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Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources.

CHEMICAL News,

1 January 10, 1879. ditions which C. Bernard seems to have met with in the Hæmocyanin, a New Substance from the Blood experiments, the account of which has unfortunately of Octopus vulgaris.-L. Fredericq.--The liquid por. reached us in so imperfect a manner. Nevertheless, I tion of the blood of the cuttles contains a colourless considered it useful to science to publish them, such as albumenoid substance, forming with oxygen an unstable they are, with the object not of opening a controversy but compound of a deep blue colour. This substance plays, of pointing out a new path for research.” By simulta. in the respiration of the cuttles, the same part as does neously hydrogenising and oxidising sugar M. Berthelot | hæmoglobin in that of the Vertebrata. The veinous has in fact succeeded in producing alcohol, though in blood of the cuttles is colourless, but the arterial is a dark very small proportions. He considers that his present blue. If hæmocyanin is ignited it leaves an ash rich in results do not warrant a definite conclusion, for the limit copper, which seems to be in the same condition and to may be due as much to the inaccuracy of the fundamental | fulfil the same functions as does iron in hæmoglobin. hypothesis as to the imperfection of the conditions.

1. Influence of the Different colours of the Spectrum Still, he considers the fact that alcohol has been produced

on the Development of Animals.-E. Yung.-Refer. in the cold by the electrolysis of a solution of sugar merits

| ring to earlier researches on this subject the author states to be placed on record.

that M. Beclard placed the eggs of Musca carnaria under Novel Phenomenon of Static Electricity.- E. glasses of different colours, and remarked that they were Duter.-In reply to the memoir of M. Govi (December 2) developed very unequally, those under the blue and the author does not admit that his researches can be violet ray being the most developed, and those under the viewed as a continuation of ihose of the Italian physicist. green ray the least so. He arranges the rays, as regards Artificial Production of Nepheline and Amphi.

the development of larvæ, in the following order :- Violet, gene.-F. Fouqué and A. Michel Levy.--These minerals

blue, red, yellow, white, green. The author has carried have been obtained by the same method used by the

on for three years a series of observations on the eggs of authors for the reproduction of felspars.

the common and esculent frog, of the trout, and of

Lymnea stagnalis. These eggs were placed in vessels Spectrometric Measurement of High Tempera

| plunged respectively into violet, blue, green, yellow, red, tures.-A. Crova.—The spectrometric study of the

and white solutions, whilst one vessel was kept in a dark luminous radiations emitted by incandescent bodies has

closet. Violet light accelerates the development in a led the authoi to the discovery of a new method of deter

remarkable manner, and is followed in this respect by the mining elevated temperatures by the analysis of the light

blue, the yellow, and the white. Red and green light which they emit. If we take, in the continuous spectra

appear injurious, as the author was not able to obtain the of light emittted by two incandescent sources, the one of

complete development of ova in these colours. Darkness known temperature, T, and the other of unknown tem

did not hinder development, but retarded it, contrary to perature, x, two simple radiations of very different wave

the results of Higginbottom and MacDonnell. The lengths, 1 and X', to which we may reser all our measure.

colours may be arranged in the following series of ments, and determine by means of a spectro-photometer diminishing activity :-Violet, blue, yellow, and white the ratios

(which are nearly equal), darkness, red, and green.

Tadpoles deprived of food died more rapidly of inanition | under the violet and blue rays than under the others.

The general mortality seemed lowest in white light. of the intensity of the two rays land X' in the two spectra. The quotient of these two ratios represents the ratio of the intensiiies of the ray \' in the two spectra when the more intense has been lowered so as to give the same

Gazzetta Chimica Italiana. intensity to the ray, in the two spectra.

Anno viii., 1878. Fasc. vi. and vii. Specific Heat and Melting Temperature of Palla

Crystalline Form of Usnic Acid.-P. Freda.—The dium.-J. Violle.-The mean specific heat of palladium

same remark applies to this memoir. at 100o = 0'0592. Its melting temperature is 1500°. Preparation of Digallic Acid.--Dr. P. Freda.-A

Influence of Temperature on Rotatory Magnetic criticism on the method proposed by Prof. Hugo Schiff. Power.-). Joubert. In the author's experiments the

The author finds that on heating gallic acid with arsenic rotatory power was found to increase with the use of acid, whether in alcoholic or aqueous solution, a substance temperature.

is obtained having some reactions similar to tannic acid.

This substance constantly contains arsenic acid, and if Density of Coefficients of Expansion of Liquid I this is removed the compound is re-converted into gallic Chloride of Mechyl.-MM. C. Vincent and Delachanal.

acid. The sp. gr. at – 23.7° = 0'9945 ; at +39° = 0.87886. The values lound for the three coefficients a, b, y, respec

On a-Iso-chloro-butyric Acid and some of its tively, are 0'00193929, 0'00000183121, and o‘000000105916.

Derivatives.-L. Balbiano.- The derivatives are oxy

iso-butyric, metacrylic, and dibutylatic acids. Oxidation of Certain Aromatic Derivatives.-A. Etard.--On oxidising various organic compounds by

New Phenomena Observed in “ Plastering " Wines means of chromic chlorhydrine the author observed very

and Musts.-Prof. E. Pollacci, -Sulphate of lime reacts different reactions, and found that its mode of action is

solely upon the cream of tartar, producing acid sulphate principally regulated by the nature of the body acted

of potassa, which remains in solution, while tartrate of upon and by that of the substituted groups which it con.

lime is formed and is chiefly deposited. The reaction tains. Thus there are formed acetons, aldehyds, and

between the two salts is not complete, since there may be quinons, whilst hydrochloric acid, or even chlorine, is

found in the liquid both sulphate of lime and cream of liberated as an accessory product ; in other cases there is

tartar. If the gypsum is in large excess a part of it is

deposited among the tartrate of lime. no escape of gas, an immediate and total combination being formed.

Nature of Certain Crystalline Secondary Products Obtained in the Industrial Treatment of Pennsyl. |

· Les Mondes, Revue Hebdomadaire des Sciences. vanian Petroleum.-L. Prunier and R. David.-Among |

No. 14, December 5, 1878. these accessory products are found the carburetted deriva. Agoraphobia.-Dr. Legrand du Saule.-The author tives of acetylen and benzin (anthracen, chrysen, &c.) has studied a novel nervous affection, which manifests discovered in the products of the distillation of coal, itself in a dread of open spaces.

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2.98

5.50

6.80

News

Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources.
January 10, 1879. }
Biedermann's Central-blatt.

Stag. Fallow deer. Roe.
Heft 12.

Lime .. .. .. 51.96 52-29 52'13 31.60
Magnesia .. I'02 0.96

I'26 3.60 Researches on the Influence of Artificial Manures

Phosph. acid .. 42:19 4141

4060

12.60 upon the Growth of Summer Barley.-Dr. G. Marek. Carbonic acid .. 2.12 2'29 The author conludes that on fruitful soils artificial ma Potash .. .. Oʻ561 nures are untrustworthy for barley. Unmanured plots

Soda

1:13

0.89

.. .. 0'305 often yield better results than such as are manured. Sulph. acid .. 0:18 0:09 0'07

Experiments with Sugar Beets in Different Soils Fluorine .. .. 1956 1'48 I'96 and with Different Manures.-Dr. J. Hanamann. Silica

.. 0'04 0'05 0'09 I'90 The author draws no conclusions from his experiments. Ferric oxide .. 0.79 0-30 0.02 20'30 (?) Composition of Wool and Hair.-P. Schutzen. Carbon . .

1'36 berger.-From Comptes Rendus, 1878, pp. 767-69.

On Certain Animated Enemies of Cultivated Plants and their Destruction.--M. Schaefer.-An ac.

MISCELLANEOUS. count of certain insects hostile chiefly to the vine. Among the remedies proposed are sodium sulphide, petroleum, and a mixture of an alcoholic extract of tobacco, with bi

Russian Scientific News.-At the Technical Society sulphide of carbon.

of St. Petersburg M. Latchinoff delivered a very interesting Wine-Testing and Chemical Analysis.-Drs. E.

lecture on the electric light. He made some experiments Mach and Patele.—The authors show that wines on

with Jablochkoff's condensators, which consist of a set of

tin plates placed one on another; the surface of every analysis often display properties not suspected from their

plate is 0.7 square metre. Between every pair of such taste. Sorts rich in alcohol are often pronounced light,

plates a piece of silk covered with varnish is introduced. and others strongly acid seem mild, &c. These seeming

The height of the condensator was about 6 feet. On contradictions are due to the fact that wine is a most com

introducing two condensators into a circuit the intensity plicated liquid, whose components are hy no means all

of the electric light is doubled. Such condensators are known. Even among the recognised and more prominent

not cheap owing to the great quantity of silk wanted, and ingredients, it is not so much the quantity of one or the other as their relative proportion which determines the

thus the application of this apparaius is limited. The

lecturer believes the new system of electric lighting de. flavour.

vised by M. Rapieff to be a serious opponent of JablochOn the Influence of Temperature in Malting.-A.

koff's process. The chief advantage of the new system is Prantl and Hans von der Planitz.-Not susceptible of

that the luminating point does not change its position, and useful abstraction.

therefore this system is more suitable for the projection of Oino-Chemical Researches.-Dr. M. Buchner.-In the ele&ric light at a distance. This advantage will give order to solve the question whether a given wine is natu increase to the use of the electric light for military ral or fictitious, in the former certain proportions pre- purposes. vail between the quantities of extract, alcohol, and ash. M. Greegorieff, of the Petrovsky Agricultural Academy If the relative proportion of these constituents vary from of Moscow, has made some interesting experiments con. the normal standard, or if the total is too high or too low, cerning the quality of milk sold in various places in the the case is suspicious.

city of Moscow. In large towns of Europe the falsifica. A Source of Error in the Determination of Fat in tion of milk has given rise to a great number of investiga. Milk.-Dr. L. Maneth and Dr. G. Musso.-The authors | tions, and this question was discussed in detail. It maintain that if milk, evaporated down along with sand, I appears that in Moscow the milk sellers mix water very is extracted with ether, the ether driven off, the residue moderately in a few cases, and have altogether little again extracted with ether and driven off, ard the final knowledge about the “ chemicals," viz., chalk, starch, residue extracted with sulphide of carbon, there remain flour, &c. In all the samples analysed, no such “checertain strongly acid drops, of a yellow or deep red colour, micals” were present. The 64 samples of milk were soluble in ether and water, but insoluble in fat or in sul taken from the following places in Moscow :-Samples phide of carbon. At 100° they take a darker colour and

A, from peasants living in the vicinity of the town (17); become almost resinous. The authors consider them as samples B, milk from the town cows (6); samples C, from impure ladic acid. In recent milk there is little of this i small grocers'shops (14); samples D, from milk shops (22); substance, and hence there is very little difference be

samples E, milk of the Academical farm. tween the weight of the residue from the original extrac. The following are the average results of the analyses tion with ether and that of the residue from the evapora. / of these milks :tion of sulphide of carbon. There is more difference in old

A. B. C. D. E.

Samples. milks, and especially in cheese. The authors state that in milk evaporated to dryness at high temperatures there Water .. .. .. 88.13 88.08 89 16 87.48 87:53 occurs a wax-like matter, sparingly soluble in ether, | Dry substance.. .. 11:87 11'92 1084 12:52 12:47 which greatly impedes and protracts the process of extrac-i Fat.. .. .. .. 2076 2'39 1055 3:13 4:10 tion. (The editor of the Milch-Zeitung, from which the Mineral substance .. 0:87 0·79 0971 0.69 0.67 above paper is taken, does not find a double extraction of As compared with an average analysis of normal milks the milk residue with ether requisite. If a proper appa-l from healthy cows, the first four samples cannot be called ratus is used, the first ethereal extract is perfectly clear, 1 bad specimens. For comparison the following analysis and leaves on evaporation clear fat, in which no drops of

(average) may be mentioned :foreign matter are present).

Water .. .. .. .. .. Investigations on the Nitrogenous Food of Fungi.

Dry substance .. .. .. 12-75 -Th. Schlösing and A. Müntz.-From the Comptes

Fat .. .. .. .. .. .. 3'50 Rendus, 1878, p. 892.

Mineral substance .. .. 075 Analysis of Stag and Roe Horns and of the Horns These results were obtained by Fleischmann (Molkereiof an Ox.-Prof. W. Vesely.-Stag, 50-480 ash, 7.88 wesen, 1876). The milk of the Academical Farm (sample moisture; fallow-deer, 50-640 ash, 8.98 moisture; roe, E) is certainly a very high and good specimen ; such 47.830 ash, 9:42 moisture; ox, 1'167, 8.75 moisture-the milk will never be found in the hands of the sellers. difference in each case being organic matter. The ash!

S. KERN, M.E. contained :

| St. Petersburg.

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COMPOSITION AND QUALITY OF THE METROPOLITAN WATER.

DECEMBER, 1878.

'The following are the returns of the Society of Medical Officers of Health :

Ammonia.

Hardness on Clark's Scale.

Appearance in

2 foot Tube.

anić.

Nitrogen as Ni

trates, &c.

Oxygen used to
Oxidise Organic

Matter.

otal Solids.

Saline,

An.
Sulphuric,

hydride.

Lime.

Magnesia

Chlorine

[blocks in formation]

GIS.

Grs.

Grs.

Grs. Grs.

Grs. Grs. Degs. Deg Thames Water Companies. Grand Junction . .. Clear

0'000 O'oro 0'180 0'075 23.70 8400 0.684 0:64 1'240 15'9 4.00 West Middlesex .. ...

Clear

0'000 O'oro O'ogo 0'089 23'30 7.800 0.648 0°72 1860 14:3 4.20 Southwark and Vauxhall

Clear

0'000 0'006 0:120 0'115 22'20 7110 0*720 072 1.400 14:3 4.60 Chelsea .. ..

Clear

0'000 0010 0'120 0'073 ..

22:50 60720 0*720 072 1.600 14:8 5'10 " Lambetb .. .. .. ., Clear

0'000 0010 0:105 Oʻ103 22.00 7.040 0'576 0.72 1.630 14:3 5:10 Other Companies. Kent.. .. .. .. .. Clear

0'000 0.002 0'360 0'002 29:50 I1'560 1'08: 1152 3.300 17:6 5'10 New River .. .. .. Clear

0'000 0·005 0·165 0*057 21 40 7400 0'576 09064 1 060 14:8 4.20 East London .. .. .. Clear

0.000 0009 0105 0·065 23.00 7.890 0720 0.864 1:160 14:8 5:10 The quantities of the several constituents are stated in grains per imperial gallon Note.-The amount of oxygen required to oxidise the organic matter, nitrites, &c., is determined by a standard solu. tion of permanganate of potash acting for three hours.

C. MeymoTT Tipy, M.B.

THE
QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF SCIENCE.

MEETINGS FOR THE WEEK.
MONDAY, Jan. 13th.-Medical, 8.30.

Tondon Institution, 5.
Geological, 8.

Edited by WILLIAM CROOKES, F.R.S., &c.
TUESDAY, 14th.--Civil Engineers, 8.
Photographic, 8.

Now ready, No. LXI., January, 1879. price 58.
Zoological, 8.30.
Royal Institution, 3. “ Animal Development,"

CONTENTS.
Prof. Scäfer.

1. On the Thickness of the Antarctic Ice, and its Relations to WEDNESDAY, 15th.-Meteorological, 7.

that of the Glacial Epoch. By James Croll, LL.D., F.R.S, Society of Arts, 8. " Economy and Safe

II. Gravitation as a Facior in the Organic World. By William the Use of Automatic Couplings on Rail.

Crookes, F.R.S. ways," T. A. Brocklebank.

III. Sanitary Science in the United States : Its Present and its THURSDAY, 16th.-Royal, 8.30.

Future. By Albert R. Leeds, Ph.D.
Chemical, 8.

IV. The Course of Nature. By Prof. Simon Newcomb.
Royal Society Club, 6.30.

V. Peruvian Antiquities. By E. R. Heath, M.D.
Royal Institution, 3. * Electric Induction," J. H.

Notices of Scientific Works, Obituary, &c.
Gordon.
FRIDAY, 17th.-Royal Institution, 9. “Electric Light," Prof, Tyndall.

Society of Arts, 8. "Afghanistan," Ć E. D. Black.
SATURDAY, 18th.-Royal Institution, 3. "Reptilian Life," Prof. H.

NOTICE.
G. Seeley.
INSTITUTE OF CHEMISTRY OF GREAT

MONTHLY ISSUE OF
BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

THE JOURNAL OF SCIENCE.
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instead of QUARTERLY, and will consist of 48 pp., the form and An Examination in Practical Chemistry in general appearance remaining the same. h connection with the Institute of Chemistry will be held during The first of the Monthly issue will appear on the last week of January next. Examiner, Dr. W. J. Russell, F.R.S

FEBRUARY ist, 1879.
Candidates can obtain further information on application to the

Price ONE SHILLING and SIXPENCE.
Secretar ry, Mr. Charles E. Groves, Somerset House Terrace, London
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In addition to the usual articles on subiects of present scientific

interest and reviews of scientific works, the MONTHLY JOURNAL OF The Authors of “A Practical Treatise on the

SCIENCE will contain abstracts of papers read before the Scientific Manufacture of

Societies - Reports on all Important Scientific Discoveries - A SULPHURIC ACID,"

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IMPORTANT TO MANUFACTURING EXPERIMENTAL CHEMISTS An Associate of the Royal School of Mines,

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a who has been Chemist for the last eight and a half years at
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TRANSPARENT CEMENT “ Chemist,” Midland Road, Wellingborough.

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throughout the Kingdom. Wholesale of Barclay and Sons; Bur. W anted, a Foreman in Superphosphate

goynes ; Walton, Hassall, and Port. Works. Capable of undertaking the making of Sulphuric

E. MOORE AND CO., Acid and mixing. First class references required. He must be a married man. Apply to Edward Toynbee, Saxilby, Lincolo.

29, POLYGON, AND HENRY ST., MARYLEBONE RD., N.W.

EDWIN MOORE & CO'S.

copper are diluted to i litre. I c.c. = 0·010137 grm. THE CHEMICAL NEWS." This process, from its extreme simplicity, will commend

Na FeCy6.)

itself for approximate comparative examinations. Vol. XXXIX. No. 999.

The ferrocyanide of copper, if present in larger quantities than those indicated above, hides too much the blue colour of the Prussian blue, and must be separated before

applying the ferrous sulphate. Moreover, in concentrated ESTIMATION OF CYANOGEN IN SODA-LYES. solutions, the precipitate of ferricyanide of copper contains

more cyanogen per atom of copper than the formula By FERD. HURTER Ph.D. F.I.C

CuzFe2Cy12 requires. In dilute solutions, however, the

amount of copper solution required is such as to corresTHE cyanogen compounds which occur in soda-lyes are pond. şulficiently close wit

pond sufficiently close with the formula above stated ; and the following :

considering that not one of the many other compounds Sodium ferrocyanide,

contained in soda-lyes interferes with this process of Sodium sulphocyanide,

estimating the cyanogen, it will rival in accuracy any

other volumetric process devised for this purpose. Sodium cyanate.

If it is apprehended that the solution under examination Though in crude soda (black-ash) the cyanogen is con-contains cyanide of sodium beside ferrocyanides, it must tained as cyanides, the soda-lye obtained therefrom con- first be boiled with a small quantity of ferrous oxide, protains no cyanides. During the lixiviation the cyanides duced by adding a little ferrous sulphate. The solution are transformed into ferrocyanides, and all the vat-liquors is then oxidised, acidified, and is ready for testing. I have yet investigated contained more iron in solution The sulphocyanide is present in traces only. It can than the cyanogen would account for. If, however,

approximately be estimated by acidifying the solution sodium cyanide is present at all it is readily converted under examination, adding some chloride of zinc to pre. into ferrocyanide by boiling the liquid with freshly pre cipitate ferrocyanide of zinc. The solution is then filtered, cipitated protoxide of iron.

and the filtrate coloured by means of ferric chloride. In The most important of the cyanogen compounds to the

a second vessel an equal quantity of ferric chloride, diluted manufacturer is the ferrocyanide, since this salt brings to the bulk of the solution under examination, is coloured into the solution a sufficient amount of iron to colour the by means of a solution of sulphocyanide of potassium of finished product slightly brown.

known strength, until the tint of both solutions is alike. The sulphocyanide and the cyanate are practically of

The amount of sulphocyanide thus consumed is in some no importance, as they yield colourless products of decom degree a measure of the sulphocyanide contained in the position during the further treatment of the soda. The lye, but this is usually so small that its estimation is of no chief problem to the chemists of alkali works, consists, 1 practical utility. therefore, in the rapid estimation of the ferrocyanides.

Laboratory of Messrs. Gaskell, Deacon, and Co., The following method will be found exceedingly rapid,

Widnes, January, 1879. and sufficientiy accurate for solutions containing not more than 2 grms. of sodium cyanide per litre.

When soluble ferricyanides are mixed with salts of copper a yellow precipitate of ferricyanide of copper is ON THE COMBINATIONS OF AURIN WITH formed. If a proto-salt of iron is added afterwards a blue

MINERAL ACIDS.* precipitate will be formed so long as any ferricyanide exist's still in solution. As soon, however, as all the

By R. S. DALE, B.A , and C. SCHORLEMMER, F.R.S. ferricyanide has been precipitated, the addition of a ferrous salt produces no longer a blue colour, but reacts upon the In our last communicationt we stated that by the action ferricyanide of copper, reducing it to ferrocyanide of

of acetyl chloride on aurin we obtained a colourless crys. similar composition to that obtained on adding to an talline compound, which we intended to examine more excess of ferrocyanide of potassium a copper solution closely. We have since found that this body is identical gradually. The reaction is represented by the following with a compound which Gräbe and Carof obtained by the equation:

direct union of aurin and acetic anhydride and having the

formula C19H1403 +C4H603. CuzFezCyı2+2HCl+2FeCl2=CuzH2FezCy12+Fe2C16.

We also mentioned that the purification of this sub. This reaction suggests an indirect estimation of the cyano.stance was found to be beset with several difficulties. The gen compounds by measuring the amount of protoxide of cause of this was found out after some trouble, but at the iron which can be transformed into peroxide. It is not, same time we were rewarded by the discovery of a series however, this which forms the principle of the method now of remarkable bodies, consisting of combinations of aurin to be described, and which makes use of the above re- with mineral acids. action simply as indicator.

These salts, as we may call them, are beautiful bodies, 100 c.c. of the strong soda-lye are oxidised by means crystallising exceedingly well, and although some of them of chlorine, hypochlorite of soda, or, simpler, bleaching. are decomposed by water, they are very stable in dry air. powder sulution, until the whole of the sulphides, &c., are To their discovery we were led by the following observaconverted into sulphates, and the ferrocyanide into ferri- tions. cyanide ; the solution, after being acidified and freed as On heating aurin with glacial acetic acid and acetyl much as possible from excess of chlorine by warming and chloride, the crystals lose at once their steel-blue lustre agitating, is ready for titrating.

and assume a pale red colour. To obtain the compound On a porcelain slab sprinkle a few drops of a dilute thus formed in a pure state, acetyl chloride was added to solution of ferrous sulphate (1 part of ferrous sulphate to a saturated solution of aurin in acetic acid. The liquid 100 parts of water). Add now to the solution to be assumed at once a much lighter colour, and soon pale red analysed a twentieth normal copper solution from a burette needle-shaped crystals having a diamond lustre separated until a drop of the solution, on being brought in contact out. On re-crystallising these repeatedly from alcohol with a drop of ferrous sulphate solution, no longer gives a blue colour, but yields the pure purple colour of cupric _* Read before the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society serrocyanide. The copper solution is prepared by dis December 10, 1878.

+ Proc. Lit. and Phil. Soc., 1878, 141, and Chem. News, vol. xxxviii., solving pure metallic copper in as little nitric acid as

p. 34. possible, and diluting with distilled water. (3:17 grms. of!" "Ber. Deutsch. Chem. Gesell., xi., 1, 122.

26

Influence of Chloroform on Nitrification.

CHMMICAL NEWS, 1 January, 17, 1879.

we obtained oblong six-sided plates, which, as analysis | easily takes piace, pure aurin being left behind, but it apshowed, were pure aurin.

pears to be quite stable when exposed to the air, and even On treating the original crystals with water they become on heating it with water no sulphur dioxide is given off, dull and brownish red, the solution containing acetic and but a drop of sulphuric acid added to the mixture is suffihydrochloric acids. It therefore seemed not improbable cient to evolve the gas abundantly. Aurin sulphite has that an additive product of aurin and acetyl chloride had the composition (C19H1403)2SO3H2+4H20. been formed, containing, however, also acetic acid, as aí As we have already shown, aurin forms very character. superficial examination showed that the liquid contained, istic compounds with the acid sulphites of the alkali to one molecule of hydrochloric acid, much more than metals, which, in accordance with the newly established one molecule of acetic acid. We therefore tried to obtain formula of aurin, must now be written as follows:an analogous benzoyl compound, and to determine in it,

C19H102,50 KH after decomposition with water, the relative quantities of

C19H1403,so, NaH hydrochloric and benzoic acids.

C19H1403,SO3(NH4)H On adding benzoyl chloride to a hot solution of aurin in acetic acid, similar crystals as before were obtained,

We have also found that rosolic acid, or the next higher which, after being dried on filter-paper in dry air, were homologue of aurin, forms compounds with mineral acids decomposed by water, but only hydrochloric and acetic which crystallise well. Being, therefore, a base like aurin, acid went into solution, and on heating the product with we think its name ought to be altered, and, as it has only water or alkalies but a mere trace of benzoic acid could be been obtained from rosanilin, propose for it the name detected.

rosaurin. These facts, coupled with the observation that the bright red needles which, as we stated in our former paper, are formed by crystallising aurin from hot aqueous

ON THE INFLUENCE OF CHLOROFORM ON hydrochloric acid, retain the latter obstinately, led us to

NITRIFICATION. the conclusion that this acid forms a definite compound

By OTTO HEHNER, F.C.S., F.I.C. with aurin.

Such a body could be formed under the above conditions, as our glacial acetic acid contained a little water. More NitriFICATION, according to Schlösing, Muntz, and over, Mr. Charles Lowe had informed us that the splendid Warington, is prevented by chloroform. specimen of aurin which he exhibited at Paris was obtained The following experiments tend to prove that this is the in the following way :-The crude but crystalline aurin, case only when a relatively large amount of chloroform is which is obtained by heating pure phenol with sulphuric employed, small quantities not only not preventing nitri. and oxalic acids, was dissolved in alcohol and some strong fication, but actually favouring the development of bacteria hydrochloric acid added, by which a crystalline precipitate and the reduction of nitric acid into ammonia. was formed, crystallising from hot acetic acid in beautiful In a paper read before the Sociedy of Public Analysts red, glistening, flat needles. He was kind enough to give I have shown that on keeping ordinary drinking-water us a sample, and on examining it we found that water for some length of time the nitrogenous matter breaks acted upon it in the same way as on our crystals.

up with the formation of ammonia, which in its turn In order to prepare a pure compound for analysis, a hot gradually changes into nitric acid. solution of aurin in acetic acid was saturated with hydro. Attempting to arrest these changes by the addition of chloric acid gas; the colour of the liquid changed into a chloroform to polluted water, I was struck with the rapid light yellowish red, and soon the compound separated out development of bacteria in those samples which had re. in glistening needles, which, even when perfectly dry, smell | ceived but small additions of chloroform, the samples bestrongly of acetic acid. When exposed to the air they soon coming quite turbid and opalescent. assume a steel-blue lustre, and gradually crumble into a ! To 24 litres of a water polluted with putrid urine, reddish brown crystalline powder. The same properties yielding per 100,000 partsare shown by the crystals obtained from acetyl chloride

Free ammonia .. .. .. .. .. 0'0358 and those obtained from Mr. Lowe. When heated to 110°

Albuminoid ammonia .. .. .. 0·0205 in a current of dry air they gradually lose all the acetic acid, which plays the part of water of crystallisation, and 0.5 c.c. (2) and 1 c.c. (3) were added. After the lapse of assume a dull red colour.

three weeks sample 1 (without chloroform) showed On passing hydrochloric acid gas into an alcoholic solu

Free ammonia .. ..

.:.. ..

. .. .. 0'0007 tion of aurin, similar but smaller needles are formed, con

Albuminoid ammonia .. .. .. 0'0065 taining alcohol, which is given off at 100°. The dull red | Whilst (2) yieldedresidue can, like the preceding one, be heated to 100° in a current of dry air without losing hydrochloric acid, which Free ammonia .. .. .. .. .. 0'0992 only begins to escape at 200°.

Albuminoid ammonia .. .. .. 0.0480 Analysis of these compounds showed that the dried And (3) substance consists of C19H1403, HCl, while the crystals Free ammonia .. .. .. .. .. O'orog obtained from an acetic acid solution have the composi. Albuminoid ammonia .. .. .. 0'0659 tion CH102,HC1+2C2H4O2, and those from alcohol 2C10H1903, HC1+3C2H60.

Both (2) and (3) were very turbid when last analysed. When sulphuric acid is added to a hot alcoholic solution

To samples of 8 litres each of another water, containing of aurin, small red needles are formed on cooling, which,

some putrid urine, 2 and 5 c.c. of chloroform were added. consist of (C19H1403)2SO4H2+alcohol. Under the same

On January 18, 1878, the day on which the experiments conditions an acetic acid solution yields fine prismatic were commenced, the samples showed crystals or flat, very glistening needles, which are an acid

Free ammonia .. .. .. .. .. 0°0239 sulphate, its formula being C19H1403,SOH2+acetic acid. Albuminoid ammonia .. .. .. 0'0430

We have also prepared a nitrate which is readily formed on February 11 the sample without chloroform had and crystallises well, but have not analysed it yet.

changed to In our first communication to the Chemical Society we

Free ammonia .. . described a compound of aurin and sulphur dioxide, which is easily obtained in bright red crystals by passing sulphur

Albuminoid ammonia .. .. .. 0'0244 dioxide into a saturated alcoholic solution of aurin. Our

Whilst the water with 2 c.c. of chloroform contained former observation, that this body contains water but no Free ammonia .. .. .. .. .. 0'2017 alcohol, we found confirmed ; on heating it decomposition | Albuminoid ammonia .. .. .. 0'0208

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