Obrazy na stronie


The Vitriol Manufacture.

May 23, 1879.

227 has only to open the ash-pit doors again the requisite gently shaken, enough steam is liberated to impel the jet. distance to admit the proper amount of draught to each Lastly, the bottle can be used as an ordinary one by blow. furnace. This plan I found to have the advantage of ing into the new tube without pressing the caoutchouc. making the fires burn more regularly, as the fireman, from Alter the tube (a) is made or purchased there is no extra having to open and close the ash-pit doors oftener, had his trouble in making the bottle. A caoutchouc stopper is the attention directed to them, and so the draught was better best to use, but a good cork answers perseAly well. Messrs. regulated.-I am, &c.,

Jackson, of the Barbican, at my request have kindly con,

E. H. sented to keep a few of these tubes in stock. Several of May 20, 1879.

these bottles have been in constant use for two or three PS.-I may say that the furnaces and ash-pits were furnished with closely-fitting doors.

years in the Chemical Laboratory of the Royal College of Science, Dublin, and have given great satisfaction.— I am,



14, Mincing Lane, London, To the Editor of the Chemical News.

May 5, 1879. SIR,-In the CHEMICAL News, vol. xxxix., p. 19. Mr. Foye called attention to a wash-bottle giving a continuous jet of THE VITRIOL MANUFACTURE, water, and Mr. Mallet, in your issue of May 2, has described a more complete but complicated form of the same.

To the Editor of the Chemical News. In both these cases the essential feature is a piece of caoutchouc tubing, so arranged as to permit the air inside SIR,- In the Chemical News (vol. xxxix., p. 205) Mr. the bottle being cut off from the external air by pressure

G. E. Davis has referred to a statement I made to him with the finger. Will you kindly permit me to say that I regarding the loss of nitre. What I said then-I was described a bottle having this arrangement, and also the speaking from memory-was perhaps scarcely justified by Bunsen valve, in a paper read before ine Chemical Society the facts

; still

, the quantity of nitre unaccounted for in our in March, 1877: A short abstract appeared in your journal. case is very much less than that mentioned by Dr. Hurter. The following is an illustrated description of the wash: The quantity of nitre used during the six months was bottle :

1.66 per cent on the stone burnt, equal to 37'18 lbs. to the ton. If we assume the real nitrate of soda present to be equal to 95 per cent, this would be equal to 35'31 lbs. There was found in the outlets nitrous gases equivalent to 15 lbs. nitrate of soda for each ton of stone burnt, which would give 42'5 per cent on the quantity used, or four times that mentioned by Dr. Hurter. If we add to this 10 per cent for imperfect denitration, and 5 per cent for mechani. cal losses, we get a total of 57'5 per cent unaccounted for. During the six months these trials were made much acid was drawn from the chambers for manure making, and this acid always contained a quantity of nitre; indeed, so much was this the case on some occasions as to interfere with the workmen while mixing in the vat. It is impossible to say how much was lost in this way, but it will be readily seen that much more than 45 per cent of the nitre is thus accounted for, without putting down 20 per cent as reduced to nitrous oxide, as is done by Dr. Hurter. I may say that we are still finding in the outlets between 40 and 50 per cent of the nitre used. But is it not probable that the different results obtained are due in a great measure to the different way in which the chambers are worked ? This we know from experience—that where the chambers are worked with the acid strongly impregnated

with nitrous gases inuch less nitre is required than where It has two tubes fused into it at right angles, which are the acid in the chambers stinks of sulphurous acid. bent round upon the top of the cork, and connected by a Much has been said regarding the state of oxidation of piece of good caoutchouc tubing (6). The tube (a) is the nitrous gases found in the outlets, but no one seems to stopped between the two junctions of the side tubes by a have made any direct attempt to ascertain what that state piece of cork (d), or by being fused up. When the operator of oxidation is. Dire&ly after Mr. Davis published his wishes to use the bottle he holds it as usual, placing his observations on the reducing action of As203 in the ab. forefinger upon the caoutchouc (6), so as to prevent air sorber, I commenced a series of experiments to setile the passing through it, and blows through the mouthpiece into question, at least as far as these works were concerned. In the bottle. After this the jet of water continues to issue all fifty-five tests were made, and out of these in fortywith almost undiminished force for about three-quarters of three cases the gases existed as N203 and N204, while in a minute, while it may be stopped at any time by releasing the other twelve the gases existed as N2O2 and N2O3. It the pressure upon the caoutchouc tube (b). Water may Was necessary in making these experiments to assume that be poured out through the new tube (a) as usual. It is the nitrous gases were present in only three forms of oxi. convenient to benå the lower end of the tube dipping into dation, viz., as N202, N2O3, and N204, and that only two the water; this enables the operator to blow out the last of these, either N202 + N2O3 or N2O3+ N204, were present portions of water. The advantages of the bottle are as at the same time. This assumption is, I think, warranted follows :--The jet will issue for some time after the ope by the properties of the gases, for we should scarcely exrator has blown into the bottle, and can be directed upwards peat N202 and N204 to exist together side by side without into a beaker by inclining the bottle. The j t can be reacting upon each other. stopped at pleasure. The water passing through the new Mr. Davis has attributed the presence of N202 in the tube when the bottle is inverted can be regulated to a drop outlets to the reducing action of As203 exerted while the by pressing upon the rubber. The mouthpiece never gets acid is passing down the absorber. Now I have reason to bot, nor does gas or steam pass through it into the mouth. believe that under certain conditions sulphurous acid is When the water is boiling, if the bottle be occasionally competent to reduce the aitrous acids. I give below two


CHEMICAL News, Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources.

May 23, 1879. instances, copied from my note-book, which will tend to aluminic chloride upon acetic and sulphuric anhydrides. support this belief :-" The chambers had been working MM. Riodinine and Saytzeff describe diallyl-isopropyl. with very great regularity for a length of time, the quan- carbinol as a colourless liquid, of sp. gr. 0-8512, and tity of nitre used being equal to about i per cent on the boiling-point 182° to 185°. MM. Semlianitzine and Sayt. stone burnt, and the quantity found in the outlets equal zeff have investigated the oxy-valerianic acid obtained by to about 12 lbs. on the ton of stone. On the 16th the the oxidation of allyl-dimethyl-carbinol. MM. Beilstein chambers were looking badly, and I examined the pipe be- and Kourbatoff have obtained nitro-phthalic acid by tween the absorber and the last chamber when the gases oxidising nitro-naphthalin by means of chromic anhydride. smelt quite sharp. Accordingly, I expected to find a large

Researches on Sulphates.--A. Etard.—The sulphates quantity of SO2 present in the test solutions) this morning of the magnesian series, or of the alum series, are far I was surprised to find only a trace as usual, while that of from representing all the combinations which sulphuric nitre had more than trebled, viz., 43.31 lbs. to the ton of acid forms with the metals. Many of these salts may be stone."

represented by the general formula M2(SO4)6N2. He has The next case is still more conclusive :-"Two days examined the double sesqui-sulphate of iron and alumina ago the acid from the absorber contained nitrous acids (acid); that of iron and chrome (acid); the corresponding equivalent to 2:45 per cent of nitre; this morning it con

neutral salt, &c. The sesquisulphate of aluminium and tained 1:07 per cent. During this time, the Glover tower

manganese is a powder of a beautiful sky-blue. being out of repair, has not been working, and it was thought advisable to put the same acid over and over again the Mechanical Properties of Steels.-V. Deshayes.

Relations between the Chemical Composition and through the absorber. While this was going on the chambers have been stinking, and it was inferred that a

-Carbon renders steels rigid and elastic, increasing their large quantity of SO2 would be found going away. This

elastic tension, but their resistance to rupture diminishes has not proved to be the case, as only a trace has been

if o'500 is exceeded. Manganese renders steels rigid and found in the test-bath yesterday and to-day, although elastic and increases their elastic tension, but the elonga.

tion and contraction remain considerable, which gives a 6 cubic feet of the gases have been tested on each occasion. The nitre found in the outlets has been very large, good resistance to a shock. Silicon plays the same part viz., 102:8 lbs. per ton of stone yesterday and 120'7 lbs. elongation. Sulphur decreases the breaking strain and

as carbon, rendering steels hard, and slightly diminishing per ton of stone to-day.”

the resistance to a shock. Now these two cases would point to the fact that SO2

Phosphorus renders steels is capable of reducing the N2O3, in solution in the acid, to

deficient in body, and, if its proportion exceeds o‘250 per N2O2; thus, N2O3 + S02=N202+SO3, and that this re.

cent, fragile on receiving a shock. Chrome ads like action may take place in the absorber.-I am, &c.,

manganese but more energetically. E. JACKSON.

Thermic Formation of the Compounds of CarLaboratory of Messrs. T. Adkins and Co.,

bonic Oxide with the other Elements.-M. Berthelot. Smethwick, near Birmingham.

- Already noticed.

Specific Heats and Melting Heat of Gallium.-M. Berthelot.— The specific heat of liquid gallium is o‘0802;

that of solid gallium 0.079. The melting heat is + 19-11. CHEMICAL NOTICES FROM FOREIGN The specific atomic heat in the liquid state is 5'59; in the SOURCES.

Reciprocal Displacements of Weaks Acids.-M.

Berthelot. Note.-All degrees of temperature are Centigrade, unless otherwise expressed.

Rotatory Power of Styrolen.-M. Berthelot.—These

two papers have been already noticed. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances, l'Académie de

des Sciences. No. 15, April 14, 1879. Anomaly in Magnetic Observations at Paris.-C.

Fustus Liebig's Annalen der Chemie, Flammarion.-The author contends that the explanations

Band 195, Heft 3. of these anomalies put forward by M. Marié.Davy are Products of the Action of Caustic Potassa upon not satisfactory.

Sulpho-mesytelenate of Potassium.-Oscar Jacobsen.

An extensive paper in which the results obtained by Bulletin de la Société Chimique de Paris,

Fittig, Hoogewerff, and others are critically examined. No. 5, March 5, 1879.

Among the products of the reaction are mesitol, oxy-mesi. Recent Paper by M. B. Aronheim.-P. Schützen. tylenic acid, oxy-trimesinic acid, and oxy-uvitinic acid. berger.-M. Aronheim having stated in the Berichte der described at length.

These compounds with a number of their derivatives are Deutsch. Chem. Gesell. that on attempting to prepare the acetates of chlorine and iodine he had obtained mere

Analysis of Organic Bodies Containing Halogens mixtures of acetic and hypochlorous acids, or of chloride

or Nitrogen.-Hugo Schiff.— The author describes with of iodine and iodic acid, M. Schützenberger refers to slight modifications the method proposed by Piria thirty numerous chemists who have seen and examined, or have years ago. The substance is weighed in a small platinum themselves prepared, the products in question.

crucible, and in case of chlorine or bromine fills up with a Chloro-stannates of the Rare Earths.-P. T. Cléve.

mixture of 1 part anhydrous carbonate of soda and 4 to - The composition of the lanthanic, ceric, didymic, and 5 parts of lime, the whole being thoroughly mixed yttric chloro-stannates is quite analogous to that of the then covered with a larger' platinum crucible and the pair

together by means of a platinum wire. The whole is corresponding chloro-platinates. The author has verified the researches of M. Marignac on the earths of the gado- turned downwards. The space between the two crucibles

are inverted so that the bottom of the larger crucible is linite. No doubt can exist concerring terbia. He has is filled with the same mixture of lime and soda, the lid obtained a small quantity of ytterbia, but his researches is put on, and the whole heated to redness over a strong are not completed.

Bunsen burner. The reaction is completed in atout ten Russian Chemical Society, December 7/19, 1878.- minutes. In case of an iodine compound carbonate of M. Beketoff communicated a paper on the determination soda is used without lime. The arrangements for the of the atomic heat of hydrogen in its combination with determination of nitrogen cannot be intelligibly described platinum. M. Andrianowsky has examined the action of without the aid of the accompanying plate.

solid 5:52.

May 23, 1879.

Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources.

229 The Molecular Magnitude of Indigo.—Dr. E. v. Artificial Alizarin.-C. Græbe and C. Liebermann.Sommaruga.--The author finds the vapour-density of The first part of this bulky treatise deals with the che. indigo = 9:45, and concludes that the formula for indigo mistry of artificial alizarin as understood down to 1874. must be C16H10N2O2 and not the half of these numbers. Of the second part, which gives an account of subsequent

Communications from the Laboratory of Applied improvements as far as the end of 1877, we shall shortly Chemistry of the University of Erlangen.- These give an abridgment. communications embrace the following papers :-Detec- Contributions to the History of Benzol-green and tion of Ethyl-diacetic Acid in Urine, by A. Hilger; on Malachite-green.--This paper consists of certain memoiis Solanin and its Decomposition Products, by A. Hilger ; by O. Dæbner and by O. and E. Fischer, taken from the and, Certain New Salts of Uranyl, by Dr. R. Sendtner. Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft.

Influence of the Isomerism of the Alcohols and Industrial Society of Mulhouse.--Proceedings of the Acids on the Formation of Compound Ethers.-N. Sessions of the Chemical Committee, December 11, 1878, Menschutkin.-An important paper which does not admit and January 15, 1879.-Nothing is here described which of useful abstraction.

has not been already noticed. The particulars of M. Contribution to a Knowledge of Polyporic Acid. Kopp's process for the spectral analysis of dye-wares are -C. Stahlschmidt.- The author obtains hydropolyporic not yet made known. acid by treatment with caustic alkali, examines the salts On Amber.-M. Helm.- Amber in entire fragments is of the new acid, obtains nitropolyporic acid by treating permeable to water. It contains as much as 4 per cent polyporic acid with concentrated nitric acid and certain of sulphur in the state of organic combination. This chlorine compounds by the action of potassic chlorate and sulphur has probably been absorbed by the fossil resin in hydrochloric acid.

the state of hydrogen sulphide subsequent to its formation. Contributions to a Knowledge of Ammoniacal | The author describes another fossil resin, gedanite, which Mercury Compounds.-H. Gerresheim.-An examina- differs from amber by containing a smaller proportion of tion of Millon's base. The author announces' an intention oxygen, and is softer, more fusible, and more soluble in of shortly making known an application of this compound ether. It is free from succinic acid. in water-analysis. Moniteur Scientifique, Quesneville.

Verhandlungen des Vereins sur Beforderung des
April, 1879.

Gewerbfleisses. February, 1879.
Researches Conducted in the Laboratory of MM.
P. Monnet and Co. at La Plaine.-P. Monnet, F.

The Manufacture of Magenta by Coupier's Process.

- Dr. C. Hæussermann. - The author remarks that Reverdin, and E. Noelting. Presence of Meta-nitro-toluol in Nitro-toluol. – The Coupier's process has hitherto been adopted in but few

establishments, and although the magenta thus produced authors, in experimenting upon the acetylic derivative of a commercial toluydin free from aniline, were led to surpose preparation of superior blues, it is not yet finally decided

is often preferred, especially as a raw material for the that in addition to the ortho. and para-derivatives it con.

which of the two methods is preferable. For Coupier's tained a little of the third isomer or meta-compound. To decide this question they have studied the nitro-toluol process it is essential to use an aniline oil of sp. gr. 1.006 used in the manufacture of the toluydin in question, and

to 1'007 at 15°. It is converted into hydrochlorate with

the presence of as little water as possible. To prevent found their suspicions confirmed.

the aniline hydrochlorate when dehydrated by a temperaThe Part of Meta-toluydin in the Manufacture of Aniline

ture of 140° from adhering too firmly to the sides of the Red.-The function of ortho. and of para-toluydin in the preparation of magenta has been studied by M. Rosen vessel, two-thirds of the aniline to be used is slightly stiehl and other chemists ; it seemed to the authors in supersaturated with hydrochloric acid, concentrated till teresting to complete these observations by oxidising of the aniline is then poured into the melted cooling mass;

the temperature rises to 140°, and the remaining one-third meta-toluydin either alone or mixed with aniline and the This operation is conducted in enamelled pans provided two other toluydins, especially as the presence of this base with a condensation apparatus. The mixture of aniline in a small extent had been traced in commercial toluydin. and aniline hydrochlorate is then introduced into the They have heated various mixtures containing metatoluydin with arsenic acid under the usual conditions for of pure nitro-benzol, and by degrees 3 to 5 parts of iron

melting pans, adding to 100 parts of aniline about 50 parts the manufacture of magenta and have extracted the

filings. colouring matter produced, and tested it by dyeing com

March, 1879. parative samples :

Ammonia Soda and the Production of Ammonia Base or mixture of Bases in Shade of the Product of

Oxidation. Equal Molecules.

in Coke-burning.–Dr. Frank.—The author points out 1. Aniline Violet (violanilin).

that the weak point of the Solvay process is its dependence Red. 2. Ortho-toluydin

on the supply and consequent price of ammoniacal salts.

He insists upon the importance of utilising the volatile 3. Para-toluydin.. Yellowish brown.

products-ammonia, tar, &c.—from coke works, which he 4. Meta-toluydin Brown.

considers would effect a revolution in all trades based 5. Aniline and ortho-toluydin.. Red.

upon the destructive distillation of coal. 6. Aniline and para-toluydin Red (para-rosanilin). 7. Aniline and meta-toluy. din... Violet.

Test for Mercurial Vapours.-At a recent meeting of 8. Aniline, ortho- and meta.

the Society of the Physical and Natural Sciences of toluydin

Yellowish and greyish red. | Bourdeaux M. Merget recommended paper steeped in the 9. Aniline, para- and meta

ammoniacal solution of nitrate of silver, or in chloride of toluydin

Red, slightly violet, and palladium, as reagents for mercurial vapours much more 10. Aniline, ortho- and para- greyish.

sensitive than gold foil. This test-paper is very sensitive ; toluydin

Red (ortho-para-rosanilin). a slip of sheet-copper plunged into a liquid containing II. Ortho- and para-toluydin Red.

I part of mercury in 10,000 remained bright after immer. 12. Ortho- and meta-toluydin Red, violet, and greyish. sion, but if exposed to the ammoniacal nitrate of silver 13. Para- and meta-toluydin Brown.

paper it occasioned a characteristic black spot. He finds 14. Ortho-, para-, and meta

that even when solidified mercury emits vapours in appretoluydin..

Red, violet, and greyish. ciable quantity.

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May 23, 1879.



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SATURDAY, 24th.-Physical, 3. "On a New Harmonograph," W.J:

Wilson. "On a New Induction Balance," Prof.

Hughes. MONDAY, 26th.-Royal Institution, 3. “ The Intellectual Movement

of Germany from the Middle of the Last to the

Middle of the Present Century," Prof. Hillebrand.

Royal Geographical, 1. (Anniversary.) TUESDAY, 27th.-Civil Engineers, 8.

Royal Institutior, 3. “Suggestions to Students and

Readers of History,” Prof. J. R. Seeley.
Anthropological, 8.
Society of Arts, 8. " The Contact of Civilisation

and Barbarism in Africa, Past and Preseni," by

Edward Hutchinson. Wednesday, 28th.-Society of Arts, 8.

Geological, 8.
THURSDAY, 29th.--Royal Institution, 3. “ Dissociation," by Prof

Royal, 8.30.

Philosophical Club, 6.30.
FRIDAY, 30th.-Royal Institution, 9. Colour-sense in Insects,"

Mr. Grant Allen. SATURDAY, 31st.-Royal Institution, 3. “On Swift," Prof. H. Morley TO BE SOLD BY AUCTION pursuant to an Order of the High

Court of Justice Chancery Division made in the Cause of Hutchinson v.Norwood 1878 A. No. 14 with the approbation of the Vice-Chancellor Sir Richard Malins the Judge to whose Court the Cause is attached by Mr. Thomas Colclough Leete (of the firm of Messrs. Branch and Leete) the person appointed by the said Judge at the Law Association Rooms Cooke Street Liverpool on Thursday the 29th day of May next at 3 o'clock in the afternoon.

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SULPHO-CYANIDE of LIME.—A Supply The Valuable and Extensive Chemical Werks Buy Court, Ludgate Hill, London, E.c.

of this article wanted.-- Apply to B 18, CHEMICAL New, Otice,



In the ordinary method of Manufacture, at the


as . John Hutchinson and Co.'s No. 1 and 2 Works established by the late Mr. John Hutchinson and carried on by his exccutors since his death. The property comprises a superficial area of 71,385 square yards of land of which 16,8594 square yards are freehold and 54,526 square yards are leasehold principally held for long terms of years at low ground rents 22111 square yards of the leasehold land have been sublet and hier rents amounting to £30 65.7d. will be included in the sale.

The situation of the works is exceptionally favourable for commu. nication both by Railway and water they are divided by the St. Helen's Canal which affords ac nvenient means of access on peculiarly advantageous terms and they immediately aajoin the River Mersey fronting which there is a pici head in cunnection with No. 2 Work's where goods can be loaded and discharged free from toll.

The Works have Railway communication with each other and are also immediately connected by means of sidings with the London and North Western the Shefheld and Midland and Great Northern Rail. ways and with the Widnes Dock in which as well as in the Canal there are rights of berthage connected with the works. They also possess ample facilities for drainage and for the disposal oi alkali waste on tavourable terms.

The buildings I lant machinery and apparatus are on a very exten. sive scale the greater part being of the most approved construction they are now in first rate cindition and are capable of producing weekly 500 tons of salt-cake 225 tons soda-ash 75 tons caustic soda 30 tons soda crystals 25 tons bicarbunate soua and 20 tons recovered : tlphur for all of which productions these works bear a most favoured character in the market There is also plant almost ready for working designed for the manufacture of about 50 tons per week of bleaching. powder by Deacon's process.

No. 1 Works consist of the necessary buildings machinery and plant for the manufacture of vitriol salt-cake soda-ash soda-crystals bicarbunate soda and sulphur with Smith's filters and joiner's workshops a well yielding weekly about 500,000 gallons Railway weighing machine Railway sicings a: d tramways throughout and loading and discharging berths on the Canal and Midnes Dock.

N .2 Works consist of the necessary buildings machinery and plant for the manufacture of vitriol salt-cake sodu.ash caustic soda bieaching. powder and sulphur with Offices and Lavatory Coach-house Stabling and Out-buildings Cooperage and Cooperage Store Locomotive Shed Smith's filters and joiner's workshops and railway wagon repairing shop railway weighing machine saw-mill mortar-midi and engine a well (weekly capacity 900,000 gallons) railways and tramways throughout and a pierhead and whariage on the River Mersey.

The Works will be sold in One Lot as a Going Concern and the purchaser will be required to take the stock storts implements and utensils at a valuation.

The premises may be viewed on application to Major Cross at Wianes and particulars and conditions of sale may be had of Messrs. Gregory Roucliffes and Rawle Solicitors i Bedford Row Messrs, G. S. and H. Brandon Solicitors 15 Essex Street Strand London of Messrs. Part Woodcock and Co. Solicitors Wigan and of Messrs. Branch and Leete Auctioneers Hanover Street Liverpoul.

time of charging the Kilos, a considerable escape of gases takes place. This is attended with proportionate loss of Suichur, and with much inconvenience to the workmen, as well as annoyance

the vicinity of the Works. This may be entirely axvided by the adoplivn of C. Norrington's patented invention, which can be applied at moderate cost to existing Piant, as well as in the erectivn of new Works. It may be seen in full operation on extensive Plant at Messrs. C. Norringion and Co.'s Chemical and Manure Works, Cattedown, Plymouth, wi.ere the fullest intormation may be obtained, with terms for license.

MINERALOGY AND GEOLOGY. NEW LIST of Collections of Minerals, Fossils, and Rocks, with prices. New List of Minerals for Chemical Purposes, Manufactures, and Research. New List of Varieties of Rocks. New List of Prices and Sizes of Cabinets for Natural History and other purposes. New Catalogue of Second hand and New Books on Gevlogy and kindred Sciences. New Supplementary List of Books. New List of Sections ou Rucks and Minerals for the Microscope. New List of Prices and Patterns for Geological Haminers. New List of Blow pipe Cabinets, Apparatus, and Materials, Also Implements and Appliances for practical work in Geology and Mineralogy.

Post free on application 10 JAMES R. GREGORY, Geologists and Mineralogists' Repository, 88, Charlotte Street, Fitzroy Square, London.

ater-Glass, or Soluble Silicates of Soda

and Potash, in large or small quantities, and either sulid or in solution, at ROBERT RUMNEY'S, Adwick Cbemical Works, Manchester.


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terms, the ALBERT SOAP-WORKS, Sheffield; the only Soapei y situated in the midst of a very large and increasing population.

ít contains five pans-one to cleanse 9 tons, two brons, one 4 tons, and one 3 tons; Ley Vats; Hut Room ; Sieam Engine; Circular-saw Room; and all suitable apparatus. Tenant may euter on very favourable terms, and at a moderate rental.-May be seca working at any time, by applying at 69, Broad Street, Sheffield.

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Electric Discharges in Attenuated Gases. May 30, 1879.


The negative light is therefore a rectilinear radiation, THE CHEMICAL NEWS. which is propagated preferably in a manner almost normal

to the producing surface.

$12. Suppose the density of the gas and the intensity Vol. XXXIX. No. 1018.

of the current in a Geissler's tube so regulated that the side of the tube shows a phosphorescent light round the cathode.

If we introduce along side of and paralled to the cathode ON ELECTRIC DISCHARGES IN

a wire not connected with any source of electricity, acATTENUATED GASES,

cording to what has preceded, the luminous wire will AND ON CERTAIN PHENOMENA IN throw a narrow sharply-defined shadow of the non

luminous wire. As soon, however, as both wires are con. GEISSLER'S TUBES."

nected together, and thus converted into cathodes, we By H. EUGEN GOLDSTEIN.

perceive on the side of the tube, in the middle of the

light-green light, two large, dark, sharply-defined surfaces, In H. Goldstein's memoir, communicated to the Berlin If the wires are straight and not too short their form is

which are bisected by a plane passing through both wires. Royal Academy of Sciences, May 4, 1876, we find the oblong, with the longer sides parallel to the wires. following results :--

The explanation of these phenomena is :The existence of a twofold conduction in attenuated gases, hitherto assumed, and corresponding to the so-called which causes every discharge-ray passing near the cathode

The negative electrode is the seat of a repulsive force, positive and negative light, cannot be retained. With the

to turn away. exception of the peculiar stratification of the negative (cathodic) light the author has succeeded in imparting all cathode-rays are determined by the form of the negative

The figures of the phosphorescent light produced by the its supposed distinctive properties to the positive light. surface. The head of a coin used as a cathode is reproIf the calibre of the tube widens in the direction

duced in this manner with the accuracy of a portrait in of the current, the discharge appears as a positive the phosphorescence on the glass. light. Under reversed conditions it is negative. In a number of experiments the cathodic discharge behaves light. This phenomenon, as regards the positive light,

The author has also studied the stratification of the as if taking place through a number of fine pores. By appears in a continuous series of forms, whose ultimate means of greai rarefaction or, by increasing the intensity members have little resemblance. The brightness of the of the discharge, H. Goldstein succeeded in converting successive strata is neither equal nor symmetrical in the the spectrum of the positive light in tubes filled with air, direction of the discharge. Each stratum has its maxinitrogen, or hydrogen into a spectrum of the cathode

mum brightness near its negative border. Different light. The phenomena observed by Reitlinger and Kuhn (Pogg. Ann., 141) are explained by the fact that these portions of one and the same stratum differ also in colour.

If we call the “ ordinal number” of a stratum the experimentalists made use of a tube whose gaseous con

number which shows its successive place, counting from tents were absorbed by the electrodes during the passage the negative light, the character of every stratum may be of the current. The author has repeatedly met with such

pronounced a function of its ordinal number. In all tubes. Under the influence of a magnet positive light gases the stratification is sharper and more disting the behaves exactly like the negative, and is even affected by

nearer we approach the negative end of the positive light. a smaller magnetic force. If the anode is in an axial

This proposition applies not merely to any gas, but to position it is surrounded by a luminous cylinder, which tubes of any, and even compound, form. If we divide a again is separated by a dark space from the metallic sur

cylinder into a section for the cathode, and into several face. The form which the electric light of the total

other sections communicating only by narrow apertures, discharge assumes under the influence of the magnet

we find that each stratum of each section has in each depends on the quantity of electricity passing at once.

other section a stratum corresponding to it in colour, The author has specially examined the green light which brightness, &c., namely, the stratum having an equal appears in tubes of common glass at certain degrees of ordinal number. Each single stratum of positive light is pressure and intensity of the discharge. The luminosity

an image corresponding to the formerly so-called negative of the sides of the tube is not a phenomenon of fluor

or cathodic light, and the stratified positive light consists escence but of phosphorescence, and can change from green of a succession of complexes of negative light. to orange.

From the demonstrated identity of positive and negative $11. The cathodic light which produces this phospho- light, and from the transformation of a negative “ bush" rescence is, as was already assumed by Hittorf, a rectilinear

into a single positive stratum, we are inversely entitled to radiation, which extends from the cathode into surrounding regard every complex of negative light essentially as a space. Still there are essential differences between the

stratum of positive light. diffusion of this remarkable motion and the likewise

The boundary of the positive light is independent of rectilinear movement of the light, some of which differ the position of the positive pole, and also of the length of ences are here brought forward.

the whole discharge. Hittorf observed that a body placed between the side of

A displacement of the negative pole in the direction of the glass and a point-like cathode, throws a shadow in the discharge effects a displacement of all the positive the phosphorescent light of the latter.

strata in the same direction. Tubes can be constructed Well defined, though not very sharp shadows of small which contain no positive light. With decreasing density objects, may be obtained not merely from a point-like or

all the strata are moved towards the positive pole, while linear cathode, but also from extended negative surfaces their number decreases. placed at a small distance from the opaque object.

In a second memoir presented to the Berlin Academy by A surface which merely radiates light, e.g., an ignited H. Goldstein, November 23, 1876, the author finds that a body, under similar conditions throws a scarcely visible portion of the side of the tube, touched internally by a expanded penumbra.

conductor, behaves exactly like a cathode, and emits light * The Editor takes the earliest opportunity of bringing before his possessing all the properties of the cathodic light. The eaders a notice of certain researches due to H. Eugen Goldstein which phenomena observed by H. H. Reitlinger and V. Urbahave hitherto escaped his notice, and which, to a certain extent, antici- nitzky, i.e., a green light opposite a conductor approxipate some of the results announced in his papers, “On the Illumina- mated to the tube, are hence merely the excitements tion of Lines of Molecular Pressure," read before the Royal Society, which the cathodic rays proceeding from the point of con. December 5, 1878, and “Contributions to Molecular Physics in High Vacua," read before the Royal Society, April 3, 1879.

tact must occasion as soon as they, in highly rarefied


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