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CHEMICAL NEWS,

"} May 23, 1879. The Vitriol Manufacture.

227 has only to open the ash-pit doors again the requisite gently shaken, enough steam is liberated to impel the jet. distance to admit the proper amount of draught to each Lastly, the bottle can be used as an ordinary one by blowfurnace. This plan I found to have the advantage of ing into the new tube without pressing the caoutchouc. making the fires burn more regularly, as the fireman, from After the tube (a) is made or purchased there is no extra having to open and close the ash-pit doors oftener, had his trouble in making the bottle. A caoutchouc stopper is the attention directed to them, and so the draught was better best to use, but a good cork answers perleály well. Messrs. regulated.-I am, &c.,

Jackson, of the Barbican, at my request have kindly con,

E. H. sented to keep a few of these tubes in stock. Several of May 20, 1879.

these bottles have been in constant use for two or three PS.-I may say that the furnaces and ash-pits were

years in the Chemical Laboratory of the Royal College of furnished with closely-fitting doors.

Science, Dublin, and have given great satisfaction.-I am,

&c., WASH-BOTTLES WITH CONTINUOUS JET.

THOMAS BAYLEY.

14, Mincing Lane, London, To the Editor of the Chemical News.

May 5, 1879. SIR,- In the Chemical News, vol. xxxix., p. 19. Mr. Foye called attention to a wash-bottle giving a continuous jet of

THE VITRIOL MANUFACTURI, water, and Mr. Mallet, in your issue of May 2, has described a more complete but complicated form of the same.

To the Editor of the Chemical News. In both these cases the essential feature is a piece of caoutchouc tubing, so arranged as to permit the air inside SIR,- In the Chemical News (vol. xxxix., p. 205) Mr. the bottle being cut off from the external air by pressure

G. E. Davis has referred to a statement I made to him with the finger. Will you kindly permit me to say that i regarding the loss of nitre. What I said then I was described a bottle having this arrangement, and also the speaking from memory-was perhaps scarcely justified by Bunsen valve, in a paper read before the Chemical Society

the facts; still, the quantity of nitre unaccounted for in our in March, 1877: A short abstract appeared in your journal. The quantity of nitre used during the six months was

case is very much less than that mentioned by Dr. Hurter. The following is an illustrated description of the washbottle :

1•66 per cent on the stone burnt, equal to 37'18 lbs. to the

If we assume the real nitrate of soda present to be equal to 95 per cent, this would be equal to 35*31 lbs. There was found in the outlets nitrous gases equivalent to 15 lbs, nitrate of soda for each ton of stone burnt, which would give 42'5 per cent on the quantity used, or four times that mentioned by Dr. Hurter. If we add to this 10 per cent for imperfect denitration, and 5 per cent for mechanic cal losses, we get a total of 57'5 per cent unaccounted for. During the six months these trials were made much acid was drawn from the chambers for manure making, and this acid always contained a quantity of nitre; indeed, so much was this the case on some occasions as to interfere with the workmen while mixing in the vat. It is impossible to say how much was lost in this way, but it will be readily seen that much more than 45 per cent of the nitre is thus accounted for, without putting down 20 per cent as reduced to nitrous oxide, as is done by Dr. Hurter. I may say that we are still finding in the outlets between 40 and 50 per cent of the nitre used. But is it not probable that the different results obtained are due in a great measure to the different way in which the chambers are worked ? This we know from experience-that where the chambers are worked with the acid strongly impregnated

with nitrous gases much less nitre is required than where It has two tubes fused into it at right angles, which are the acid in the chambers stinks of sulphurous acid. bent round upon the top of the cork, and connected by a Much has been said regarding the state of oxidation of piece of good caoutchouc tubing (6). The tube (a) is the nitrous gases found in the outlets, but no one seems to stopped between the two junctions of the side tubes by a have made any direct attempt to ascertain what that state piece of cork (d), or by being fused up. When the operator

of oxidation is. Dire&ly after Mr. Davis published his wishes to use the bottle he holds it as usual, placing his observations on the reducing action of As2O3 in the ab. forefinger upon the caoutchouc (6), so as to prevent air sorber, I commenced a series of experiments to setile the passing through it, and blows through the mouthpiece into question, at least as far as these works were concerned. In the bottle. After this the jet of water continues to issue all fifty-five tests were made, and out of these in fortywith almost undiminished force for about three quarters of three cases the gases existed as N2O3 and N204, while in a minute, while it may be stopped at any time by releasing the other twelve the gases existed as N202 and N203. It the pressure upon the caoutchouc tube (6). Water may was necessary in making these experiments to assume that be poured out through the new tube (a) as usual. It is the nitrous gases were present in only three forms of oxi. convenient to bene the lower end of the tube dipping into dation, viz., as N202, N2O3, and N204, and that only two the water; this enables the operator to blow out the last of these, either N202+ N203 or N2O3+ N204, were present portions of water. The advantages of the bottle are as at the same time. This assumption is, I think, warranted follows :-—The jet will issue for some time after the ope by the properties of the gases, for we should scarcely exrator has blown into the bottle, and can be directed upwards pec N202 and N204 to exist together side by side without into a beaker by inclining the bottle. The j t can be reacting upon each other. stopped at pleasure. The water passing through the new

Mr. Davis has attributed the presence of N202 in the tube when the bottle is inverted can be regulated to a drop outlets to the reducing action of As2O3 exerted while the by pressing upon the rubber. The mouthpiece never gets acid is passing down the absorber. Now I have reason to hot, nor does gas or steam pass through it into the mouth. believe that under certain conditions sulphurous acid is When the water is boiling, if the bottle be occasionally I competent to reduce the aitrous acids. I give below two

228

CHEMICAL News, Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources.

May 23, 1879. instances, copied from my note-book, which will tend to aluminic chloride upon acetic and sulphuric anhydrides. support this belief :—"The chambers had been working MM. Riodinine and Saytzeff describe diallyl-isopropyl. with very great regularity for a length of time, the quan- carbinol as a colourless liquid, of sp. gr. 0.8512, and tity of nitre used being equal to about i per cent on the boiling-point 182° to 185o. MM. Semlianitzine and Sayt. stone burnt, and the quantity found in the outlets equal zeff have investigated the oxy-valerianic acid obtained by to about 12 lbs. on the ton of stone. On the 16th the the oxidation of allyl-dimethyl-carbinol. MM. Beilstein chambers were looking badly, and I examined the pipe be- and Kourbatoff have obtained nitro.phthalic acid by tween the absorber and the last chamber when the gases oxidising nitro-naphthalin by means of chromic anhydride. smelt quite sharp. Accordingly, I expected to find a large Researches on Sulphates.-A. Etard.—The sulphates quantity of SO2 present in the test solutions) this morning; of the magnesian series, or of the alum series, are far I was surprised to find only a trace as usual, while that of from representing all the combinations which sulphuric nitre had more than trebled, viz., 43.31 lbs. to the ton of acid forms with the metals. Many of these salts may be stone."

represented by the general formula M2(SO4)6N2. He has The next case is still more conclusive :-"Two days examined the double sesqui-sulphate of iron and alumina ago the acid from the absorber contained nitrous acids (acid); that of iron and chrome (acid); the corresponding equivalent to 2.45 per cent of nitre; this morning it con

neutral salt, &c. The sesquisulphate of aluminium and tained 1:07 per cent. During this time, the Glover tower

manganese is a powder of a beautiful sky-blue. being out of repair, has not been working, and it was thought advisable to put the same acid over and over again the Mechanical Properties of Steels.-V. Deshayes.

Relations between the Chemical Composition and through the absorber. While this was going on the

-Carbon renders steels rigid and elastic, increasing their chambers have been stinking, and it was inferred that a

elastic tension, but their resistance to rupture diminishes large quantity of SO2 would be found going away. This has not proved to be the case, as only a trace has been

if 0.500 is exceeded. Manganese renders steels rigid and found in the test-bath yesterday and to-day, although tion and contraction remain considerable, which gives a

elastic and increases their elastic tension, but the elonga6 cubic feet of the gases have been tested on each occasion. The nitre found in the outlets has been very large, good resistance to a shock. Silicon plays the same part viz., 102.8 lbs. per ton of stone yesterday and 120*7 lbs. elongation. Sulphur decreases the breaking strain and

as carbon, rendering steels hard, and slightly diminishing per ton of stone to-day." Now these two cases would point to the fact that SO2

the resistance to a shock. Phosphorus renders steels is capable of reducing the N2O3, in solution in the acid, to

deficient in body, and, if its proportion exceeds o'250 per N202; thus, N203+502=N2O2+ SO3, and that this re

cent, fragile on receiving a shock. Chrome aas like action may take place in the absorber.-I am, &c.,

manganese but more energetically. E. JACKSON.

Thermic Formation of the Compounds of CarLaboratory of Messrs. T. Adkins and Co.,

bonic Oxide with the other Elements.-M. Berthelot. Smethwick, near Birmingham.

- Already noticed.

Specific Heats and Melting Heat of Gallium.-M. Berthelot. The specific heat of liquid gallium is o‘0802;

that of solid gallium 0.079. The melting heat is + 19:11. CHEMICAL NOTICES FROM FOREIGN The specific atomic heat in the liquid state is 5'59; in the SOURCES.

solid 5'52.

Reciprocal Displacements of Weaks Acids.-M.

Berthelot. NOTE.-All degrees of temperature are Centigrade, unless otherwise expressed.

Rotatory Power of Styrolen.-M. Berthelot.— These

two papers have been already noticed. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances, l'Académie de

des Sciences. No. 15, April 14, 1879. Anomaly in Magnetic Observations at Paris.-C.

Fustus Liebig's Annalen der Chemie, Flammarion.—The author contends that the explanations

Band 195, Heft 3. of these anomalies put forward by M. Marié.Davy are Products of the Action of Caustic Potassa upon not satisfactory.

Sulpho-mesytelenate of Potassium.-Oscar Jacobsen.

-An extensive paper in which the results obtained by Bulletin de la Société Chimique de Paris,

Fittig, Hoogewerff, and others are critically examined. No. 5, March 5, 1879.

Among the products of the reaction are mesitol, oxy-mesi. Recent Paper by M. B. Aronheim.-P. Schützen. These compounds with a number of their derivatives are

tylenic acid, oxy-trimesinic acid, and oxy-uvitinic acid. berger.-M. Aronheim having stated in the Berichte der described at length. Deutsch. Chem. Gesell. that on attempting to prepare the acetates of chlorine and iodine he had obtained mere

Analysis of Organic Bodies Containing Halogens mixtures of acetic and hypochlorous acids, or of chloride

or Nitrogen.-Hugo Schiff.—The author describes with of iodine and iodic acid, M. Schützenberger refers to slight modifications the method proposed by Piria thirty numerous chemists who have seen and examined, or have years ago.

The substance is weighed in a small platinum themselves prepared, the products in question.

crucible, and in case of chlorine or bromine fills up with a Chloro-stannates of the Rare Earths.-P. T. Cléve. mixture of a part anhydrous carbonate of soda and 4 to - The composition of the lanthanic, ceric,

didymic, and 5 parts of lime, the whole being thoroughly mixed yttric chloro-stannates is quite analogous to that of the together by means of a platinum wire. The whole is corresponding chloro-platinates. The author has verified

then covered with a larger platinum crucible and the pair the researches of M. Marignac on the earths of the gado- turned downwards. The space between the two crucibles

are inverted so that the bottom of the larger crucible is linite. No doubt can exist concercing terbia. He has is filled with the same mixture of lime and soda, the lid obtained a small quantity of ytterbia, but his researches is put on, and the whole heated to redness over a strong are not completed.

Bunsen burner. The reaction is completed in about ten Russian Chemical Society, December 7/19, 1878.- | minutes. In case of an iodine compound carbonate of M. Beketoff communicated a paper on the determination soda is used without lime. The arrangements for the of the atomic heat of hydrogen in its combination with determination of nitrogen cannot be intelligibly describes platinum. M. Andrianowsky has examined the action of without the aid of the accompanying plate.

229

CNEMICAL News,

Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources. May 23, 1879. The Molecular Magnitude of Indigo.—Dr. E. v. Artificial Alizarin.-C. Græbe and C. Liebermann.Sommaruga.—The author finds the vapour-density of The first part of this bulky treatise deals with the che. indigo = 9:45, and concludes that the formula for indigo mistry of artificial alizarin as understood down to 1874. must be C16H10N202 and not the half of these numbers. Of the second part, which gives an account of subsequent

Communications from the Laboratory of Applied improvements as far as the end of 1877, we shall shortly Chemistry of the University of Erlangen.--Thèse give an abridgment. communications embrace the following papers :-Detec- Contributions to the History of Benzol-green and tion of Ethyl-diacetic Acid in Urine, by A. Hilger; on Malachite-green.-- This paper consists of certain memoiis Solanin and its Decomposition Products, by A. Hilger ; by O. Dæbner and by 0. and E. Fischer, taken from the and, Certain New Salts of Uranyl, by Dr. R. Sendtner. Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft.

Influence of the Isomerism of the Alcohols and Industrial Society of Mulhouse.—Proceedings of the Acids on the Formation of Compound Ethers.-N. Sessions of the Chemical Committee, December 11, 1878, Menschutkin.-An important paper which does not admit and January 15, 1879.-Nothing is here described which of useful abstraction.

has not been already noticed. The particulars of M. Contribution to a Knowledge of Polyporic Acid. Kopp's process for the spectral analysis of dye-wares are -C. Stahlschmidt.- The author obtains hydropolyporic not yet made known. acid by treatment with caustic alkali, examines the salts On Amber.—M. Helm.—Amber in entire fragments is of the new acid, obtains nitropolyporic acid by treating permeable to water. It contains as much as 4 per cent polyporic acid with concentrated nitric acid and certain of sulphur in the state of organic combination. This chlorine compounds by the action of potassic chlorate and sulphur has probably been absorbed by the fossil resin in hydrochloric acid.

the state of hydrogen sulphide subsequent to its formation. Contributions to a Knowledge of Ammoniacal The author describes another fossil resin, gedanite, which Mercury Compounds.-H. Gerresheim.--An examina- differs from amber by containing a smaller proportion of tion of Millon's base. The author announces' an intention oxygen, and is softer, more fusible, and more soluble in of shortly making known an application of this compound ether. It is free from succinic acid. in water-analysis. Moniteur Scientifique, Quesneville.

Verhandlungen des Vereins zur Beforderung des
April, 1879.

Gewerbfleisses. February, 1879.
Researches Conducted in the Laboratory of MM.
P. Monnet and Co. at La Plaine.-P. Monnet, F.

The Manufacture of Magenta by Coupier's Process.

- Dr. C. Hæussermann. — The author remarks that Reverdin, and E. Noelting. Presence of Meta-nitro-toluol in Nitro-toluol. - The Coupier's process has hitherto been adopted in but few

establishments, and although the magenta thus produced authors, in experimenting upon the acetylic derivative of a commercial toluydin free from aniline, were led to suppose preparation of superior blues, it is not yet finally decided

is often preferred, especially as a raw material for the tained a little of the third isomer or meta-compound. To which of the two methods is preferable. For Coupier's decide this question they have studied the nitro-toluol process it is essential to use an aniline oil of sp. gr. 1:006 used in the manufacture of the toluydin in question, and the presence of as little water as possible. To prevent

to 1'007 at 15°. It is converted into hydrochlorate with found their suspicions confirmed.

The Part of Meta-toluydin in the Manufacture of Aniline- the aniline hydrochlorate when dehydrated by a temperaRed. The function of ortho. and of para-toluydin in the

ture of 140° from adhering too firmly to the sides of the preparation of magenta has been studied by M. Rosen vessel, two-thirds of the aniline to be used is slightly stiehl and other chemists; it seemed to the authors in the temperature rises to 140°, and the remaining one-third

supersaturated with hydrochloric acid, concentrated till teresting to complete these observations by oxidising of the aniline is then poured into the melted cooling mass, meta-toluydin either alone or mixed with aniline and the This operation is conducted in enamelled pans provided two other coluydins, especially as the presence of this base with a condensation apparatus. The mixture of aniline in a small extent had been traced in commercial toluydin. and aniline hydrochlorate is then introduced into the They have heated various mixtures containing meta: melting pans, adding to 100 parts of aniline about 50 parts toluydin with arsenic acid under the usual conditions for of pure nitro-benzol, and by degrees 3 to 5 parts of iron the manufacture of magenta and have extracted the

filings. colouring matter produced, and tested it by dyeing com

March, 1879 parative samples :

Ammonia Soda and the Production of Ammonia Base or Mixture of Bases in Shade of the Product of

Oxidation. Equal Molecules.

in Coke-burning.Dr. Frank.—The author points out 1. Aniline Violet (violanilin).

that the weak point of the Solvay process is its dependence

on the supply and consequent price of ammoniacal salts. 2. Ortho-toluydin Red.

He insists upon the importance of utilising the volatile 3. Para-toluydin.. Yellowish brown.

products-ammonia, tar, &c.—from coke works, which he 4. Meta-toluydin Brown.

considers would effect a revolution in all trades based 5. Aniline and ortho-toluydin.. Red.

upon the destructive distillation of coal. 6. Aniline and para-toluydin Red (para-rosanilin). 7. Aniline and meta-toluy. din.. .. Violet.

Test for Mercurial Vapours.--At a recent meeting of 8. Aniline, ortho- and meta

the Society of the Physical and Natural Sciences of toluydin

Yellowish and greyish red. Bourdeaux M. Merget recommended paper steeped in the 9. Aniline, para- and meta

ammoniacal solution of nitrate of silver, or in chloride of toluydin

Red, slightly violet, and palladium, as reagents for mercurial vapours much more 10. Aniline, ortho- and para- greyish.

sensitive than gold foil. This test-paper is very sensitive ; toluydin

Red (ortho-para-rosanilin). a slip of sheet-copper plunged into a liquid containing 11. Ortho- and para-toluydin Red.

I part of mercury in 10,000 remained bright after immer. 12. Ortho- and meta-toluydin Red, violet, and greyish. sion, but if exposed to the ammoniacal nitrate of silver 13. Para- and meta-toluydin Brown.

paper it occasioned a characteristic black spot. He finds 14. Ortho-, para-, and meta.

inat even when solidified mercury emits vapours in appre. toluydin..

Red, violet, and greyish. ciable quantity,

A

,

Wan

CHEMICAL NEWS, 230 Advertisements.

{

May 23, 1879. MEETINGS FOR THE WEEK.

A Chemist, trained at Royal School of Mines,

with Eight Years' practical experience, desires an EngageSATURDAY, 24th.-Physical, 3. "On a New Harmonograph," W.J: ment. Excellent references.-Apply F. 1. C., CHE-ICAL News Office Wilson. "On a New Induction Balance," Prof.

Boy Court, Ludgate Hill, London, E.C.
Hughes.
MONDAY, 26th.—Royal Institution, 3. “ The Intellectual Movement
of Germany from the Middle of the Last to the

from University and Polytechnicum, who has already bad Middle of the Present Century,” Prof. Hillebrand.

experience in a Manufactory, seeks a Situation in a Chemical Manu. Royal Geographical, 1. (Anniversary.) TUESDAY, 27th.-Civil Engineers, 8.

factory in England. Good refererces.--Address, K. D., CHEMICAL

Ews Office, Boy Court, Ludgate Hill, London, E.C.
Royal Institutior, 3. "Suggestions to Students and

Readers of History," Prof. J. R. Seeley.
Anthropological, 8.
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Analytical Chemistry, desires an Engagement as Assistant or and Barbarism in Africa, Past and Present," by

as Chemist in Works. No objection to go abroad. - Apply, H.H., Edward Hutchinson.

CHEMICAL News Office, Boy Court, Ludgate Hill, London, E.C. Wednesday, 28th.-Society of Arts, 8.

1 anted an Intelligent Workman who thoGeological, 8. THURSDAY, 29th.-Royal Institution, 3. "Dissociation," by Prof

roughly understands the manufacture of Acetic Acid and Dewar.

other Wood-products.-Apply to " Wood," CHEMICAL NEW, Office, Royal, 8.30.

Boy Court, Ludgate Hill, London, E.C.
Philosophical Club, 6.30.

FOR SALE.
FRIDAY, 30th.-Royal Institution, 9. "Colour-sense in Insects,"
Mr. Grant Allen.
A Quantity of Kelp at a Low Price.-

For SATURDAY, 31st.-Royal Institution, 3. On Swift," Prof. H. Morley

samples, &c., address JOHN G. HARVEY, 31, Old George's

Street, Cork. TO BE SOLD BY AUCTION pursuant to an Order of the High

TO Court of Justice Chancery Division made in the Cause of

MANURE MANUFACTURERS. Hutchinson v: Norwood:1878 H. No:14 with the approbation of the FOR SALE:--About 150 tons Monthly of

Woollen Shoddy; free from grease; containing nitrogen the Cause is attached by Mr. Thomas Colclough Leete (of the equal to from 5 to 10 per cent ammonia.-Apply to David Shaw and firm of Messrs. Branch and Leete) the person appointed by the Co., Clayton, near Manchester. said Judge at the Law Association Rooms Cooke Street Liverpool afterhoursday the 29th day of May next at 3 o'clock in the SULPHO:CYANIDE OF LIME:CA Supply The Valuable and Extensive Chemical Works Boy Court, Ludgate Hill, London, E.c. John Hutchinson and Co.'s No. 1 and 2 Works established by the late IMPORTANT TO SU.PHURIC ACID MANUFACTURERS. Mr. John Hutchinson and carried on by his executors since his death.

NORRINGTON'S PATENT. The property comprises a superficial area of 71,385 square yards of land of which 16,8594 square yards are freehold and 54,526 square

in the ordinary method of Manufacture, at the yards are leasehold principally held for long terms of years at low time of charging the Kilos, a considerable escape of gases takes ground rents 22114 square yards of the leasehold land have been place. This is attended with proportionate loss of Sulphur, and sublet and a biel rents amounting to £30 65.7d. will be included in the with much inconvenience to the workmen, as well as annoyance sale.

to the vicinity of the Works. This may be entirely avoided The situation of the works is exceptionally favourable for commu. by the adoption of C. Norrington's patented invention, which nication both by Railway and water they are divided by the St. can be applied at moderate cost to existing Plant, as well as in the Helen's Canal which affords ac nvenient means of access on peculiarly erectivn of new Works. It may be seen in full operation on extensive advantageous terms and they immediately aajoin the River Mersey Plant at Messrs. C. Norringion and Co.'s Chemical and Manure fronting which there is a piei head in cunnection with No. 2 Works Works, Cattedown, Plymouth, where the fullest information may where goods can be loaded and discharged free from toll.

be obtained, with terms for license. The Works have Railway communication with each other and are also immediately connected by means of sidings with the London and

MINERALOGY AND GEOLOGY. North Western the Sheffield and Midland and Great Northern Rail.

NEW LIST of Collections of Minerals, Fossils, and Rocks, with ways and with the Widnes Dock in which as well as in the Canal

prices. New List of Minerals for Chemical Purposes, Manufactures, there are rights of berthage connected with the works. They also

and Research. New List of Varieties of Rocks. New List of Prices possess ample facilities for drainage and for the disposal ot alkali

and Sizes of Cabinets for Natural History and other purposes. New waste on favourable terms.

Catalogue of Secondhand and New Books on Geology and Kindred The buildings ant machinery and apparatus are on a very exten. Sciences. New Supplementary List of Books. New List of Sections sive scale the greater part being of the most approved construction

of Rocks and Minerals for the Microscope. New List of Prices and they are now in first rate cindition and are capable of producing

Patterns for Geological Hammers. New List of Blowpipe Cabinets, weekly 500 tons of sait-cake 225 tons soda-ash 75 tons caustic soda

Apparatus, and Materials. Also Implements and Appliances for 30 tons soda crystals 25 tons bicarbonate soda and 20 tons recovereu

practical work in Geology and Mineralogy. s tlphur for all of which productions these works bear a most favoured Post free on application to JAMES R. GREGORY, Geologists character in the market. There is also plant almost ready for working and Mineralogists' Repository, 88, Charlotte Street, Fitzroy Square, designed for the manufacture of about sc tons per week of bleaching London. powder by Deacon's process.

No. 1 Works consist of the necessary buildings machinery and plant ater-Glass, or Soluble Silicates of Soda for the manufacture of vitriol salt-cake soda-ash soda.crystals bicar. bupate soda and sulphur with Smith's filters and joiner's workshops

and Potashi, in large or small quantities, and either solid a well yielding weekly about 500,000 gallons Railway weighing

or in solution, at ROBERT RUMNEY'S, A.dwick Cbemical machine Railway sicings ai d tramways throughout and loading and

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Wholesale and Export Dealers and Manufacturers of throughout and a pierhead and whariage on the River Mersey.

The Works will be sold in One Lot as a Going Concern and the CHEMICAL & SCIENTIFIC APPARATUS purchaser will be required to take the stock stores implements and utensils at a valuation.

PURE CHEMICALS, &c., The premises may be viewed on application to Major Cross at

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and Professors of Universities, Schools, Mines, &c. Gregory Row cliffes and Rawle Solicitors 1 Bedford Row Messrs. G. S. and H. Brandon Solicitors 15 Essex Street Strand London of Messrs. Part Woodcock and Co. Solicitors Wigan and of Messrs.

Now ready, Branch and Leete Auctioneers Hanover Street Liverpool.

TOWNSON & MERCER'S COMPLETE CATALOGUE of

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Foreign, and Colonial PATENT AGENT. Special attention Circular-saw Room; and all suitable apparatus. Tenant may enter given to Inveations relating to Chemistry, Mining, and Metallurgy on very favourable terms, and at a moderate rental. May be seen * Guide to Inventors ” Free hy Post.-Offices, 67, Chancery Lane, working at any time, by applying at 69, Broad Street, Sheffield. London, W.C., and 8, Houndgate Darlington.

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tion. It contains five pans--one to cleanse a tons, two o sens, one PATENTS.-Mr. Vaughan, F.C.S., British,

CHEMICAL News

Electric Discharges in Attenuated Gases. May 30, 1879.

231

The negative light is therefore a rectilinear radiation, THE CHEMICAL NEWS.

which is propagated preferably in a manner almost normal to the producing surface.

$ 12. Suppose the density of the gas and the intensity VOL. XXXIX. No. 1018.

of the current in a Geissler's tube so regulated that the side of the tube shows a phosphorescent light round the cathode.

If we introduce along side of and paralled to the cathode ON ELECTRIC DISCHARGES IN

a wire not connected with any source of electricity, acATTENUATED GASES,

cording to what has preceded, the luminous wire will AND ON CERTAIN PHENOMENA IN throw a narrow sharply-defined shadow of the nonGEISSLER'S TUBES."

luminous wire. As soon, however, as both wires are con.

nected together, and thus converted into cathodes, we By H. EUGEN GOLDSTEIN.

perceive on the side of the tube, in the middle of the

light-green light, two large, dark, sharply-defined surfaces, IN H. Goldstein's memoir, communicated to the Berlin If the wires are straight and not too short their form is

which are bisected by a plane passing through both wires. Royal Academy of Sciences, May 4, 1876, we find the oblong, with the longer sides parallel to the wires. following results :

The explanation of these phenomena is :The existence of a twofold conduction in attenuated gases, hitherto assumed, and corresponding to the so-called which causes every discharge-ray passing near the cathode

The negative electrode is the seat of a repulsive force, positive and negative light, cannot be retained. With the

to turn away. exception of the peculiar stratification of the negative (cathodic) light the author has succeeded in imparting all cathode-rays are determined by the form of the negative

The figures of the phosphorescent light produced by the its supposed distinctive properties to the positive light. surface. The head of a coin used as a cathode is repro

If the calibre of the tube widens in the direction duced in this manner with the accuracy of a portrait in of the current, the discharge appears as a positive the phosphorescence on the glass. light. Under reversed conditions it is negative. In

The author has also studied the stratification of the a number of experiments the cathodic discharge behaves light. This phenomenon, as regards the positive light, as if taking place through a number of fine pores. By appears in a continuous series of forms, whose ultimate means of great rarefaction or, by increasing the intensity members have little resemblance. The brightness of the of the discharge, H. Goldstein succeeded in converting successive strata is neither equal nor symmetrical in the the Arum of the positive light in tubes filled with air, direction of the discharge. Each stratum has its maxinitrogen, or hydrogen into a spectrum of the cathode mum brightness near its negative border, Different (Pogg. Ann., 141) are explained by the fact that these portions of one and the same stratum differ also in colour.

If we call the “ordinal number” of a stratum the experimentalists made use of a tube whose gaseous con

number which shows its successive place, counting from tents were absorbed by the electrodes during the passage the negative light, the chara&er of every stratum may be of the current. The author has repeatedly met with such

In alt tubes. Under the influence of a magnet positive light pronounced a function of its ordinal number.

gases the stratification is sharper and more distinct the behaves exactly like the negative, and is even affected by a smaller magnetic force. If the anode is in an axial This proposition applies not merely to any gas, but to

nearer we approach the negative end of the positive light. position it is surrounded by a luminous cylinder, which tubes of any, and even compound, form. If we divide a again is separated by a dark space from the metallic sur

cylinder into a section for the cathode, and into several face. The form which the electric light of the total other sections communicating only by narrow apertures, discharge assumes under the influence of the magnet

we find that each stratum of each section has in each depends on the quantity of electricity passing at once. The author has specially examined the green light which brightness, &c., namely, the stratum having an equal

other section a stratum corresponding to it in colour, appears in tubes of common glass at certain degrees of ordinal number. Each single stratum of positive light is pressure and intensity of the discharge. The luminosity

an image corresponding to the formerly so-called negative of the sides of the tube is not a phenomenon of fluor

or cathodic light, and the stratified positive light consists escence but of phosphorescence, and can change from green of a succession of complexes of negative light. to orange.

From the demonstrated identity of positive and negative $11. The cathodic light which produces this phospho- light, and from the transformation of a negative“ bush" rescence is, as was already assumed by Hittorf, a rectilinear into a single positive stratum, we are inversely entitled to radiation, which extends from the cathode into surrounding regard every complex of negative light essentially as a space. Still there are essential differences between the stratum of positive light. diffusion of this remarkable motion and the likewise

The boundary of the positive light is independent of redilinear movement of the light, some of which differ

the position of the positive pole, and also of the length of ences are here brought forward.

the whole discharge. Hittorf observed that a body placed between the side of

A displacement of the negative pole in the direction of the glass and a point-like cathode, throws a shadow in the discharge effects a displacement of all the positive the phosphorescent light of the latter.

strata in the same direction. Tubes can be constructed Well defined, though not very sharp shadows of small which contain no positive light. With decreasing density objects, may be obtained not merely from a point-like or

all the strata are moved towards the positive pole, while linear cathode, but also from extended negative surfaces

their number decreases. placed at a small distance from the opaque object.

In a second memoir presented to the Berlin Academy by A surface which merely radiates light, e.g., an ignited H. Goldstein, November 23, 1876, the author finds that a body, under similar conditions throws a scarcely visible

portion of the side of the tube, touched internally by a expanded penumbra.

conductor, behaves exactly like a cathode, and emits light The Editor takes the earliest opportunity of bringing before his possessing all the properties of the cathodic

light. The eaders a notice of certain researches due to H. Eugen Goldstein which phenomena observed by H. H. Reitlinger and v. Urbahave hitherto escaped his notice, and which, to a certain extent, antici- nitzky, i.e., a green light opposite a conductor approxipate some of the results announced in his papers, “On the Illumina.mated to the tube, are hence merely the excitements tion of Lines of Molecular Pressure," read before the Royal Society, which the cathodic rays proceeding from the point of con. December 5, 1878, and Contributions to Molecular Physics in High tact must occasion as soon as they, in highly rarefied Vacua," read before the Royal Society, April 3, 1879.

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