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Determination of Tartaric Acid in Lees and Argol. (Capicas

, N2ws. PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 1 to 2 per cent. It was very remarkable that a paraffin

should be found in such a state of purity in a plant.

Mr. ATTWOOD said that the composition of the oil would CHEMICAL SOCIETY.

probably vary at different seasons. Sometimes the nuts of

this pine tasted very strongly of turpentine, whilst at others Thursday, April 17, 1879.

the taste was almost imperceptible.

The next communication was “On the Determination of Dr. Roscoe, Vice-President, in the Chair.

Tartaric Acid in Lees and Inferior Argol, with

some

remarks on Filtration and Precipitation," by B. J. GROS. ATTER the minutes of the previous meeting had been Jean. “Lees " is the name given to the deposit in ferread and confirmed, the following certificates were read menting wine vats, " argol" being the crystalliine crust for the first time :-A. E. Robinson, R. Reid, and H. which forms on the sides. The first direct method for Appleby. During the evening the following were declared determining the tartaric acid in " lees," &c., was sugto be duly elected Fellows of the Society :-W. E. Blythe, i gested by Warington (Chem. Soc. Fourn., [2], xiii., 973); W. A. Bradbury, A. H. Black, T. Griffiths, W. T. Gent, it is known as the "oxalate method." It consists in C. H. Hutchinson, F. A. B. Jewson, W. Johnstone, W. treating the finely-ground lees with a little water, and T. Lawson, J. L. Macmillan, W. North, J. A. Ogilvie, heating the mixture to 100° ; an excess of neutral potas. F. Podmore, W. Palmer, T. Palmer, G. Rait, W. Radford, sium oxalate is then added, and the whole digested for a W. Stone, A. W. Stokes, W. Spottiswoode, P.R.S., C. quarter of an hour, the free acidity is nearly neutralised Slater, W. B. Turner, F. L. Teed, V. H. Veley, Thorp with caustic potash, the whole is filtered on a vacuum Whitaker, T. H. Walker.

filter, and the residue washed; the filtrate and washings The SECRETARY then read a paper “ On Heptane from are concentrated, and an excess of citric acid added ; the Pinus Sabiana," by T. E. Thorpe.' In the Pharmaceutical tartaric acid is thereby precipitated as potassiuın bitartrate. Fournal, March 30, 1872, W. Wenzell, described, under This salt is collected, washed, and the tartaric acid deterthe name of Abietene, a new hydrocarbon obtained by dis- mined by titration with standard alkali. The author con. tilling the exudation of the Pinus sabiana, a tree indige siders this process in detail, giving fullest details, and nous to California, known locally as the nut pine, or illustrating many obscure points with quantitative experi. digger's pine. To procure the exudation, the tree during ments :-1. Treatment with Potassium Oxalate. The winter is notched and guttered at a convenient height amount of lime present must be roughly determined (a from the ground. The resin on distillation yields the method for this purpose is given), and if grms. of liquid hydrocarbon. The crude oil is met with in San the oxalate are added to ensure the decomposition of Francisco as an article of commerce under the names of the calcium tartrate. The sample taken for analysis abietene, erasine, &c., as a substitute for benzolin, for should contain about 2 grms. of tartaric acid. 2. Neutraliremoving grease spots, &c. It is a nearly colourless mo. sation with Caustic Potash.Care must be taken to add bile liquid, of a powerful aromatic smell, resembling that the alkali drop by drop with constant stirring, so that the of oil of oranges. Wenzell contrasts its characters with alkali is never in excess. 3. Filtration from the Residui. those of terebene from P. Sylvestris. Abietene, sp. gr. The author uses the vacuum filter suggested by Casamajor 0694, boils at 101°, dissolves but a small quantity of hy. (CHEMICAL News, vol. xxxii., p. 45). It consists of a drochloric acid gas, and is but little attacked by cold nitric perforated disc of platinum, lead, or pumice, placed in a acid. Terebene, sp. gr. o.840, boils at 160°, absorbs HCI | funnel of peculiar shape. The disc is covered by a slightly with avidity, and is violently attacked by nitric acid. larger circle of paper. The pressure keeps the paper so From a consideration of the general properties and be closely applied to the sides of the funnel that no precipi. haviour of this hydrocarbon the author of the present tate passes, but at the same time a speedy and a thorough paper concluded that it was likely to be a paraffin. The washing is ensured. The author finds that this plan has occurrence of a paraffin playing the part of oil of turpen. many advantages over that proposed by Bunsen, but tine in the vegetable kingdom was hitherto unheard of, states that an ordinary funnel can be used instead of the the only natural sources of this hydrocarbon (heptane) special funnel proposed by Casamajor. In some cases the being petroleum and fossil fish-oil. The author, therefore, paper disc should be covered with a layer of roughly ground obtained from Mr. Wenzell 2 gallons of the abietene, and pumice, freed from air, before commencing the filtration. has subjected it to a most exhaustive chemical and physi. The author recommends that the wash-water be allowed cal examination, the details of which are contained in the to run through until the residue presents on the surface no paper. The crude oil is slightly contaminated with a visible moisture, without waiting for it to crack, and then resinoid matter, to which its smell is due. The pure oil immediately to pour on a fresh portion of wash-water. boils at 98.42° C. at 760 m.m. It has the composition of The vacuum most advantageous is 250 m.m. mercury. By heptane, containing 83.85 per cent C, 16:03 per cent H following this plan the potassium tartrate will be com(C7H16 requires C 83.97, and H 16'03). Vapour density pletely washed out of the sample of lees in ten washings --found, 49-94 ; calculated, 50°07; sp. gr. at oo.0*70057. of 2 to 3 c.c. each. This is proved by quantitative expeThe rate of expansion by heat has been carefully deter- riments. Various plans have to be adopted if the filtration mined: its volume at the boiling point is 1:1411. refuse to proceed quickly. 4. Addition of Potassium Its specific volume 162.54 ; refrađive index for D, Chloride.—The author recommends the addition of 5 grms. 13879; its molecular refrađive energy, 56'4. Rotates in of KCl to render the precipitation of the bitartrate more a tube 200 m.m. +6'g'. Its viscosity and surface tension complete. Thus, water at 12° dissolves a part of bitartrate were also determined. The author has compared the in 262, whereas a 10 per cent solution of KCl dissolves heptane obtained from P. Sabiana with the heptane from only 1 part in 4401. 5. Quantity of Citric Acid Required. petroleum and that obtained by heating azelaic acid with -An excess of i to 15 grm. of citric acid should be added. baryta. The sp. gr. of the heptane from petroleum is lf 2 grms. of tartaric acid are present, 2 to 2'5 grms. citric 097301 ; that from azelaic acid has a sp. gr. of 0.700. acid are required to effect complete precipitation. 6. The These heptanes are believed by Schorlemmer to be iden- Mode of Precipitating the Bitartrate.-A 50 per cent solu. tical. The author is at present engaged in an investigation of citric acid is most convenient. The author prefers tion of this point.

to precipitate the bitartrate in the state of minute granular The CHAIRMAN said the Society was much indebted to crystals. This is effected by constantly stirring the liquid Dr. Thorpe for this elaborate investigation, and for the after adding the citric acid in the cold. 7. Complete Pre. extremely careful and able manner in which he had worked cipitation of the Bitartrate is effected by thus stirring con. out the subject.

tinuously for ten minutes.—The author recommends that Dr. ARMSTRONG said that he had detected in ordinary the mixture be allowed to stand for twenty minutes after turpentines a paraffin-like substance in small quantities, the ten minutes stirring. 8. Filtration and Washing of

CHEMICAL News, Certain Compounds of Naphthalen and Benzene.
April 25, 1879.

183 the Bitartrate.—The washing is effected by a 5 per cent, be increased, the change is completed in a short tim: solution of potassium chloride saturated with potassium and at low temperatures. bitartrate at the temperature of the air at the time of washing. 9. The Accuracy of the Process.--The author of Aqueous Hydrochloric Acid upon Bismuthous Oxide.

Mr. M. M. P. Muir then read a paper on The Action obtained 99-6. 99.86 instead of 100 parts of tartaric acid | When bismuthous oxide is added to aqueous hydrochloric taken. 10. Time Required for the Complete Estimation. acid the oxide is dissolved, but a point is soon reached This the author gives as four hours. In the course of his after which the bismuth in solution is precipitated as communication the author exhibited the method of filter- bismuthyl chloride (BIOCI), while the oxide added is ing, the insolubility of bitartrate in a solution of potassium simultaneously transformed into the same salt. Finally chloride, &c.

the whole of the bismuth is present in the form of in. The next paper was entitled “ Conditions Affecting the soluble bismuthyl chloride. The action of aqueous hydro. Equilibrium of certain Chemical Systems," by M.M. P. chloric acid upon bismuthous oxide, so far as the initial MUIR. The author has quantitatively studied the two and final distributions of mass are concerned, may be thus readions, which may be formulated as follows :

formulated

Bi2O2 + 2HCI+*H,0 = 2BiOC1+(*+1)H,0. A. *BiClz+x'HCl+x"H20-(*-n)BiOC1+nBiCiz+

of renders +{x'+2(x –n)} HCl+{*"-(*–n) 4,0. HC and Big03, which action would not occur in its

absence. B. «CaCl2+x'M,CO3=(*- )CaCO3+ #nCačia+23' - n'MCI+n°M,CO3, lateness of the hour, taken as read :

The three following papers were, in consequence of the when M=Na or K.

On the Action of Oxides on Salts, Part II.," by E. J. In action A it is shown that the greater the value of X" Mills and J. W. Pratt. This paper continues the work (x and n being constant) the more rapidly will equilibrium contained in Part I., recently communicated to the Society. be attained ; if x" be small n will vary at different moments The authors have examined the actions of aluminic, ferric, and will always be somewhat large. If n=0 the value of and stannic oxides on potassic carbonate. The weight * varies from 450 to 460 molecules (x and x' being each of the carbonate was the same as in Part I., and was equal to 1). If n is approximately equal to x, i.e., if kept constant; the temperature was about 735°, and the permanent formation of Bioci just commences, then if time three hours. The results obtained are given in a

' be doubled, x" must be more than doubled, or x' must series of tables. increase in a more rapid ratio than x'. If initial equili.

Examination of Substances by the Time Method," by brium be disturbed, but without the production of a new stable state of equilibrium, the production of this disturb. J. B. Hannay. In a former paper the author gave an

account of his method by which the thermal dissociation ance is dependent not only on the relative but also on the of a hydrated salt may easily be followed. The results of absolute number of BiCiz and H20 molecules present. The production of a new stable equilibrium is dependent components in the free state was known, are contained

an examination of double salts, the deportment of whose only upon the relative number of molecules. In the rush in the present paper. The double salts examined were of the interacting molecules the water molecules get the sulphate of magnesium and zinc, 14H20; the double entangled among the hydrochloric acid molecules, the sulphate of iron and magnesium ; the double sulphate of greater the number of the latter (even when the proportion copper and magnesium. Great care was taken to ensure of HCI to H,0 is maintained constant) the greater is the the purity of the salts. The conclusion at which the entanglement. If the system has, however, time to act author has arrived is as follows:Two hydrated salts in and react, then the result is independent of the absolute forming a double salt containing

the normal amount of number of the molecules provided the proportion of the water expend one half of the affinity of the anhydrous HCl to H2O molecules be constant. If water be run

salt for its water of crystallisation in combining with each very cautiously into a solution of Biciz in HCl until a

other, showing that the formation of double salts is comsmall amount of BioCl is formed at the junction of the parable with other forms of chemical action. two liquids and the whole be then shaken up, a greater amount of BioCl is produced in short times than if the Preliminary Note on Certain Compounds of Naph. wa:er is added with constant stirring. During long periods thalen and Benzene with Antimony Trichloride, &c.,' by of time the result is the same in both cases. in adion Watson SMITH. While distilling a mixture of antimony B a condition of stable equilibrium is attained (x and x' trichloride and naphthalen through a red-hot tube with being each equal to 1) before the whole of the CaCl, is the objea of preparing dinaphthyl, this mixture was found decomposed; small causes tend to disturb this equilibrium: Icaring out the tube long white needles were obtained;

to contain a little water accidentally admitted. In reaction A a small amount of chemical change seems to be accompanied with but small changes in the Entropy they contained antimony and carbon, but no chlorine. of the system ; hence the chemically reading system soon

Heated on platinum foil the crystals melted at a red heat, attains a condition of equilibrium. But in reaction B a

burnt, and disappeared. The author believes this body

On small amount of chemical change is probably accompanied to be trinaphthyl stibine or naphthyl-oxy-stibine. with considerable changes of Entropy, so that, if time be melting together a mixture of naphthalen and antimony given, the reaction will be nearly completed.' in B the trichloride and allowing to cool, clino-rhombic crystals influence of temperature is marked when equal molecules

were obtained, crystallising unaltered from petroleum of the reading bodies are used; if 2 or more molecules of ether. The author has obtained other crystalline comalkaline carbonate be used to i molecule of CaCl2, pounds, and thinks it probable that by the action of the the change in a given time depends but little on tempera: antimony potassium alloy on bromo-naphthalen or bromo. ture. With equal molecules at ordinary temperature a

benzene at high temperatures trinaphthyl-stibine and state of permanently stable equilibrium' is aitained in triphenyl-stibine would be obtained. about sixty minutes ; if the temperature be raised this The Society then adjourned to May 1, when the folpoint of equilibrium is passed and the change is very lowing papers will be read:-“On the Volumes of Liquids nearly or even quite completed. Time causes an increase at their Boiling points Ob'ainable from Unit Volumes of in the amount of chemical change, its influence being Gases," by W. Ramsay; "On a Method of Precipitating specially marked at low temperatures, i.e., when the Manganese entirely as Dioxide, and its Application to the molecular mobility of the system is small. With equal Volumetric Determination of Manganese,” by J. Pattin. molecules of Caći and M2CO3 the change formulated is son; “On the Determination of Nitric Acid as Nitric complete if somewhat high temperatures and long times Oxide by Means of its Adion on Mercury,” by R. be employed. If the mass of one of the reading bodies Warington.

On

184
Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources.

{

April 25, 1879. CHEMICAL NOTICES FROM FOREIGN pound is obtained by substituting CN for OH in hydrated

Potassium Cyanosulphite.-A. Etard. - This comSOURCES.

sulphurous acid. It dissolves in water, cold or hot, without decomposition, evolves ammonia if boiled with a

caustic alkali, and reduces salts of gold and silver. Note.-All degrees of temperature are Centigrade, unless otherwise

Thermo-chemical Study on the Alkalino-earthy expressed.

Sulphides.-P. Sabatier.-Not susceptible of abstraction.

Certain Alcoholic Iodides and Bromides.-J. de Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances, l'Académie de Montgolfier and E. Girard.-An examination of the brodes Sciences. No. 12, March 24, 1879.

mides of ethyl and isopropyl, and of the chloro-bromide of

ethylen. The Slow Changes Experienced by Wine during its Preservation.-M. Berthelot.—The author has made

Formation of Aurin.-Ph. de Clermont and J. From. a comparative examination of two samples of port, the mel.—The authors contend that carbonic acid does not one made in the year 1780, and the other forty-five years intervene as such in the formation of aurin, the adion old, determining the proportion of dissolved gases, of being due to carbon and oxygen in a nascent state. alcohol, sugars, acids, and tartar.

Presence of Lithia in Rocks and in Sea-waters.Remarks on Certain Points of Crystallogenesis.-L. Dieulafait.—Lithia is as widely distributed as soda Lecoq de Boisbaudran.-Since the resistance to a change and potassa, and accompanies these two bases in all of condition is not alike for the different planes of the primordial rocks. In sea-water it may be detected in the same crystal, its solubility must vary with its outward residue from the evaporation of a single c.c. form. Thus a supersaturated sɔlution of basic alum being treated at a given temperature with cubes of this salt (or with portions cut according to the cubic surfaces)

Archives Neerlandaises des Sciences. will not possess the same specific gravity as in cases

Tome xiii., 5me Livraison. where the desupersaturation has been effected by contact Decomposition of Calcium Chloride by Water.-H. with octahedra (or portions cut according to the octahedral C. Dibbits.-Crystalline calcium chloride (CaCl2+6H20) surfaces). The former liquid will be more concentrated loses in dry air, even below 10°, five molecules of water, than the latter, and after it has ceased giving up matter the first four of which escape readily and the last much to the cubes it will still be capable of depositing upon more slowly. At 80° the salt becomes completely an. o&tahedra. Even if we consider a single system of sur-hydrous in dry air. When the salt loses all its crystalline faces only the principle of resistance to a change of con. water at a temperature not exceeding 130® no appreciable dition leads us to recognise two unequal specific gravities loss of hydrochloric acid takes place. Between 130° and for a saturated liquid at a given temperature, according 140° the escape of acid becomes perceptible. The more as we begin with a dilute or a supersaturated solution. the temperature rises the more hydrochloric acid escapes, The solubility of any substance is therefore not sufficiently still even if gently heated over a naked fame the decomdefined by the quantity contained in the liquid at a given position is so slight that not more than o'03 per cent of temperature in presence of an excess of the solid sub. the acid is lost. Even at 150° the loss is so slight that it stance. We must further specify the species of surfaces remains entirely within the ordinary limit of error. and the dire&ion in which the operation has been con. ducted. If the desupersaturation of a solution is obtained by means of crystals having several orders of surfaces Les Mondes, Revue Hebdomadaire des Sciences. there are two possible cases :-(1.) The quantity of liquid

No. 12, March 20, 1879. is great in proportion to the immersed masses; the crystals Works of the Liebig Extract of Meat Company then assume their most stable form, and the final specificat Fray Bentos.-At this establishment from 10,000 to gravity is what corresponds to this system of surfaces. 12,000 oxen are slaughtered yearly. In 1877, 15 million (2.) The quantity of liquid is very limited; the crystals kilos. of leather, tallow, and manure were exported to cannot in these conditions assimilate matter enough to Europe, whilst if million kilos. of tasajo, or dried beef, complete their form of maximum stability, and several

were sent to Brazil and Cuba. orders of surfaces subsist indefinitely: the final specific Lecture on the Phylloxera.-M. Bouchardat.-The gravity is that which corresponds to the system of surfaces author does not think that any remedy universally apdestined to disappear first if the crystals could continue plicable can be found, nor does he entertain the hope that to grow.

the Phylloxera will ultimately disappear. He likens the Molecular Vibrations in the Magnetic Metals case to that of the Oidium Tuckeri, a previous vine pest, during the Passage of Undulatory Currents.-M. and to the Botrytis infestans, the cause of the potato Ader. In all the magnetic metals the passage of an un- blight. dulatory current determines in their interior molecular

Cases of Phosphorescence Observed.-M. Nueesh. vibrations, which, if collected, give articulate sounds. In - In a certain butcher's shop all the meat became strongly order that ihe vibrations may appear with their full inten- phosphorescent and remained so as long as sound. If sity on the exterior of the metals it is necessary to oppose putrefaction set in and Bacterium termo made its appearto the wires or bars a mechanical action, especially the

ance the luminous appearance ceased. None of the inertia of two heavy masses at their extremities.

customers of the meat experienced any inconvenience Ytterbia, the New Earth of M. Marignac.-L. F. from its use, and no similar phenomenon was traced in Nilson.—The author has succeeded in preparing perfectly other butchers' shops in the neighbourhood, pure ytterbia, presenting no trace of an absorption ray, and having a molecular weight between 131'92 and 132*17. The erbia of all preceding authors, including M. Marignac, Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft su Berlin, consists chiefly of ytterbia, to which very small quan:ities

No. 17, 1879. of erbia give a rose colouration. Ytterbia is probably Yb203.

Monohydrated Sulphate of Soda and Dihydrated

Carbonate of Soda.-Julius Thomsen.-The salt deScandium, a New Element.-L. F. Nilson. - The posited on heating a solution of ordinary 10-hydrated author has extracted from impure erbia a substance whose sulphate of soda, saturated at 30° was generally supposed spectroscopic behaviour indicates its novelty. Its atomic to be anhydrous. The author finds that it retains i mol. weight calculated for the formula of the earth Sco is of water. The salt deposited on heating 10-hydrated

carbonate of soda contains not i mol. water but 2,

below go.

April 25, 1879.
,} Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources.

185 Composition of Copper Sulphide Formad in the

MISCELLANEOUS. Moist Way.- Julius Thomsen.-The precipitate formed in solutions of copper oxide by means of hydrogen or sodium sulphide is not Cus but a mixture of sulphur

Le&ures on Hygiene and Public Health.--The with a lower copper sulphide. The affinity of copper for first lecture of Professor Corfield's course on Hygiene and sulphur is satisfied with the formation of CuzS, which is Public Health will be delivered at University College on accompanied by a liberation of heat to the extent of Thursday, May 1, at 4 p.m. The course will be illustrated 20,240 cal., and the reception of a further quantity of by models and specimens from the Parkes Museum of sulphur takes place without noticeable rise of temperature. Hygiene. Practical instruâion in the methods of analysis

Zinc Sulph-hydrate.- Julius Thomsen.-If a zinc of air, water, foods, and drugs will be given in the Hygiene sulphate solution is mixed with a double equivalent of a

Laboratory by Professor Corfield and Mr. C. E. Cassal, solution of sodium sulph-hydrate no precipitate is ob. F.C.S., the Demonstrator. tained but a clear or slightly opalescent solution.

Society of Arts.-The third course of “Cantor LecDensity and Decomposition of the Vapour of tures " for the present session of the Society of Arts is by Hyponitric Acid at Various Pressures below its Mr. W. H. Preece, the Electrical Engineer of the PostBoiling-Point.-Alex. Naumann.-This paper consists Office, on “Recent Advances on Telegraphy.” The course essentially of tables of the density of hyponitric vapour commenced on April 21. The first lecture dealt with at various temperatures and pressures, showing the definitions, electrical effects, and sources ; economical amount of decomposition produced. It appears that at listribution of electric currents. The second will treat equal temperatures and with decreasing pressure the principally of the transference of electricity, and will in. decomposition increases as also at equal pressure with clude also such subjects as wires, insulators, supports, increasing temperature.

gutta-percha, india-rubber, underground wires and cables, Electrolytic Determination of Cadmium.-E. J. The third will be devoted to simple telegraphy, visual and Smith.—The author has tried the aqueous solution of aural signals, telephones, and telegraphic writing. The cadmic acetate with perfealy satisfactory results. The fourth will deal with duplex, quadruplex, multiplex, and time required for the deposition of the metal is three to harmonic telegraphy. The fifth and last is to be devoted four hours. A tolerably strong current should be em. to automatic and fast-speed telegraphy. ployed and the solution should contain 2 per cent of the metal. Constitution of the Propyl Group in Cymol.-0.

NOTES AND QUERIES.
Jacobsen.
Constitution of Oxy-mesitylenic Acid.-0. Jacob.

Composition of Honey.-In reply to E. H. S.'s query he will find sen.—These two papers are not adapted for useful abstrace

some recent investigations as to the chemical composition of honey tion.

by Dr. Campbell Brown in The Analyst, vol. iii., p. 267, 1878.-G.W.W. Behaviour of Certain Nitro.Compounds with Sul. Solvent for Gelatine.-What is the most perfect (volatile) solvent

for gelatine? What work is there where the subject is fully entered phuretted Hydrogen.-F. Beilstein and A. Kurbatow.

into 7-M, NEWMAN. The authors have examined chlor-dinitro-benzol, nitro. para-dichlor-benzol, chlor-ortho-dinitro-benzol, and sym. melrical nitro-meta-dichlor-benzol. They state that sul. phuretted hydrogen exerts a reducing action upon chlor.

MEETINGS FOR THE WEEK. nitro-derivatives only when the nitro-group is not situated along with chlorine or another nitro-group. Convenient Method for the Preparation of Mono. MONDAY, 28th.-Medical, 8.30.

Society of Arts, 8. " Recent Advances in Tele. chlor-hydrin-sulphuric Acid.-H. Beckurts and R. Otto.

graphy," by W. H. Preece. (Cantor Lectures.) Metbod of Action of Mono.chlor-hydrin-sulphurie Tuesday, 29th.-Civil Engineers, 8.

Royal

Geographical, 8.30. Acid.-H. Beckurts and R. Otto.

Royal Institution, 3. “Mendelssohn," by Mr.

Ernst Pauer. Synthesis of Aromatic Sulphones from the Chlor

Anthropological, 8. anhydrides of the Sulphonic Acids and Hydro-car.

Zoological, 1. (Anniversary). bons by Means of Aluminic Chloride. -These three

Society of Arts, 8. " Light Railways for Opening

up a Trade with Central Africa," by John B. Fell. papers do not admit of useful abstraction.

“The Advantage of Railway Communication in

Africa, as compared with any other Mode of Further Contributions to the Knowledge of the

Transport," by J. Conyers Morrell. (African Formation and Constitution of the Disulphoxides of

Section.) Benzol and Toluol.- C. Pauly and R. Otto.—The WEDNESDAY, 30th. --Society of Arts, 8. Renewed Discussion on Mr. authors have formerly shown that benzol-disulphoxide

John Hollway's Paper on "A New Process in

Metallurgy." and benzol-zinc-mercaptid act upon each other readily

Geological, 8. and completely with the formation of benzol-disulphide THURSDAY, May Ist.-Royal, 8.30. and benzol-sulphinate of zinc. An analogous decom.

Royal Institution, 2. Annual Meeting.

Chemical, 8. “On the Volumes of Liquids at position takes place with the corresponding toluol com.

their Boiling.Points Obtainable from Unit pounds.

Volumes of Gases," by Dr. W. Ramsay.

"Una Method of Precipitating Manganese Decomposition of Ethyl-disulphoxide by Potassium

Entirely as Dioxide, and its Application to Hydroxide.-C. Pauly and R. Otio.-Ethyl-disulphoxide

the Volumetric Determination of Mangamay be regarded as a thio-ether.

nese," by J. Pattinson. "On the Determina

tion of Nitric Acid as Nitric Oxide by Means Action of Mono-chlor-hydrin-sulphuric Acid upon

of its Adion on Mercury,” by R. Warington. Sulpho-benzid.-R. Otto and A. Knoll.-In this pre

Royal Society Club, 6.30. liminary communication the authors announce the forma. FRIDAY, and.-Royal Institution, 9. "Action of Anæsthetics,” by

Prof. McKendrick. tion of sulpho-benzid-sulphonic acid, with the examination

Geologists' Association, 8. of which they are engaged.

Society of Arts, 8. “The Wild Silks of India,

especially Tussah," by Thomas Wardle. (Indian Diethyl-glyoxylic Ether and Diethyl-glyoxylic

Section.) Amide.-A. Geuther.-With reference to a paper by | SATURDAY, 3rd.—Royal Institution, 3. "Architecture," by Mr. H. H. Pioner the author points out that the two compounds

Statham. above mentioned were prepared by Schreiber from dichloracetic acid eight years ago.

ERRATUM.No. 1012, p. 179, line 12 from top, read p. 148 for p. 198.

LECTURE NOTES

45.

186 Advertisements.

{

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BY

MESSRS. FULLER, HORSEY, SONS,

A Treatise on the Law and Practice of Letters Patent, especially intended for the use of Patentees and Inventors.

MAKERS OF

CHEMICALLY PURE MINERAL ACIOS
JAMES JOHNSON,
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LIQUOR AMMONIA, &c.
O! the Middle Temple, Barrister-at-Law, and

TETRACHLORIDE OF CARBON. J. HENRY JOHNSON,

BISULPHIDE OF CARBON.

CHLORIDE OF Solicitor and Patent Agent, Assoc. Inst. C.E. 47, Lincoln's

SULPHUR. Inn Fields, W.C., and Glasgow.

JESSE FISHER & SON, This Edition, much enlarged, gives a practical reference Phenix Chemical Works Ironbridge. to every reported case of importance, and contains all the information on the law and practice of Patents Inventors Water-glass, or Soluble Silicates of Soda and Patentees can require.

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GEOLOGY: In the Preface to the Student's

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PATENTS.-Mr. Vaughan, F.C.S., British,

W. STONE, Mathematical, Surveying, and

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