid had been used instead of glycerin. Analogous reactions are manifested with some other metallic salts when mixed with glycerin and ammonia, or suda. When glycerin and the alkalies have no solvent power upon hydrated metallic oxides, precipitation takes place in the ordinary manner. If a large excess of glycerin is mixed with solutions of a double sulphate of potassa, of titanic acid, sulphate of alumina, ferric chloride, nitrate of lead, or stannous chloride and ammonia is added, all these oxides remain in solution, and are precipitated neither by boiling nor by the addition of water. But if hydrochloric acid is added enough to saturate at once the ammonia and the glycerin, and the acid is again supersaturated with ammonia, the oxides are precipitated as if the glycerin were not present. The addition of an alkaline chloride in sufficient excess to solutions of a metallic oxide in glycerin and caustic alkali determines its precipitation. The author has not succeeded in utilising these reactions in the quantitative separation of metallic oxides.
No. 9, May 5, 1879.
Chloride, and its Determination in Gaseous MixCompounds of Hydrogen Phosphide with Cuprous tures.-J. Riban.-The reaction of these two bodies gives rise to several compounds, of which the chloride of cuproso-diphosphonium, Cu2Cl22PH3, is well defined and crystallisable, though it soon undergoes decomposition on exposure to the air. Hydrogen phosphide when present in gaseous mixtures may be determined by agitation with a hydrochloric solution of cuprous chloride, in which it is rapidly absorbed.
Ineradicable Ink.-The Apotheker Zeitung gives the following formula-175 grms. aniline-black are ground up with 60 drops hydrochloric acid and 42 grms. alcohol, and the liquid is diluted with a hot solution of 2.5 grms. gum arabic in 170 grms. water: If the aniline-black solu--H. tion is diluted with a solution of 25 grms. shellac in 170 grms. spirit instead of gum-water, the result is an ink suitable for writing on wood, brass, or leather.
Bromide of Tetrallylammonium and triallylamin. Grosheintz.-The authors obtain this compound by passing a current of ammoniacal gas into an alcoholic solution of allyl-bromide. The mixture liberates heat spontaneously, and a crystalline mass is deposited. TriPreparation of Chemically Pure Tartaric Acid.-allylamin is prepared by distilling rapidly crude bromide Ficinus.-The decomposition of the calcium salt with of tetrallylammonium along with a large excess of resulphuric acid, or of the lead salt with sulphuretted cently-fused potassa. hydrogen, does not yield a pure product. The author proposes to decompose the zinc salt with sulphuretted
New Organised Ferment of Urea.-P. Miquel.-The author has found in sewage an organism of the Bacillus
Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources.
class, which, like Micrococcus urea, possesses the power of resolving urea into carbonate of ammonia, though quite distinct from the Micrococcus in its physical aspect. It appears, therefore, that two microscopical species possess approximately the same physiological function.
Precipitation of Lime by Alkaline Carbonates.E. Drechsel. The precipitation of calcic carbonate is complete in the cold in the course of fifteen minutes if aided by stirring. It may be effected indifferently either by sodic or ammonic carbonates in the presence or absence of ammonia or sal-ammoniac. The calcic solution should be introduced into the alkaline carbonate, pouring in a small quantity of the former only at first and stirring for about five minutes before adding more. The solubility of calcic carbonate in alkaline liquids is very trifling. Journ. f. Prakt. Chemie.
Gazzetta Chimica Italiana.
Anno ix., 1879. Fasc. iii. Characteristic Reactions of Picrotoxin and of Certain of its Derivatives.-A. Oglialoro.-If a small quantity of pure picrotoxin is dissolved in two drops of nitric acid at 14° and gently heated, there is obtained an amorphous residue of a reddish yellow colour. If two drops of potassa are added a fine bright red is obtained, which, on heating, passes to the colour of old blood. If 2 c.c. of a solution of picric acid at one-half per cent are
question is that of Lallemantia iberica, cultivated in north-western Persia. It contains a smaller proportion of oil than do rape-seed, linseed, &c., whilst the residual press-cake is richer in nitrogenous matters.
Influence of Various Substances upon Crystallisable Sugar.-MM. H. Pellet and Durin.-A solution of sugar on standing and exposure to heat undergoes less change the stronger it is. Glucose converts cane-sugar into glucose, in proportion to the quantity of the former. In a solution saturated with cane-sugar this change does not take place. At certain temperatures mineral salts have a strong action upon cane-sugar, whilst the effect of organic salts is very small.
Treatment of Phosphatic Minerals.-T. Pilter.The phosphates are treated with sulphurous acid under pressure, which is produced by means of the carbonic acid liberated from the accompanying carbonates.
Absorption of Atmospheric Nitrogen by the Leguminosa.-E. Gatellier has obtained good crops of lucern from an exhausted sandy soil where cereals proved a failure, and concludes that it has the power of fixing the nitrogen of the air. C. Marchand points out that lucern obtains the greater part of its nutriment from the subsoil, and that Gatellier's conclusion is therefore open to question.
Vol. ii., No. 7, April 1, 1879.
Formula of Starch.-R. Sachsse.-Air-dried potato starch contains on an average 17.7 per cent of water. If this is supposed to be chemically combined, as may be inferred from the liberation of heat when it is taken up, starch would almost exactly represent the hydrate C36H6203112H2O.
mixed with potassa at 50 per cent in the cold nothing is Correspondenz-blatt des Vereines Analytischer Chemiker. observed but a yellow precipitate. On heating to a boil the precipitate dissolves, and the liquid is coloured orange. On cooling there are deposited small prisms of potassic picrate, and the liquid remains of a reddish yellow colour. If the experiment is repeated with the addition of picrotoxin, on boiling the colour of the solution becomes much deeper, and on cooling no crystalline deposit takes place, and the liquid remains intensely coloured. If a little picrotoxin is placed in a capsule and mixed with four or five drops of concentrated sulphuric acid, there appears a golden-yellow colouration which passes into a saffronyellow; the picrotoxin dissolves, and on adding a little powder of potassic bichromate there is a violet-green colouration, and on dilution with water a clear solution of a yellowish green colour.
Examination of Crude Pyrolignite of Lime.-A. Stromeyer.-5 grms. are distilled almost to dryness along with 50 c.c. of a solution of phosphoric acid, of sp. gr. 1.2, and the same volume of water. The operation is repeated with 50 c.c. of phosphoric acid, and again with the 50 c.c. of water. The acetic acid thus obtained is titrated with normal potassa.
Foreign Bitter Principle in Beer.-H. W. Lang
Distribution of Cerium, Lanthanum, and Didymium. beck.-The author prepared two samples of a fermented -Prof. A. Cossa.-Already noticed.
Chemico-agricultural Studies on a (Natural) Irrigation-meadow.-Prof. F. Ullik.-The manurial action of the water seems due to the dissolved substances, while the suspended matters are of little importance.
Ridge Cultivation.-Prof. E. Wollny.-The use of ridges or hillocks is advantageous only in retentive soils or in damp climates.
Nitrogenous Nutrition of Plants.-Prof. E. Heiden. -Cereals require an especial supply of nitrogen and repay it amply; the same may be said of potatoes. With leguminous plants this conclusion does not hold good. Rye and lupins cannot bear ammonia, at least in the form of sulphate, in the earlier stages of their growth.
Nitrogenous Constituents of Pasture-grass and Meadow-hay, and on their Digestion.-Dr. O. Kellner. Of the total nitrogen present in grass nearly one-third is not in the condition of protein compounds, and can scarcely equal the carbohydrates in nutritive value. In hay the relative proportion of protein has greatly increased. Can Rubidium Fulfil the Nutritive Function of Potassium in the Vegetable Cell?-Oskar Loew. The author answers this question in the negative.
A New Oil Seed.-Dr. Eugen Wildt.-The seed in
liquor from solution of glucose with small quantities of tartar, tartaric acid, kino, and a few drops of a mixture of formic and cnanthic ether. Fermentation was set up by means of sound pressed yeast, and was maintained at a temperature of 18° to 20°. One sample, filtered through flannel after four days and allowed to stand for three weeks in a stoppered cask at 8°, yielded a pleasantly five days, tasted intensely bitter, and grew worse on vinous liquid. The second sample, no! filtered till after standing. The newly-formed yeast, at first of a whitish yellow, had taken a brownish colour, died off, was precipitated by the more alcoholic character of the fluid, and
formed with the alcohol in nascent state that substance
which betrays itself by its bitterness in unhopped fermented liquors when the fermentation has been neglected. The compound in question is by no means innocuous. It was isolated by treating the liquor according to Dra gendorff's methods I. and II. The author succeeded in obtaining it in a crystalline form and describes its reactions.
Determination of Solids in Milk.-H. Bering.-The author places about o'09 grm. of calcined magnesia in a small platinum capsule, determines the tare, and introduces carefully, without touching the sides, an accuratelyweighed portion of the milk (from 1 to 2 grms.). On evaporation over a small open gas-flame, placed about 40 centimetres below the capsule, the sample is obtained perfectly dry in from two to three hours. That the dried mass is very feebly hygroscopic appears from the fact that 0'214 grm., after standing for twenty-four hours in a half wet room, had not gained 0'004.
Hannoversche Monatsschrift wider die Nahrungsfalscher. A German Chemist (Ph.D.), holding diplomas
Vol. ii., No. 2, February, 1879.
Sewerage, with Especial Reference to the Liernur System-Dr. F. Fischer.-The author shows that in any town where the Liernur system was fully introduced, five-sixths of the urine would still find its way into the sewers. Even where cess-pools are lined with masonry, according to the observations made by Pettenkofer at Munich, nine-tenths of the excrementitious matters find their way into the subsoil. The cost of the Liernur system, including interest and sinking-fund for paying off initial outlay, is from 15s. to £1 yearly per head, and a system of sewers is still required.
Physical Properties of Fats.-The author does not consider that specific gravity affords a trustworthy means
from University and Polytechnicum, who has already had experience in a manufactory, seeks a Situation in a Chemical Manufactory in England.-Address, K.D., CHEMICAL NEWS Office, Boy Court, Ludgate Hill, London, E C.
Required by an Associate of the Royal School
of Mines, F C.S., &c., a Situation in a Laboratory, or as Manager of a Chemical or Metallurgical Works, or on a Mine, in England or abroad. Highest references -Address, A.R.S.M., CHEMICAL NEWS Office, Boy Court, Ludgate Hill, London, E.C.
Wanted, by a Young Man (29), a Situation
either in Works or Town Laboratory. Ten years' experience and accustomed to management of men. Has had considerable practice in water, manure, and sugar analyses; also in original investigations. Good references.-Address, F.C.S., Tron-deg, Abergele. TO ANALYTICAL AND MANUFACTURING CHEMISTS.
of deciding whether a sample of butter is genuine or Wanted a Junior Assistantship, by a Gentle
sophisticated. Examination by polarised light supplies a much better characteristic. Mylius, who first called attention to this method, considers it of only limited applicability. The author is of a different opinion, as it is very rare for a butter to be sent for analysis after it has been melted. Pure butter, when examined with a magnifying power of 200 to 300 diameters, appears as a conglomerate of round and roundish drops of different sizes, interspersed here and there with characteristic salt-crystals. All melted fats after congealing take a crystalline structure. On examining a factitious butter we find not the abovementioned globular drops, but more or less perfectly developed crystals, readily detected by the experienced eye, especially with an oblique illumination. All doubt is at once removed on examination by polarised light. The crystals come out very distinctly, and if the upper Nicol is slowly turned everything non-crystalline becomes gradually darker, whilst everything of a crystalline nature becomes lighter. The author finds, further, that different fats, like different minerals, produce characteristic differences in the polarisation colours. He announces the early publication of a series of plates showing the characteristic forms and colours of each fat, whether raw, melted, or crystallised from glycerin. Mutton tallow always gives a blue tone, and the contrasts when the Nicols are exactly crossed are sharper than in case of any other fat, except, perhaps, cacao-butter. The latter differs most characteristically from all other fats, and the play of colour from the deepest red to the brightest green does not admit of description. The fat of oxen displays merely green and white luminous effects. Small semilunar and vermicular bodies of a bright green appear by common light. Hog's lard displays many colours, especially red and blue, yellow, which is very conspicuous in cacao-butter, being wanting. These optical reactions are available for the detection of foreign fats fraudulently added to chocolate or cocoa.
MEETINGS FOR THE WEEK.
TUESDAY, 17th.-Zoological, 8.
Philosophical Club, 6.30.
"On Gardenin," Dr. Stenhouse and Mr. Groves. "On the Action of Sulphuric Acid on the Hydrocarbons of the Formula C10H16," Drs. Armstrong and Tilden. "Researches on the Terpenes, Camphor, and Allied Compounds (Parts I. and II.)," Dr. Armstrong. "Contributions to the History of Starch and its Transformations," H. T. Brown. "On the Boiling-points of Certain Metals and Metallic Salts," Dr. Carnelly and W. C. Williams. the Determination of Nitric Acid by means of Indigo," R. Warington. "On Dry Copper-zinc Couples and Analogous Agents," Dr. Gladstone and Mr. Tribe. "Notes on the Purple of the Ancients," R. Schunck. Ballot.
ERRATUM.-P. 249, col. 2, line 6, for "invite " read "unite."
man aged 19 years, with 24 years' laboratory experienc. Is well up in water analysis for sanitary purposes, and is very steady and devoted to his profession. Reference permitted to Professor Attfield. Address, E. R., Oxford Villa, Montague Road, Uxbridge, Middlesex.
TO MANURE MANUFACTURERS.
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Woollen Shoddy; free from grease; containing nitrogen equal to from 5 to 10 per cent ammonia.-Apply to David Shaw and Co., Clayton, near Manchester.
Superior Iron Filter-Press for Sale, made to
order and of extra quality, by Messrs. Needham and Kite. It contains ten chambers, each 19×21 inches; is provided with a 3-inch gun-metal pump to work by hand or steam, and with fittings for washing and steaming, which can be used or not at discretion. The whole is quite equal to new, and is in perfect working order.-Address L B. S., CHEMICAL NEWS Office, Boy Court, Ludgate Hill, London E.C.
AVID HILL, CONSULTING CHEMIST in Technical Processes, late of Dean's Terrace, South Shields. Letters to be addressed care of Messrs. R. Bullock and Co., 79, Mark Lane, London, E.C. Special attention given to questions relating to "Noxious Vapours."
CHEMICAL AND COLOUR WORKS,
MR. J. STONEHEWER has been favoured
with Instructions to SELL BY AUCTION, on the Premises, as above, on THURSDAY, JUNE 19, 1879, at Twelve for One o'clock, in Lots, the remaining valuable Plant and Machinery, and other Effects, of the above extensive Manufactory (the Site having been disposed of), comprising numerous large Wrought-Iron, Zinc, and Wooden Tanks and Vats, Air Pump and Engine, a Centrifugal Pump (by Patterson), Pressure Boilers, Evaporating Pans, a capital FilterPress, Weighing Machines, and other Plant and Machinery; about 500 bs. of Magenta and other colours; also the contents of the Laboratory; Iron Piping, Steam and Gas Fittings, Weston's Blocks,
Pulleys, and Chains, Portable Pumps, Furnace Doors, &c.; Stone, Slate Slabs, and miscellaneous items.-On view the day prior and morning of Sale, and Catalogues to be had on the Premises and o the Auctioneer, 3, West Hill, High Street, Wandsworth.
NEW LIST of Collections of Minerals, Fossils, and Rocks, with prices. New List of Minerals for Chemical Purposes, Manufactures, and Research. New List of Varieties of Rocks. New List of Prices and Sizes of Cabinets for Natural History and other purposes. New Catalogue of Secondhand and New Books on Geology and Kindred Sciences. New Supplementary List of Books. New List of Sections of Rocks and Minerals for the Microscope. New List of Prices and Patterns for Geological Hammers. New List of Blowpipe Cabinets, Apparatus, and Materials. Also Implements and Appliances for practical work in Geology and Mineralogy.
Post free on application to JAMES R. GREGORY, Geologists and Mineralogists' Repository, 88, Charlotte Street, Fitzroy Square London.
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Silicates of Soda and Potash in the state of
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