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Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources.


June 13, 1879. in excess. In these experiments, too, either the time paring this colouring matter, and gives its properties. In requisite to produce a given amount of action is less or 1856 the author read a paper (Manchester Memoirs, and the temperature is lower with carbonic oxide than with series, xiv.,181 to 237) and gave an account of a red colouring hydrogen. The paper, of which the above is but a brief matter formed by the action of acids on indican, indigoextract, contains about 70 pages.

blue being formed. This colouring matter he named indi. "On Fractional Distillation,” by F. D. Brown. The rubin. Indigo-purpurin has all the properties of indirubin, author considers the theory and formulæ involved in the and is, in fact, identical with it. The author therefore process of distillation. He sums up as follows : -" The considers that the name indigo - purpurin should be equation which represents the relation between the com. abolished, and the original name indirubin retained. position of the liquid and that of the vapour given off by

The Society then adjourned to June 19, when a tallot it at a given pressure, together with that which represents for the election of Fellows will be taken, and the following the relation between the composition of the liquid and its papers read :-"On Gardenin," by Dr. Stenhouse and boiling-point at the same pressure, contain all the experi. Mr. Groves ; “On the Action of Sulphuric Acid on the mental data which can be derived from the distillation, Hydrocarbons of the Formula C10H16," by Dre. Armstrong and form, together with the above formulæ, a complete and Tilden ; “Researches on the Terpenes, Camphor, and history of it. If we can refer these relations to known Allied Compounds (Parts I. and II.),” by Dr. Armstrong; laws we shall have arrived at an explanation of fractional

“ Contributions to the History of Starch and its Transdistillation.” The consideration of the distillation of formations,” by Horace T. Brown ; "On the Boiling-points mixtures divides itself into four heads-substances which of certain Metals and Metallic Salts,” by Dr. Carnelly and are not miscible ; substances which mix in all proportions H. Carleton Williams; “On the Determination of Nitric but do not combine ; substances which are soluble to a

Acid by means of Indigo," by R. Warington; "On Dry limited extent and do not combine ; and substances which Copper-Zinc Couples and Analogous Agents,” by Dr. are mutually soluble and combine. The author then con- Gladstone and Mr. Tribe ; "Notes on the Purple of the siders the researches of Magnus, Regnault, Pierre and Ancients,” by R. Schunck. Puchot, and A. Naumann as regards substances which do not mix. From these researches it was proved that the ratio of the molecules of the two liquids in the distillate is constant, and equal to that of their vapour-tensions at the CHEMICAL NOTICES FROM FOREIGN temperature of distillation. The author has taken up the study of substances which mix in all proportions but which

SOURCES. do not combine. The substances chosen were benzene and carbon disulphide. The composition of the mixture was ascertained by taking its density. These liquids ex.

Note.-All degrees of temperature are Centigrade, unless otherwise

expressed. pand on mixing; the greatest expansion occurs when the molecules of each are present in about equal numbers. In a series of thirteen tables the author gives the results of Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances, l'Académie the fractional distillation of mixtures containing 61'95 per

des Sciences. No. 21, May 26, 1879. cent, 6176 per cent, 70·86 per cent, 40.81 per cent, and Refraction of Dark Heat.-P. Desains.-The author 18.33 per cent of carbon disulphide respectively. The has never met with lenses so constructed as to collea to temperatures at which the fractions distilled, their weights the same focus rays both from the beginning and the end and composition, and the composition of the liquid re

of the dark spectrum. The study of the cold rays of the maining in the still are given. The author exhibited some

dark spectrum may lead to rules for constru&ing such of the apparatus used in his researches. In the discussion which followed, in which the President, recognise one and the same group of rays, then, in spite

lenses. If it is possible in the dark spectra to follow and Dr. Wright, Dr. Armstrong, and Mr. Friswell joined, there of the differences between the refractive and dispersive seemed some slight uncertainty as to the exact conclusions to be deduced from the author's experiments.

powers of the substances used, the absolute value of the

refractions experienced by dark rays of one and the same Mr. Howard pointed out that substances might dissolve wave-lengths in different diathermanous bodies may be in the liquid condition but not when in a state of vapour. determined. Amylic alcohol would distil at 96° in the vapour of water, but the presence of a small quantity of ethylic alcohol - E. Fremy. The author holds that there are several

Chemical Researches on the Formation of Coal. would completely alter the composition of the vapour.

The two following papers were then read by the kinds of isomeric cellulose, constituting the skeleton of SECRETARY :

plants. Coal is not an organised substance. The vegetal "On Chlorstannic Acid," by J. W. Maller. A dottle impressions presented by coal are produced as in shales containing a strong aqueous solution of stannous chloride,

or other mineral matters. The chief substances con. after standing for a year or two, deposited a transparent tained in the cells of plants under the double influence of jelly-like substance of yellowish colour. This was washed heat and pressure produce bodies having a great analogy and dried o on glass plate at the temperatnre of the atmo.

to coal. The pigments, the resins, and the fats of leaves sphere : it shrank up, cracked, and dried in fragments re

if submitted to heat and pressure yield compounds which sembling gum arabic. Heated in a glass tube it evolved approximate to bitumens. The vegetable matter which hydrochloric acid, leaving a white residue of stannic oxide gave rise to coal has undergone firstly the peaty fermen. free from chlorine. Its composition was SnO2HCI, its tation, the coal being then formed by a secondary transconstitution

formation. -C1

Fluorescence of the Salts of the Earthy Metals.

--J. L. Soret.—The author has already pointed out the It formed salts with soda and ammonia. Tce author has phate and chloride elicited only by the extreme ultra

beautiful violet fluorescence of solutions of cerium sulnot been able to reproduce this substance.

violet rays of the induction-spark, the solar rays not being On Indigo-purpurin and Indirubin,” by E. SCHUNCK. sufficiently refrangible for its production. He has since Baeyer and Emmerling (Ber. Deut. Chem. Gesell., iii., 514) found that the solutions of many salts of the earthy 'described some years ago the formation of a red colouring metals possess analogous properties.

He enumerates matter with indigo-blue by the action of acetyl chloride, lanthanum chloride, didymium chloride and sulphate; phosphorus trichloride, and phosphorus on isatin. This terbium, yttrium, erbium, ytterbium chlorides; philippium They named indigo-purpurin. Recently, Baeyer (Ber. Deut. chloride; thorium sulphate;. zirconium sulphate and Chem. Gesell., xii., 457) describes another method of pre- ' chloride; aluminium and glucinium chlorides.

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Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources.

263 Determination of the Lengths of Heat-waves.- | hydrogen. Zinc tartrate is a scarcely soluble salt, easily M. Mouton.-Not susceptible of useful abstraction. obtained pure, even from very impure materials. The

Diffusion of Lithia and its Presence in Sea-water. zinc sulphide obtained as by-product serves for the de-E. Marchand.-The author shows that as early as 1850 velopment of hydrogen sulphide, yielding a solution of he demonstrated the presence of lithia in sea-water, more

zinc chloride, which is used for fresh precipitations of than fifteen years before the spectroscopic researches of zinc tartrate. M. Bunsen, to whom M. Dieulafait had in a recent paper ascribed the first discovery of this alkali in the sea. Bulletin de la Société Chimique de Paris, Salts of Guanidin.-L. Jousselin.—The author merely

No. 8, April 20, 1879. describes methods of preparing certain of these salts. Preparation of Malonic Acid.-E. Grimaux and J.

Tcherniak.-The authors first obtain cyanacetic acid and Chemiker Zeitung.

transform this into malonic acid by means of concentrated No. 19, May 8, 1879.

hydrochloric acid. Presence of Arsenic in Dark Water Colours:-Dr. mel.-Phenol is converted into aurin by treatment with a

Formation of Aurin.-P. de Clermont and J. FromH. Fleck.–Atttention has been drawn to this subject by mixture of carbonic oxide and oxygen gases under presthe sudden death of a mechanical draftsman. On a postmortem examination the cause of death was first supposed acid produces any effect.

sure at 250°. Neither carbonic oxide alone nor carbonic to be an oxalate, and then a narcotic poison. Chemical investigation showed that the liver, kidneys, lungs, heart,

Part Played by Auxiliary Acids in Etherification. and brain were impregnated with arsenic, though the

-M. Berthelot.-Already noticed. csophagus contained not a trace, and the stomach with Certain Catalytic Phenomena due to Viscosity:its contents gave a barely perceptible arsenical mirror. Antony Guyard.—The author considers that viscosity, The general circumstances of the case excluding the like porosity, is capable of modifying chemical reactions, suspicions of suicide and of malicious poisoning, it was and possesses a true catalytic power. Glycerin, as a found that the deceased had been in the habit when viscous substance, acts in two manners upon the reace drawing of drawing the pencil filled with colour between tions of metallic salts; it modifies the behaviour of these his lips in order to point it. The water-colours he had salts with known reagents because it is a non-volatile used were analysed, and whilst indian ink, gamboge, organic body, and especially because it is a viscous subcarmine, blue (? which), red eosin ink, and neutral tint stance. Thus, if glycerin is mixed with a solution of were found perfectly free from arsenic, a sample of sepia chromic chloride, and ammonic chloride and ammonia contained 3:08 per cent of arsenious acid, terra di Sienna are added, the whole forms an emerald-green liquid, from 3'14, and a reddish brown colour, the name of which was

which chromic oxide cannot be precipitated, just as if indistinct, 3:15. Burnt Sienna, Vandyck brown, bistre, tartaric acid had been used instead of glycerin. Analogous bladder green, brown ochre, indian red, umber, raw and reactions are manifested with some other metallic salts burnt, were also found arseniferous. Most of these when mixed with glycerin and ammonia, or suda. When colours are essentially iron lakes. Hence it appears that glycerin and the alkalies have no solvent power upon the mere presence of ferric oxide, except in a hydrated hydrated metallic oxides, precipitation takes place in the state and accompanied by free magnesia in quantity ordinary manner. If a large excess of glycerin is mixed sufficient to neutralise the acids of the stomach, does not

with solutions of a double sulphate of potassa, of titanic act as an antidote to arsenious acid. This case seems acid, sulphate of alumina, ferric chloride, nitrate of lead, likewise to prove that arsenic taken in minute doses can or stannous chloride and ammonia is added, all these accumulate in the system until it can be readily recognised oxides remain in solution, and are precipitated neither by in all organs, and can exert a dangerous action. This boiling nor by the addition of water. But if hydroresult seems to prove that the impunity with which the chloric acid is added enough to saturate at once the peasants of Styria consume small doses of arsenic must ammonia and the glycerin, and the acid is again superdepend upon circumstances not yet fully understood. saturated with ammonia, the oxides are precipitated as if (The exclusion of arsenic from such colours, in which it the glycerin were not present, The addition of an seems to play no essential part, should be insisted on by alkaline chloride in sufficient excess to solutions of a the authorities.)

metallic oxide in glycerin and caustic alkali determines A congress of German vine-growers will meet

its precipitation. The author has not succeeded in Coblentz in September next, when the following questions utilising these reactions in the quantitative separation of will be discussed :-When and from what is sugar formed metallic oxides. in grapes ? Under what circumstances does sugar escape

No. 9, May 5, 1879. fermentation in wine? What recent results have been

Compounds of Hydrogen Phosphide with Cuprous attained by the use of artificial manures in the cultiva- Chloride, and its_Determination in Gascous Mixtion of the vine ?

tures.-J. Riban.-The reaction of these two bodies gives Non-existence of Pentathionic Acid.-According rise to several compounds, of which the chloride of to the Bull. de l'Acad. Royale de Belgique, Prof. Spring cuproso-diphosphonium, Cu2Cl22PH3, is well defined and endeavours to prove that the supposed pentathionic acid crystallisable, though it soon undergoes decomposition on is merely tetrathionic acid.

exposure to the air. Hydrogen phosphide when present Ineradicable Ink.—The Apotheker Zeitung gives the in gaseous mixtures may be determined by agitation with following formula :-r 75 grms. aniline-black are ground a hydrochloric solution of cuprous chloride, in which it is up with 6o drops hydrochloric acid and 42 grms. alcohol, rapidly absorbed. and the liquid is diluted with a hot solution of 2'5 grms. Bromide of Tetrallylammonium and triallylamin. gum-arabic in 170 grms. water: If the aniline-black solu.-H. Grosheintz.-The authors obtain this compound by tion is diluted with a solution of 2'5 grms. shellac in passing a current of ammoniacal gas into an alcoholic 170 grms. spirit instead of gum-water, the result is an solution of allyl-bromide. The mixture liberates heat ink suitable for writing on wood, brass, or leather. spontaneously, and a crystalline mass is deposited. Tri

Preparation of Chemically Pure Tartaric Acid.-) allylamin is prepared by distilling rapidly crude bromide Ficinus.—The decomposition of the calcium salt with of tetrallylammonium along with a large excess of tesulphuric acid, or of the lead salt with sulphuretted cently-fused potassa. hydrogen, does not yield a pure product. The author New Organised Ferment of Urea.-P. Miquel. The proposes to decompose the zinc salt with sulphuretted author has found in sewage an organism of the Bacillus


Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources. {

June 13, 1979. class, which, like Micrococcus urete, possesses the power question is that of Lallemantia iberica, cultivated in of resolving urea intu carbonate of ammonia, though quite north-western Persia. It contains a smaller proportion distinct from the Micrococcus in its physical aspect. It of oil than do rape-seed, linseed, &r., whilst the residual appears, therefore, that two microscopical species possess press-cake is richer in nitrogenous matters. approximately the same physiological function.

Influence of Various Substances upon Crystal. Precipitation of Lime by Alkaline Carbonates.- lisable Sugar.-MM. H. Pellet and Durin.-A solution E. Drechsel.-The precipitation of calcic carbonate is of sugar on standing and exposure to heat undergoes less complete in the cold in the course of fifteen minutes is change the stronger it is. Glucose converts cane-sugar aided by stirring. It may be effected indifferently either into glucose, in proportion to the quantity of the former. by sodic or ammonic carbonates in the presence or absence In a solution saturated with cane-sugar this change does of ammonia or sal-ammoniac. The calcic solution should not take place. At certain temperatures mineral salts be introduced into the alkaline carbonate, pouring in a have a strong action upon cane-sugar, whilst the effed of small quantity of the former only at first and stirring for organic salts is very small. about five minutes before adding more. The solubility

Treatment of Phosphatic Minerals.-T. Pilter.of calcic carbonate in alkaline liquids is very trifling. The phosphates are treated with sulphurous acid under Fourn. f. Prakt. Chemie.

pressure, which is produced by means of the carbonic

acid liberated from the accompanying carbonates. Gazzetta Chimica Italiana.

Absorption of Atmospheric Nitrogen by the

Leguminosæ.-E. Gatellier has obtained good crops of Anno ix., 1879. Fasc. iii.

lucern from an exhausted sandy soil where cereals Characteristic Reactions of Picrotoxin and on a failure, and concludes that it has the power of Certain of its Derivatives.-A. Oglialoro.-If a small fixing the nitrogen of the air. C. Marchand points out quantity of pure picrotoxin is dissolved in two drops of that lucern obtains the greater part of its nutriment from nitric acid at 1'4o and gently heated, there is obtained an the subsoil, and that Gatellier's conclusion is therefore amorphous residue of a reddish yellow colour. If two

open to question. drops of potassa are added a fine bright red is obtained, which, on heating, passes to the colour of old blood. If 2 c.c. of a solution of picric acid at one-half per cent are mixed with potassa at 50 per cent in the cold nothing is Correspondenz-blatt des Vereines Analytischer Chemiker.

Vol. ii., No. 7, April 1, 1879. observed but a yellow precipitate. On heating to a boil the precipitate dissolves, and the liquid is coloured orange.

Formula of Starch.-R. Sachsse.-Air-dried potato On cooling there are deposited small prisms of potassic If this is supposed to be chemically combined, as may be

starch contains on an average 17.7 per cent of water. picrate, and the liquid remains of a reddish yellow colour. If the experiment is repeated with the addition of picro- inferred from the liberation of heat when it is taken up, toxin, on boiling the colour of the solution becomes much

starch would almost exactly represent the hydrate deeper, and on cooling no crystalline deposit takes place, C36H6203112H20. and the liquid remains intensely coloured. If a little Examination of Crude Pyrolignite of Lime.-A. picrotoxin is placed in a capsule and mixed with four or Stromeyer.-5 grms. are distilled almost to dryness along five drops of concentrated sulphuric acid, there appears a with 5o c.c. of a solution of phosphoric acid, of sp. gr. 1.2, golden-yellow colouration which passes into a saffron. and the same volume of water. The operation is re. yellow; the picrotoxin dissolves, and on adding a little peated with 50 c.c. of phosphoric acid, and again with powder of potassic bichromate there is a violet-green the 50 c.c. of water. The acetic acid thus obtained is colouration, and on dilution with water a clear solution of titrated with normal potassa. a yellowish green colour.

Foreign Bitter Principle in Beer.—H. W. Lang. Distribution of Cerium, Lanthanum, and Didymium. beck. The author prepared two samples of a fermented -Prof. A. Cossa.—Already noticed.

liquor from solution of glucose with small quantities of tartar, tartaric acid, kino, and a few drops of a mixture of

formic and ænanthic ether. Fermentation was set up Biedermann's Central-blatt.

by means of sound pressed yeast, and was maintained at Heft 4, April, 1879.

a temperature of 18° to 20°. One sample, filtered through Chemico-agricultural Studies on a (Natural) Irri-weeks in a stoppered cask at 8°, yielded a pleasantly

flannel after four days and allowed to stand for three gation-meadow.-Prof. F. Ullik.- The manurial action vinous liquid. The second sample, no: filtered till after of the water seems due to the dissolved substances, while five days, tasted intensely bitter, and grew worse on the suspended matters are of little importance.

standing. The newly-formed yeast, at first of a whitish Ridge Cultivation.-Prof. E. Wollny.—The use of yellow, had taken a brownish colour, died off, was pre. ridges or hillocks is advantageous only in retentive soils cipitated by the more alcoholic character of the fluid, and or in damp climates.

formed with the alcohol in nascent state that substance Nitrogenous Nutrition of Plants.-Prof. E. Heiden. which betrays itself by its bitterness in unhopped fer-Cereals require an especial supply of nitrogen and mented liquors when the fermentation has been neglected. repay it amply; the same may be said of potatoes. With The compound in question is by no means innocuous. leguminous plants this conclusion does not hold good. It was isolated by treating the liquor according to Dra. Rye and lupins cannot bear ammonia, at least in the gendorff's methods I. and II. The author succeeded in form of sulphate, in the earlier stages of their growth.

obtaining it in a crystalline form and describes its reactions, Nitrogenous Constituents of Pasture.grass and

Determination of Solids in Milk.-H. Bering.–7he Meadow-hay, and on their Digestion.-Dr. O. Kellner. I author places about o'og grm. of calcined magnesia in a --of the total nitrogen present in grass nearly one-third small platinum capsule, determines the tare, and introis not in the condition of protein compounds, and can

duces carefully, without touching the sides, an accurately. scarcely equal the carbohydrates in nutritive value. In weighed portion of the milk (from 1 to 2 grms.). On hay the relative proportion of protein has greatly increased. evaporation over a small open gas-flame, placed about

Can Rubidium Fulfil the Nutritive Function of 40 centimetres below the capsule, the sample is obtained Potassium in the Vegetable Cell ?-Oskar Loew.- perfectly dry in from two to three hours. That the dried The author answers this question in the negative.

mass is very feebly hygroscopic appears from the fad that A New Oil Seed.—Dr. Eugen Wildt. The seed in wet room, had not gained 0'004.

O‘214 grm., after standing for twenty-four hours in a hall


June 13, }

Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources.

265 Hannoversche Monatsschrift wider die Nahrungsfalscher. A German Chemist (Ph.D.), holding diplomas

, Sewerage, with Especial Reference to the Liernur perience in a manufactory, seeks a Situation in a Chemical Manu:

factory in England. --Address, K.D., Chemical News Office, Boy System.-Dr. F. Fischer.—The author shows that in any Court, Ludgate Hill, London, É C. town where the Liernur system was fully introduced, five-sixths of the urine would still find its way into the

Required by an Associate of the Royal School

of Mines, F C.S., &c., a Situation in a Laboratory, or as Manager sewers. Even where cess-pools are lined with masonry, of a Chemical or Metallurgical Works, or on a Mine, in England or according to the observations made by Pettenkofer at abroad. Highest references -Address, A.R.S.M., CHEMICAL News Munich, nine-tenths of the excrementitious matters find Office, Boy Court, Ludgate Hill, London, E.C. their way into the subsoil. The cost of the Liernur Wanted, by a Young Man (29), a Situation system, including interest and sinking-fund for paying off either in Works or Town Laboratory. Ten years' experience initial outlay, is from 15s. to £1 yearly per head, and a and accustomed to management of men. Has had considerable system of sewers is still required.

practice in water, manure, and sugar analyses; also in original inves.

tigations. Good references.-Address, F.C.S., Tron-deg, Abergele. Physical Properties of Fats.The author does not consider that specific gravity affords a trustworthy means

TO ANALYTICAL AND MANUFACTURING CHEMISTS. of deciding whether a sample of butter is genuine or Wanted a Junior Assistantship, by a Gentle. sophisticated. Examination by polarised light supplies

man aged 19 years, with 2 years' laboratory experienc:. a much better characteristic. Mylius, who first called

Is well up in water analysis for sanitary purposes, and is very steady

and devoted to his profession. Reference permitted to Professor attention to this method, considers it of only limited ap- Atifie!d.-Address, E R., Oxford Villa, Montague Road, Uxbridge, plicability. The author is of a different opinion, as it is Middlesex. very rare for a butter to be sent for analysis after it has

TO been melted. Pure butter, when examined with a magni.

MANURE MANUFACTURERS, fying power of 200 to 300 diameters, appears as a conglomerate of round and roundish drops of different sizes,

Woollen Shoddy; free from grease; containing nitrogen interspersed here and there with characteristic salt-crystals. equal to from 5 to 10 per cent ammonia.-Apply to David Shaw and

Co., , .
All melted fats after congealing take a crystalline structure.
On examining a factitious butter we find not the above-

Superior Iron Filter-Press for Sale, made to mentioned globular drops, but more or less perfectly de- order and of extra quality, by Messrs. Needham and Kite. It veloped crystals, readily detected by the experienced eye, contains ten chambers, each 19x214 inches; is provided with a 3-inch especially with an oblique illumination. All doubt is at

gun-metal pump to work by hand or steam, and with fittings for once removed on examination by polarised light. The washing and steaming, which can be used or not at discretion. The

whole is quite equal to new, and is in perfect working order.-Address crystals come out very distinctly, and if the upper Nicol L B. S., CHEMICAL News Office, Boy Court, Ludgate Hill, London

E.C. is slowly turned everything non-crystalline becomes gradually darker, whilst everything of a crystalline nature becomes lighter. The author finds, further, that

DAVID HILL, Consulting Chemist in

Technical Processes, late of Dean's Terrace, South Shields. different fats, like different minerals, produce charac- Letters to be addressed care of Messrs. R. Bullock and Co., 79, Mark teristic differences in the polarisation colours. He an- Lane, London, E.C. Special attention given to questions relating to

“Noxious Vapours.” nounces the early publication of a series of plates showing the characteristic forms and colours of each fat, whether CHEMICAL AND COLOUR WORKS, raw, melted, or crystallised from glycerin. Mutton tallow

FROGMORE, WANDSWORTH. always gives a blue tone, and the contrasts when the MR. 1: STONEHEWER has been favoured Nicols are exactly crossed are sharper than in case of

with Instructions to SELL BY AUCTION, on the Premises, any other fat, except, perhaps, cacao-butter. The latter

as above, on THURSDAY, JUNE 19, 1879, at Twelve for One o'clock,

in Lots, the remaining valuable Plant and Machinery, and other differs most characteristically from all other fats, and the Effects, of the above extensive Manufactory (the Site having been play of colour from the deepest red to the brightest green disposed of), comprising numerous large Wrought-Iron, Zinc, and does not admit of description. The fat of oxen displays

Wooden Tanks and Vats, Air Pump and Engine, a Centrifugal Pump

(by Patterson), Pressure Boilers, Evaporating Pans, a capital Filter merely green and white luminous effects. Small semi

Press, Weighing Machines, and other Plant and Machinery; about lunar and vermicular bodies of a bright green appear by 500 ibs. of Magenta and other colours; also the contents of the La. common light. Hog's lard displays many colours, espe

boratory; Iron Piping, Steam and Gas Fittings, Weston's Blocks, cially red and blue, yellow, which is very conspicuous in

Pulleys, and Chains, Portable Pumps, Furnace Doors, &c.; Stone,

Slate Slabs, and miscellaneous items.-On view the day prior and cacao-butter, being wanting. These optical reactions are morning of Sale, and Catalogues to be had on the Premises and o available for the detection of foreign fats fraudulently the Auctioneer, 3, West Hill, High Street, Wandsworth. added to chocolate or cocoa.

NEW LIST of Collections of Minerals, Fossils, and Rocks, with

prices. New List of Minerals for Chemical Purposes, Manufactures, MEETINGS FOR THE WEEK.

and Research. New List of Varieties of Rocks. New List of Prices and Sizes of Cabinets for Natural History and other purposes. New

Catalogue of Second hand and New Books on Geology and Kindred TUESDAY, 17th.-Zoological, 8.

Sciences. New Supplementary List of Books. New List of Sections WED ESDAY, 18th.- Meteorological, 7.

of Rocks and Minerals for the Microscope. New List of Prices and THURSDAY, 19th.-Royal, 8.30.

Patterns for Geological Hammers. New List of Blowpipe Cabinets, Philosophical Club, 6.30.

Apparatus, and Materials. Also Implements and Appliances for Zoological, 4.

practical work in Geology and Mineralogy. Chemical, 8. “On Gardenin," Dr. Stenhouse Post free on application to JAMES R. GREGORY, Geologists and Mr. Groves. “On the Adion of Sulphuric and Mineralogists' Repository, 88, Charlotte Street, Fitzroy Square Acid on the Hydrocarbons of the Formula London. C20H16," Drs. Armstrong and Tilden. searches on the Terpenes, Camphor, and Allied IMPORTANT TO SULPHURIC ACID MANUFACTURERS. Compounds (Parts II and II.)," Dr. Armstrong,

NORRINGTON'S PATENT. “Contributions to the History of Starch and its Transformations," H. T. Brown. " On the In n the ordinary method of Manufacture, at the Boiling-points of Certain Metals and Metallic time of charging the Rilns, a considerable escape of gases takes Salts," Dr. Carnelly and W. C. Williams, " On place. This is attended with proportionate loss of Sulphur, and the Determination of Nitric Acid by means of with much inconvenience to the workmen, as well as annoyance Indigo," R. Warington. “On Dry Copper-zinc to the vicinity of the Works. This may be entirely avoided Couples and Analogous Agents," Dr. Gladstone by the adoption of C. Norrington's patented invention, which and Mr. Tribe. " Notes on the Purple of the can be applied at moderate cost to existing Plant, as well as in the Ancients," R. Schunck. Ballot.

erection of new Works. It may be seen in full operation on extensive Plant at Messrs. C. Norrington and Co.'s Chemical and Manure

Works, Cattedown, Plymouth, where the fullest information may ERRATUM.-P. 249, col. 2, line 6, for " invite " read "unite."

be obtained, with terms for license.

" Re

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SMETHWICK, M anufacturer of Benzole, Toluole, Xylol, NEAR BIRMINGHAM

Solvent and Burning Naphthas, Carbolic Acid and Disinfecting Powder, Refined Anthracene Naphthaline, Black Varnish, Refined Tar, Crude Liquid Ammonia, Coal-Tar, Pitch, Creosote, Grease: | MANUFACTURERS OP SPECIALLY PREPARED RED LEAD Sulphate of Ammonia, Pyroligneous Acid, Acetate of Lime, Wood

Naphtha, Charcoal, &c., &c.

S.A.S. is always a buyer of Coal-Tar Naphthas, Crude Anthracene
and all Tar Products.
All communications to be addressed to the offices at Middlesbro ugh. NEWTON, KEATES, & CO.,

Sutton Oak Manure Works,


ATENTS.—Mr. Vaughan, F.C.S.,


British, Foreign, and Colonial PATENT AGENT. Special attention given to Inventions relating to Chemistry, Mining, and Metallurgy * Guide to Inventors" Free by Post.--Offices, 67, Chancery Lane PHOSPHATE OF SODA. London, W.C., and 8, Houndgate Darlington. DARTON'S GIMEN POCKET DIRECT-VISION



CASE 63s.
Retort Stands, Bunsen's Burners, Gas Furnaces, and Chemica

Apparatus of all kinds Made and Repaired for the Trade.


7, Exchange Street and 10, Half Moon Street,


Makors to the Science and Art Department,

Illustrated Priced Catalogues Six Penny Stamps. Orders over fas.
South Kensington.

accompanied by a remittance are delivered Carriage paid at any

Railway Station in England.

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