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May 30, 1879.
The Vitriol Manufacture.

237 through the leaden pipes would dissolve a small quantity with Gay-Lussac, it was equivalent to an admission of a of the lead. This, passing either into the cylinder or loss of from 5 to 10 per cent in chambers not connected boiler, would be reduced to the metallic state by the with Gay-Lussac columns. zinc with which the iron is "galvanised,” and a voltaic Thus Mr. Davis's figures would, when in strict accordaction would be induced, the zinc acting as the positive ance with my statement, be as follows:and the lead as the negative metal. By this means a

Cwts. rapid and increasing action would be set up, which after Nitre used

16'o dissolving the zinc would act upon the iron in precisely 20 per cent decomposed in chambers, or the same way as the bottom of iron railings, fixed into 5*3 per cent on the 60 cwts.

3'2 stone by means of lead, are corroded at their lower ends.

10 per cent loss with exit gas

16 It is thus easy to see how the deposit, which was of a 10 per cent loss with vitriol foxy-brown colour and friable, would soon be formed, and

5 per cent leakage

08 the small amount of line and magnesia salts which are mixed with it prove that the action must have been rapid.

Total loss accounted for

72 If, as seems probable, there was any metallic lead in

not accounted for

8.8 the deposit when first removed, this had become oxidised | Mr. Davis's own calculation would be more in accordance by exposure to the air, to which it was exposed for some with Dr. Lunge's statement, since he puts the loss in sys. time previous to analysis. From a rough sketch of the tems connected with Gay-Lussac towers at 12 cwts. out of boiler and fittings which I received, it seems probable that 16 cwts. used = 75 per cent of the nitre used.-1 ani, &c., the lead pipes were in metallic communication with the

FERDINAND HURTER. galvanised iron, and if so a much more general action, as well as the local one before indicated, would take place,

Laboratory, Gaskell, Deacon, and Co.

Widnes, May, 1879. and destruction would occur at a proportionately greater rate. Analytical Laboratory,

THE VITRIOL MANUFACTURE. 19, Brunswick Street, Liverpool.

To the Editor of the Chemical News.

Sir,-Against my wish I must again trouble you, but I CORRESPONDENCE.

hope for the last time on the present question, to afford me some space for replying to Dr. Hurter's and Mr. Davis's

letters (CHEMICAL News, vol. xxxix., pp. 215 and 216). ENAMELLED IRON COOKING.VESSELS. So far as the question is concerned in which I took up my

pen before, a reply would not be called for; for Dr. Hurter To the Editor of the Chemical News.

adduces no proof of an appreciable loss of nitre in the Sir,--I had an cpportunity some weeks ago to examine for thinking so.” Iam content to leave that question where

Glover tower, merely stating that “ he has many reasons several enamelled iron cooking-pans which were submitted it stands, and I refer again to my former letter and to our to my approval. By heating the pans two hours on a water-bath, with diluted (7 to 8 per cent) acetic acid and lengthy discussion in the pages of Dingler's Journal. I some common salt, and by analysing the solution thus

do not think that there is any inconsistency between my obtained, I found a considerable quantity of oxide of opinion as stated before and that expressed in my treatise, zinc; and as the combinations of zinc are considered to

viz., " that certainly the Glover tower is in this respect no be very injurious to health, and sauces, &c.; very often know, nobody has contended that in the steam columns,

worse than any other denitrator," for hitherto, as far as I call the public attention to this examination. A family &c., any loss of nitrogen takes place by reduction to N20 here of seven persons were poisoned by using these pans. have proved

that denitration by hot water or steam is in

or N. Since then, in a paper about to be published, I The pans were of German and Belgium origin. I am, &c.,

sufficient when the nitrous vitriol, by faulty work, contains P. F. VAN HAMEL-Roos.

nitric acid. Analytical Laboratory, City of Amsterdam,

As I do not wish to extend this letter to an undue length
May 19, 1879.

I refrain from going into some fresh matters raised in Dr.
Hurter's letter, which are only slightly connected with

this issue, much as I could say about them. But I cannot THE VITRIOL MANUFACTURE.

allow myself to be saddled, both by Dr. Hurter and Mr.

Davis, with a statement which I entirely repudiate, viz., To the Editor of the Chemical News.

that the quantity of nitre lost in the chambers, or “in a SIR,—Permit me a few lines to point out an error which manner not yet clearly understood” (as Dr. Hurter puts has crept into Mr. Davis's calculations (CHEMICAL News, it), is 75 per cent of the total consumption, whatever that vol. xxxix., p. 216).

may amount to. In truth I am not guilty of such an asThe error consists in Mr. Davis applying my 20 per sertion, which, as exemplified by Mr. Davis, involves a cent allowance for chambers working with Gay-Lussac to downright absurdity. At some factories only 2} parts, at a system having no such apparatus. When I assumed others-not fitted with recovery apparatus-up to 13 or the loss at 20 per cent I did so fully alive to the fact that 14 parts of nitre are used for 100 sulphur; and I am'made the introduction of the Gay-Lussac causes a difference to say that in either case the loss in the chambers is not in the absolute quantity of nitre destroyed per 100 of three-fourths of the total loss! In my letter I had, for sulphur, but in the relative quantity, as expressed on the the sake of argument, adopted Dr. Hurter's calculation, nitre used. In works without Gay-Lussac tower the starting from a loss of 4 parts of nitre on 100 sulphur; working nitre and the nitre used are the same quantity, and I had proved that, upon his own showing, coupled and the loss expressed as percentage on either is identi with evidence referring to the only point in which the two cally the same. But in works with Gay-Lussac the cases differ, the “ chemical loss " at works denitrating by working nitre is double and more of the nitre used; hence steam should be 75 per cent of the above, i.e., 3 parts of the same absolute loss will yield in this case two different nitre to 100 sulphur. Mr. Davis applies that 75 per cent ratios, depending upon the unit chosen being either the to works where the nitre was not recovered, and where working nitre or the nitre used,-i.c., added to cover losses. 3 parts were consumed for 100 vitriol, or, say, 9 parts for When I used the latter quantity as unit for comparison, 100 sulphur, so that my alleged 75 per cent would come and admitted 20 per cent of loss in chambers working to 675 parts instead of three parts. Dr. Hurter puts the


Explosions in Flour-Mills.


May 30, 1879.

chemical loss of nitre at works having no recovery appa- | gists, but in the Hollway process we find both the subo ratus, which notoriously consume 10 to 12 parts of nitre sulphides of iron and copper existing together. It contains to 100 sulphur, at 20 per cent,-i.e., 2 to 2-4 parts, which no metallic copper, and I have failed to find metallic iron is not so very far from my 3 parts. Dr. Affleck, by in- in a similar regulus produced by the same process. More. creasing the absorbing space, has brought down the loss over, I consider it extremely improbable, in taking into of nitre from 1'45 to 1'05 upon 100 pyrites, or, say, from consideration Mr. Schweder's experiments, that there 3-2 to 2:5 upon 100 sulphur, and be expects ultimately to should be metallic iron and no metallic copper, or so long come down to 0-75 nitre on 100 pyrites,-.1., 1:67 on as subsulphide of copper is present. 100 sulphur. Even then there might be some loss of nitre It is evident, of course, that the high temperature of in the exit gas as NO. But if we confine ourselves to the Hollway experiments might be the means of producing the consumption of 2 5 parts of nitre, realised by Dr. the subsulphide of iron, but one would naturally expect Affleck as well as by some continental manufacturers (the that, in cooling, metallic copper and ferrous sulphide instance quoted by Mr. Davis, 16 cwts. nitre to 100 tons would be formed. I am, &c., of vitriol, comes to even less than that), and if we sub

WM. GALBRAITH. tract from it the oʻ6 part allowed by Dr. Hurter (as 15 per Sheffield, May 19, 1879. cent of 4 parts) for “ mechanical losses” in other ways, the maximum of possible “chemical loss" is reduced to

EXPLOSIONS IN FLOUR-MILLS. 1'9 parts of nitre to too sulphur. But that is only a maximum figure; the real figure, if the exit gas was

To the Editor of the Chemical News. treated more thoroughly, according to Dr. Affleck might Sir, I noticed with interest the communication of Mr. be 1:67, less 0:6 for other mechanical losses, or merely Watson Smith in the Chemical News (vol. xxxix., p. 222), I part of nitre to 100 sulphur-not 3 parts, as I had tem- on the subject of explosions in four-mills, and as few ché. porarily admitted entirely for argument's sake. In short, mists have had practical experience (as I have had during it is quite impossible to make even an approximately defi- the last fourteen years) in flour-mills, my observations might nite statement of the “chemical loss," and just for that not be without interest. I have no doubt from all I have reason I refrained from doing so in my treatise.

seen that Mr. Smith's explanation of the cause of the I hope that enough mere arguments have been ex- explosions is the true one, but I was not aware that he changed now. Let us rather try to approach the solution was the first to give it, being under the impression that of the difficulty in an experimental way. This I, for my Dr. Stevenson Macadam had made a very complete in. part, have commenced to do in the investigation which I vestigation immediately after the Glasgow explosion, and mentioned as being about to appear, and I am continuing arrived at the same conclusions as those now given by my labours in this field.-I am, &c.,

Mr. Smith. The remedies Mr. Smith suggests are very

GEORGE LUNGE. difficult to carry into practical operation, as millers reTechnical Laboratory of the Federal

quire a number of small lights disposed over the mill, and Polytechnic Schools, Zürich,

at present the electric light does not conveniently give THE CHEMICAL REACTIONS OF THE

these. The best plan is to dispense with the stive-room HOLLWAY PROCESS.

altogether, and to filter the air through flannel cloth as it

leaves the stone case. This can be done to great adTo the Editor of the Chemical News.

vantage by the use of Messrs. Seck's automatic apparatus,

which has proved here a perfect success, as not a particle SIR,—The reactions which take place in the Hollway of flour leaves the stone case as dust, mixed with the process of rapid oxidation must appear to chemists who exhaust air, and the exhaust is greater than without its have had the privilege of studying the matter to be very use could be allowed. There is another source of danger interesting (some of those reactions being entirely new), besides that from the stone exhaust, and which it is and to be well worth studying.

supposed caused the immense explosion in four mills at It is well known, of course, that if iron pyrites is heated St. Louis, U.S. ; that is, the exhaust from the middlings in a neutral atmosphere, the result is ferrous sulphide and purifiers, in which the dust carried forward by the air is free sulphur (or something approaching it); but it is not much drier than that from the stones, and therefore much so well known that when ferrous sulphide is heated at a

more easily ignited. In this case also I recommend the higher temperature, it splits up into a lower sulphide and filtration of the air immediately it leaves the purifiers

. free sulphur (2FeS=Fe25.us). At all events, on blowing By these means the chance of an explosion is very much through the molten sulphides in a Bessemer converter, less, and should it occur will be much less powerful, as sulphur was seen burning abundantly at the mouth, and the volume of dust-laden air will be but a small frađion condensed in the tubes for collecting the gases. Moreover, as I pointed out at the adjourned meeting of of what it would otherwise be without the filtration pro

cess.--I am, &c., the Society of Arts, the regulus of at least two of the

Arthur McDougall, B.Sc. experiments contain sulphur in the proportion to form City Corn Mills Manchester, May 26, 1879. Cu,S and Fezs:

PS.—Mr. Smith suggests the use of an electric lamp in Iron 57'10 Iron


the stive-room. No light is required in that room, which, Copper 15.85


if of sufficient volume, need only be entered once per Sulphur 21-96 Sulphur 23:47

week to be cleared out, and that can be done during the

day. I believe it to be the accepted explanation of the production of moss copper in blue and white metal (at least it is the one given by Percy as the most reasonable) that the CHEMICAL NOTICES FROM FOREIGN subsulphide of iron might be formed, which in presence

SOURCES. of subsulphide of copper would form ferrous sulphide and metallic copper (Fe2S+Cu2S=2(FeS) + 2Cu); and in connection with this Mr. Schweder finds that by melting sub- Note.--All degrees of temperature are Centigrade, unless otherwise sulphide of copper and metallic iron together the result is

expressed. ferrous sulphide and metallic copper, — (Cu2S+Fe=FeS+2Cu).

Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances, l'Académie de He also failed to produce subsulphide of iron, and declares

des Sciences. No. 16, April 21, 1879. that it does not exist.

Complementary Researches on the Produas of Of course these results of Mr. Schweder's confirm, to the Distillation of the Alcohols.-I. Pierre and E. a large extent, what was known or believed by metallur-Puchot.—The title of this paper is misleading; the




Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources. , 1879.

239 authors treat of the distillation of various commercial as the chromates of potash, soda, or ammonia-is essen. forms of ethylic alcohol, and not of the alcohols as a tially inert as regards the mixtures of chlorates at the generic group of compounds.

temperature at which the operation is conducted. Here Artificial Preparation of Manganic Peroxide.-A. M. Witz considers is the capital error of his opponent, Gorgeu.- The author produces this compound by heating whilst a trace of vanadium acts upon the chlorates in an nitrate of manganese in a glass phial, placed in an oil or

indefinite manner. The chromates, when in contact with paraffin bath, to 155° to 162o. He supposes that in the salts of aniline and in a suitable state of concentration, natural formation of polianite and pyrolute iron suspended are reduced as soon as the reaction commences, and in in the very fluid mass of nitrate of manganese has been proportion as they act they pass into that state of chromic first drawn off, the decomposition of the manganous sesquioxide, which remains insoluble and inactive in spite nitrate taking place subsequently.

of the presence of the chromates. It is therefore neces. On the Tri-tungstates.-J. Lefort.-The author treats siderable, because their action takes place only in equiva.

sary to use quantities of the chromates relatively conof the salts which result from the decomposition of the lent quantities. Thickened mixtures containing chromates best known earthy and metallic acetates by sodic tri- coagulate rapidly, and to obviate in part this inconvenitungstate. Equivalent proportions of the two salts are

ence M. Grawitz adds ammonia, a device introduced by dissolved in a minimum of water. The tri-tungstates are

M. Witz to get rid of any excess of free acid retained generally instable, and if dried in the water-bath, and among the crystals of aniline hydrochlorate, and which treated with water they are more or less completely has been well-known and generally used for three years. resolved into insoluble bitungstates and soluble quadri- With this addition, though the development of the colour tungstates.

is slightly retarded, the doctors are completely preserved Letter to M. Dumas Concerning the Apparatus of from corrosion and the design remains clear. When, Lavoisier.-P. Truchot.—Lavoisier's chemical laboratory however, ammonia is used along with the chromates the and physical cabinet have been reverently preserved by black is developed suddenly but too much on the surface his family, and are now in the possession of M. E. de of the cloth; a certain part of the thickening remains Chazelles, at Canière, near Aigueperse, Puy de Dome, coagulated upon the fibre, and the shade produced has not where the author has seen them. The smallest of the the intense clear black tone produced with copper or three balances is sensitive to ti, grain. The weights vanadium; it is brownish, imperfect, and much more belonging to these balances are wanting, but the kilo- readily attacked by chlorine. Thus the addition of the gramme and its subdivisions as established by Fortin are chromates to an ordinary colour is distinctly injurious. present, recalling the fact that Lavoisier made all the Even if ammonium vanadiate costs i franc per gramme determinations needful for fixing the weight of the kilo. it is twelve times less expensive than copper sulphide gramme. There is a small model of an apparatus for the paste, and certainly much less than the chromates, which distillation of sea-water. There are a considerable act only in equivalent quantities. number of precious stones, some of which have undergone the action of fire. Lavoisier is known to have made an experimental comparison of the heat produced by con

Moniteur Scientifique, Quesneville. verging lenses with that of the blowpipe fed with oxygen.

May, 1879. Chemical Function of Anhydrous Acetic Acid.- Industrial Society of Mulhouse : Sessions of the M. Loir.-Anhydrous acetic acid yields alcohol when Chemical Committee (February 12).-M. Prud'homme treated with a hydrogenising agent. When combined described a new colouring matter recently introduced into with sodic bisulphite it produces a crystalline compound. commerce by A. Bayer under the name of anthracen With ammonia it forms a crystalline compound insoluble violet. The author considers that it has no connection in ether. Finally, acetic anhydride is greedy of oxygen. with anthracen, but is a substitution-product of gallein,

On Nitroso-guanidin.-L. Jousselin.—The author with which it agrees in its reactions, its spectrum, and in prepares this compound by stirring up dry nitrate of the shades produced with different mordants. March 12. guanidin in fuming nitric acid and passing a current of .-M. Kallab in a note addressed to the Committee admits nitrous acid through the mixture. He examines its

that his new process for bleaching animal fibres does not behaviour with acids, alkalies, and reducing agents.

yield a white equal in beauty to that produced by the old

method, but thinks that the new white, being more perValue of Certain Chemical Agents Employed in manent, should be preferred where a greenish shade is Printing Aniline-blacks.-G. Witz.-The vanadic com

not objected to. MM. Schmidt and Baldensperger compounds have been employed for several years in printing municated a description of their new processes for the textiles. On adding them in extremely minute quantities manufacture of magenta by means of vanadium chloride to thickened mixtures of aniline salts and of chlorates the and of certain nitro derivatives, such as nitro-naphthalin. generation of aniline-black is produced with a rapidity Both yield magenta of excellent quality: Vanadium proportional to the doses of vanadium employed. In a chloride is allowed to act at 200° upon a mixture of nitrojetter, published in the Comptes Rendus for the session benzol and commercial aniline, or of pure aniline and November 25, 1878, M. S. Grawitz has held up chromic nitro-toluol. compounds as possessing a greater energy than those of vanadium. He founds this opinion upon an experiment

The remaining papers in this issue are already familiar in which i'; milligrm. bichromate of potassa to a litre of to our readers, one dating back as far as 1865. a mixed solution of aniline hypochlorate and of chlorates is said to have produced a colour intense enough to form

Biedermann's Central-blatt. a kind of ink upon paper. M. Witz has shown that a

Heft 2, February, 1879. result such as described, and with such a proportion of

Belgian Phosphorites.-Prof. Petermann, Crispo, and chromate was inaccurate (Comptes Rendus, December 30, | Mercier.—The enormous phosphatic deposits of Ciply 1xxxvii.), and subsequently, M. Grawitz, in a further com- consist of four beds with the following average propormunication, by his silence on this point, seems not to

tions of phosphoric acid :contest the refutation of his original experiment. The

Tuffeau .. modifications introduced by M. Grawitz at the same time,

O'11 per cent
Pierres dures..

both in the proportions announced and in the nature of
the chromates which he now selects in a neutral state

Craie grise

11'25 (session of February 24, 1879), have given no better results

Poudingne de la Malogne .. 1975 in the check experiments undertaken. It cannot be other- The last mentioned occurs very irregularly and in thin wise, since chrome in its various conditions—and especially layers, which in many places are already exhausted. The

CHEMICAL News, 240 Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources.

May 30, 1879. available quantity of the Craie grise is calculated at such quantities of liquid that the boilers and presses 144 millions cubic metres. Many attempts have been would require to be enlarged, and the consumption of fuel made to render this mineral soluble by steeping in water would be increased. containing carbonic acid, in solutions of alkaline and am. Foreign Colouring Matters in Red Wines.-Prof. J. moniacal nitrates, sulphates, &c., and in the drainage of Nessler. The author considers that we are not yet able dung-hills, but the results have been negative. In case

to distinguish the red colouring matters of mallows and of dung.hill liquor the phosphates already existing in bilberries from that of grapes. It is very probable that solution have been precipitated. The Craie grise has also they do not essentially differ. been applied to soils in the raw state, but without any

On Casein.-Prof. O. Hemmarsten.-The author preappreciable effect upon the crops.

pares casein by precipitation with acetic acid, avoiding Action of Gypsum upon the Quality and Quantity of excess, re-solution of the washed precipitate in a minimum Clover Crops.-Prof. A. Pasqualini.- In the experiments of alkali, so that the liquid retains a faint acid readion, described the yield of clover was increased, but its nutri- filtration to remove fat, re-precipitation with acetic acid, tive value underwent no improvement.

and after several repetitions of the above-described proExcretion of Phosphoric Acid in the Herbivora.-cess washing with alcohol and ether. Pure casein Dr. J. Bertram.- In the carnivora the phosphoric acid possesses the characters of an acid ; if dissolved in a introduced into the system is almost exclusively excreted minimum of caustic alkali it has an acid reaction; it in the urine, whilst in herbivorous animals, under normal dissolves the carbonates of lime and baryta with liberation circumstances, it appears in the solid excrements, and is of carbonic acid, and even phosphate of lime. not to be detected in the urine unless the lime present in the food is not sufficient for its neutralisation.

Heft 3, March, 1879. Influence of Food on the Quality and Quantity of the Fat of Milk.—Both the percentage and the absolute Temperature of the Soil in a Compact and a Loose quantity of fat in milk may vary considerably, even when Condition.-Prof. E. Wollny.-In summer and in warm the diet is unchanged. An addition of protein to the food weather compact soils are on the average warmer than increases the proportion of fat, but not so much as an loose ones, but in winter, and on a fall of temperature in addition of oil or stearic acid. The fat of cream melts summer, they are colder. In warm weather compact about 2° lower than the fat remaining in skimmed milk. soils are warmer by day and colder by night than loose Researches on the Ripening of Grapes and other ones, and are subject to greater fluctuations of tempera

ture. Fruits.-C. Portele.--The ripening of stone fruit af:er being gathered consists in a decided decrease in acids and Composition of the Milk of Cows of Different in cellulose, whilst the total proportion of sugars is Breeds.-E. Marchand.— The authcr finds free lactic lessened slightly, and in the dextrose is converted into acid, a constituent hitherto invariably overlooked, present levulose, which is sweeter. There is also under the same to the average amount of 2 grms. per litre. The relative circumstances an increase of levulose in grapes, though proportions of albumen and casein fluctuate much, but to a less extent.

their joint weight is little affected. If the cow has eaten Purification of Saccharine Juices with Hydrate of cruciferous plants the milk is rendered poor in casein and Alumina.—Dr. O. Kohlrausch.- This process, introduced

rich in albumen, thus effecting the production of cheese. by Prof. Löwig, dispenses with animal charcoal and with Composition of Clover-hay Rapidly Dried or the production of treacle. The author finds, however, Exposed to Rain.-Dr. C. Briminer.-The quantity of that a certain quantity of alumina dissolves in the juices, protein is reduced 0-7 per cent, but the non-nitrogenous so that the mineral acids present and also the colour are extractive matters are diminished by 7.1 per cent. not entirely removed. Hence it is very doubtful whether Artificial Horse-dung.-Prof. Mayer.—A manure is the filtration over animal charcoal could be omitted. The

said to be exported from England to Holland which has production of treacle is also not obviated in Löwig's pro- the outward appearance of stable manure, but on exami.

The elutriation of the hydrate of alumina requires nation proved to be a mixture of straw and decayed leaves.



APRIL, 1879.

The following are the returns of the Society of Medical Officers of Health :


Hardness on Clark's Scale.

Appearance in

2 foot Tube.


Nitrogen as Ni.

trates, &c.

Oxygen used to
Oxidise Organic



Total Solids.


Sulphuric An







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Grs. Grs. Grs,


Grs. Grs. Grs. Grs. Degs. Degs Thames Water Companies. Grand Junction


0·005 0·135 0·026 19*70 7700 0:670 1.220 1430 14:8 3430 West Middlesex


0'003 0'105 0'015 20'90 7590 0*720 1.880 1.600 14:8 3:30 Southwark and Vauxhall Clear

0.006 0:126 0'047 19.80 79590 0*720

1.880 1.670 14'3 3-30 Chelsea


0'008 0*114 0.052 1970 70630 0:460 2'000 1.660 1347 3*30 Lambeth.


0'008 Oʻ135 0'044 2070 8:150 0·610 1.880 1'570 14'3 2.80 Other Companies. Kent..


0.003 0°315 0.005 2810 10860 0.841 2:830 2.970 17:6 5*10 New River


Oʻ003 0'135 0'008 21:50 7.950 0*540 1.880 l'130 143 3'30 East London


o'006 0·165 0'028 21:40 8.230 0:684 2*120 1'970 14:8 2.80 The quantities of the several constituents are stated in grains per imperial gallon. Note.—The amount of oxygen required to oxidise the organic matter, nitrites, &c., is determined by a standard solution of permanganate of potash acting for three hours.

C. MeymoTT TIDY, M.B.

O'000 O'000 0'000


, }

Notes and Queries.



With 94 Engravings, crown 8vo., 128, 6d.

Manufacture of Sulphuric Acid.—Has it ever been suggested SANITARY EXAMINATIONS of WATER,

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AIR, and FOOD. A Vade-Mecum for the Medical Officer of that the pot containing nitre or nitrate of soda and sulphuric acid be

Health. By CORNELIUS B. Fox, M.D., Lond., Medical Ofhcer of replaced by one containing sulphur and nitric acid, so that the manu

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action of a continuous flow of water at a high pressure in sanitary examination."-Med. Times and Gaz. which it is immersed, as I find that after a few months use the flannel loses its nature, the threads being partially decomposed? Would By the same Author, Second Edition, with 9 Engravings, water have the same effect upon silk ? -ANDREW BELL.

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by the learner,

London: Published by W. BAXTER at the Office of the South

London School of Pharmacy, Kennington Cross, and sold by Messrs. The fifth number of the Monthly Series (June, 1879) is Simpkin and Marshall and Messrs. Baillière, Tindal, and Cox, and Now Ready:

at all booksellers.
Price One Shilling and Sixpence.

I. Colour and its Recognition.
II. Early Traces of Man. By G. De Mortilet.
III. Leaves and their Functions.
Hutchinson, Kas.

each for the two best original investigations involving Gas IV. Molecular Physics in High Vacua. By William Crookes, Analysis. These Prizes will be open to Associates, and to all persons

F.R.S. (Illustrated.)
Correspondence-Imperfections of Nature-Sound as a Nuisance. (except Fellows

of the Institute) who shall before the 31st December next

have qualified for the Associateship in all respects short of passing the Reviews of Scientific Works–Science Notes---Proceedings of prescribed practical examination, and successful competition for these Scientific Societies.

prizes will be accepted in lieu of such practical examination.-Further London : 3, Horse-Stoe Court, Ludgate Hill.

information may be obtained on application to the Secretary, Mr.

C. E. GROVES, Somerset House Terrace, W.C.

South Kensington, seeks an Engagement in Chemical or other next Half-yearly Examination for MATRICULATION i Scientific Laboratory. - Address, G.C., 59, Robert Street, Chelsea,S.W this University will commence on MONDAY, the 30th of June, 1879. In addition to the Metropolitan Examination, Provincial Examina. tions will be held at Owens College, Manchester; Qucen's College, experience as Assistant in the Laboratory of a Chemical Works, Liverpool; Queen's College, Birmingham; St. Cuthbert's College, seeks a similar position. Highest references.-Address. J. R. W., Ushaw; Stonyhurst College; St. Patrick's College, Carlow; št. 91), Belmont Row, Birmingham. Stanislaus College, Tullamore; University College, Bristol ; and (for Ladies only) at the Ladies' College, Cheltenham. Every Candidate is required to transmit his Certificate of Age to

with Eight Years' practical experience, desires an Engagethe Registrar (University of London, Burlington Gardens, London,

ment. Excellent references.--Apply F. 1. C., CHEMICAL News Office W.) at least Fourteen Days before the commencement of the

Boy Court, Ludgate Hill, London, E.C. Examination.

WILLIAM B. CARPENTER, M.D., May 21st, 1879.


Analytical Chemistry, desires an Engagement as Assistant or DR. LUNGE'S NITROMETER.

as Chemist in Works. No objection to go abroad.-Apply, H.H.,

By Rev. L. J. Templin, The President has offered Two Prizes of £50

NOTICE IS HEREBY GIVEN, That the Advertiser (22), trained in the Science Schools,

A Young Man (19), who has had two years

A ,

This Apparatus, for the Determination of CHEMICAL News Office

, Boy Court, Ludgate Hill, London, E.c. Nitrous and Nitric Acids, as described in CHEMICAL News of Wanted an Intelligent Workman who tho

Estimation now ready. Particulars on application

MAWSON and SWAN Newcastle-on-Tyne.

roughly understands the manufacture of Acetic Acid and other Wood-products.-Apply to " Wood,” CHEMICAL NEWs Office, Boy Court, Ludgate Hill, London, E.C.

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