Obrazy na stronie

End-on Illumination in Private Spectroscopy.

167 slightest appearance of any lines in the orange.amber, and the last of the gloaming is gone, and there may be band. The 3rd edition, of 1873,-which I have just re- no moon nor planet, the young spectroscopist is either ferred to, contains, at p. 320, the same plate.

lost in darkness or bewildered on a chromatic ocean withA more advanced style of pictorial representation is out fiducial marks of any kind. For though he turns to that contained in Plate III. of M. de Boisbaudran's the light of a lamp for aid, or to any one of ten thousand admirable, in most of its plates unequalled, if not inimitable, gas-lights, their bright flame-bright from the incandes. work entitled "Spectres Lumineux” (Paris, 1874). Plate cence of little solid particles of carbon-offers, like all III. purports to represent the spectrum of the blue flame other incandescent solids, only a continuous spectrum, of coal-gas. Our five coloured bands are of course re- wherein the colours blend undistinguishably one into the presented; but the lines, marked only in the citron, green, other from the red through the citron to the violet. Hence and blue bands, are broad and hazy; the observation the poor youth at night would have been altogether at sea, having been confessedly made with a slit that was "not when spectroscoping something totally new in heaven or, very narrow," and there are no lines at all on the very on earth, had not our excellent Fellow of former years, faint orange amber band. Nor are there any records of and still only removed by the breadth of the Firth, Prof. such things amongst the numerical measures,—though the Swan, shown that all the substances hitherto used by man existence of four lines is mentioned in an appendix as for artificially illuminating the darkness of night (such as having just been seen when both a very strong blowpipe wax, oil, tallow, turpentine, ether, alcohol, generally jet was employed, and some extraneous matters intro-carbo-hydrogens)—all of them give, in the blue base of duced into its flame, with the effect of considerably con- their names, one and the same spectrum of but five densing it.

coloured bands and their several innate half-dozen or so Such was the state this question when, last winter, of lines; the same spectrum, in fact, as that of the flame after trying many experiments with plain and simple of our favourite kind of blowpipe, though that little incoal-gas and air blowpipes (the coal-gas being merely strument gives it more neatly, clearly, and without the taken out of the service-pipes of the house, and the air swamping effect on its best characteristics of the dense, driven through its flame out of an india-rubber bag, with continuous spectrum derived from the more or less yellow à pressure of 2 or 3 inches of water), it occurred to me, light in the upper parts of most kinds of simple lampremarking the narrow but elongated figure of the brighter flame. part of the flame,-viz., about 1 inch in diameter and Now I had for a long time, when voyaging in the Medi 2 inches long, to try looking at it end on, in place of, terranean, actually used an alcohol lamp with a flame as almost every spectroscopist had hitherto done, trans-made purposely long and thin, in order to develop its blue versely to the axis of the flame; and of course quite close base and hide its yellow top,-1 had, I say, employed up to it in both cases. The result, without any other those carbo-hydrogen spectral lines as given by alcohol, change, was almost magical ;* not only were five bands for reference in Aurora and Zodiacal Light spearoscopy: at once most brilliantly seen as to their colours, bit the But I gave it up at last on finding how much cleaner and six or seven lines in the first of them, or the orange-amber freer from apparently adventitious haze the selfsame bands, band, hitherto only uncertainly made out by any one, were and their lines appeared in the blowpipe flame of coal. now the most beautiful series in the whole spectrum. gas* and common air. And yet the lines did not appear Next the lines in the citron band showed themselves even there without any haze at all! In fact, there was splendid for brightness, and the number of them, still so much of it hanging to them, and interfering to towards their vanishing side, much increased. In the such an extent with the easy visibility of some of the still brighter green band, the first line stood forth in a fainter lines, that I am afraid in my haste I thought it a manner to well deserve its quaint, Alexander Herschel nuisance, an abnormal interloper, and held it as mere title of the green giant of carbo-hydrogen.". The lines trash to be got rid of in any possible way. But it would in the fainter blue band were yet adniirably distinct, not go; and now, on looking once again at the old green though closer than the others. And in the violet band, band and all its plaguing haze, made denser than ever by though no similar lines exist there, the distinction of the the brightness of the end-on view, but on this occasion faint band, the strong band, and the one fine line between extra analysed, or spread out, by the tremendous dispersive the two, was also well made out.

power just describedbehold! all that haze, instead of So much appeared with a very moderate prism-power becoming more hazy and diffuse than ever, was resolved on the spearoscope; but on applying a dispersion equal neatly and perfectly into innumerable, exquisite, fine lines to 22° between A and H, or five times as much as might or linelets! These miniature lines of light, indeed, filled usually be employed, I gazed for a time in mute admira- the whole field of view; asserted themselves to be as netion on the scene then opened up. Such a scene of --; cessary to the spectrum of coal-gas and air as any other but, if you please, before I begin any attempt, which can part of it; and had, besides, a beautifully regular prohardly but prove weak and poor, to set before you some gressive arrangement of their own, gradually increasing idea of what the really entrancing feature of that vision in distance asunder, as the older band

lines—now looking was, allow me just a minute to state why this particular like huge and far-between Cyclopes-decreased in theirs, spearum is thought so very important, and is so very as they all tended on, in the direction of increasing remuch sought after.

frangibility, towards the violet. Wretched as may be the more publicly illuminating Something of the same kind, and even more distinct in power of a grey blowpipe flame o: coal-gas and simple many of its details, has already been seen, I am aware, air, it is the standarå representative in spearoscopy of by many other persons, in certain spectra both of oxygen nearly half nature that does not, and nine-tenths of nature blowpipes and electric sparks ; but those spectra have that does, burn. By day the spectroscopist, however far greatly elevated temperatures, and I am confining myself he may travel in the spectrum, from ulira red to distant here, for the reasons already stated, to simple coal.gas lavender-grey, can always find out whereabouts he is by and atmospheric air blowpipes only. And not so much referring to the solar lines as seen either

in the sun itself

, even there, to what may be done absolutely by increasing or in his marvellous quality of light as reflected from blue their size immensely, as in Prof. Roscoe's blowpipe with sky, or a cloud, or a hill, or a house, or from snow, or “a blue flame 3 feet long;" but to the differential effect of from anything whatever which reflects any daylight at all. looking at one and the same blowpipe flame, whether But at night, when there can be no such light to reflect, large or small, first transversely, and then end-on. The

This increase of the first expected effect was owing to the hollow pature of fame, and the surperficiality of its light. So that when * At a distance from gas supplies it is well to know that an equivaviewed end on the whole of the illumination previously seen in the lent to coal-gas for the spectroscope, and perfectly safe, may be prolong side profile, was not merely confined to a disc equal in area to a cured by passing a stream of aic through a vessel containing a cross seation of of the fame, but was further concentrated into a thin considerable surface of benzine, or other hydrocarbon liquid in a circumference of that disc

vapourising condition at ordinary temperatures.

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CHEMICAL NEWS, 168 Tennant's Nitrometer.

April 18, 1879. improvement, too, of vision for spectroscopy by the end. | introduced into the cup A, and, by lowering the mercury on method is so decided, and at the same time is obtained reservoir and opening the stop-cock, allowed to pass into 80 simply and economically, or without any increase of the graduated tube. The stop-cock is then closed, and expense whatever, that it would doubtless have been the column of acid vigorously shaken till its reađion on adopted everywhere long ago, and not left for me to ad. the mercury is completed. vocate, had not the chemists, a large and influential body of men, and to whom we all owe much (yet said, in former times, if not still, to positively rejoice in living in the

A midst of flames, and smoke, and soot),—if, I repeat, the chemists had not so generally kept to their sad, dirty plan of letting their salts burn and fizz in a flame close in front

E of the naked slits of their spectroscopes.

Hence Mr. Rand Capron, in his “Photographed Spectra " • of chemical elements, following lately the supposed orthodox method, finds himself compelled to write" Much trouble was experienced in keeping the slit-plate clear from metallic beads and other impurities." And he suggests that in future it would be a great advan. tage to have the whole slit-plate gilded, and the slit-jaws formed of obsidian, platinum, or gold. Vain resource, however, if the spitting flame be still preserved close by,

C and quite inapplicable to any end-on use of it; for that would imply directing the full blast of the blowpipe right on the slit-plate and melting it down altogether. But my rude spectroscope having been built up at home, and primarily for operating on the distant light of the Aurora, as seen occasionally from an upper chamber at No. 15, Royal Terrace, Edinburgh, I was compelled from the first to bring such very far-off light to the slit by an anterior image-forming object-glass. And once having made experience of that excellent method of using an optical image of the thing, and not the thing itself, especially when that thing is worse to touch than a red-hot poker, have kept to it ever since for table work close by, as well as celestial objects a long way off.

The above, theretore, removing the last of the pra&ical difficulties in the way of any one desirous of enjoying the advantages of end-on illumination in his fame spectrorcopy, I close this part of the paper by referring to the

Mr. Starks, at the invitation of the Chairman, gave a Appendix for the following tables of useful data :

pradical description of the mode of using the nitrometers, Table 1. Colours of the spe&rum by spectral place.

remarking at the same time that the two instruments were 2. The blowpipe flame's spearum, seen end-on under instrument with the bulb was the form in use at Messrs.

identical in principle, and almost identical in detail. The small dispersion. 3. Certain parts of the blowpipe flame's spectrum, time before he was aware that Dr. Lunge had contrived a

Tendant's works, at Hebburn, and he had used it for some under higher dispersion. 6. Wave-number places of certain practical data.

similar piece of apparatus. No doubt Dr. Lunge was

equally innocent of any knowledge of their doings, and the (To be continued).

instruments were thus simultaneously invented. He admitted, however, that they were indebted to Dr. Lunge

for the name-a name so obviously appropriate, that it was PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES.

not desirable to invent a second.

The CHAIRMAN then described an experiment he had

recently períormed on the production of light, by passing NEWCASTLE CHEMICAL SOCIETY. a current of electricity through a slender rod of carbon en

closed in an exhausted globe, the physical results of (Concluded from p. 133.)

which experiment he thought might be interesting to the

members. He had obtained the current from a Siemens “ Tennant's Nitrometer," by Messrs. Brady and dynamo-ele&ric machine of the second or 6000 candle Martin.

size. On passing the current, the rod became heated to This apparatus is used for testing the amount of such an intense degree as to cause it to glow with great nitrous compounds existing in sulphuric acids from the Gay splendour. The glass became coated with a sooty deposit Lussac and Glover towers, and also in the chamber acids.

on its inside ; and the rud of carbon, which before use had The three higher oxides are each reduced to NO, and been exposed to an intense heat, to secure as much confrom the volume of the latter, obtained from a given traâion as possible, became curved to the form of a bow, quantity of the acid, the nitrogen, nitrous acid, or nitric as if from softening. acid may be easily calculated.

Prof. Herschel remarked that there was every appear. Description.—B is a three-way stop-cock, having a

ance of the carbon having become plastic with the heat; passage between the tube c and the cup a, and between and, unless he were right in thinking that Deville had c and the waste pipe e. gis a tube graduated to 30 c.c. observed the same, it was the first time carbon had been in fifths. A piece of caoutchouc tubing is fixed to the known to have been rendered plastic ; but he had a strong outlet of the globe D, and carried to a bottle or reservoir impression that Deville had made a similar observation. for mercury, from whence the graduated tube may be the opportunity of seeing the effect, however, was very filled.

interesting. A measured quantity of the acid to be tested is then

Halden and Thornton's Modification of the Cyanotype * An o&avo book, with 37 remarkable platos, published by E. and Process, for Copying Drawings and Tracings," by Mr. Jas. F. Spon, Charing Crose, 1877. Seo its page 8.


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, } April 18, 1879. Australian Eucalypti.

169 The CHAIRMAN remarked that this was but a slight is the most“ taking" in its earlier stages, from the rapidity modification of the Cyanotype process of Sir John of its growth and fulness of foliage. Herschel, one of the earliest and simplest of the photo

Eucalyptus Amygdalina. graphic processes, a process which was not adapted for artistic work, but was eminently useful for copying

" It is this species which yields more volatile oil than engineers' and architects' drawings, as it required no any other tested, and which therefore is largely chosen knowledge of chemicals or photographic art on the part of for distillation; thus it is also one of the best for subduing those using it; the sensitive paper being tolerably perma- malarian effluvia in fever regions, although it does not nent, was supplied ready for use, and, after exposure, grow with quite the same ease and celerity as E.globulus, required nothing but washing in pure water to fix it.

The respective hygienic value of various Eucalypts may to Mr. Berkley said, though the process was not new, it

some extent be judged from the percentage of oil in their was no less valuable, and was in constant use in the foliage, as stated below, and as ascertained by Mr. Bosisto drawing office at Messrs. Palmer's works at Jarrow, and

at the author's instance, for the Exhibition of 1862:-many other large establishments.

E. amygdalina .. 3*313 per cent volatile oil Prof. HERSCHEL confirmed what had been said by the E. oleosa

1'250 Chairman and Mr. Berkley about the origin, the utility, E. leucoxylon

•обо and the simplicity of the process. He said it was exten- E. goniocalyx

0'914 sively used on the Continent, and in illustration he laid E. globulus

0'719 upon the table a collection of very large and beautiful E. obliqua

O'500 cyanotype prints from draughtsmen's designs which he had received from Belgium, some of the designs covering 8 to compensated for by the vigour of its growth and the early

"The lesser quantity of oil of e. globulus is, however, 10 square feet of sensitive paper.

copiousness of its foliage. The proportion of oil varies “Varley's Electric Harmonium,” by Prof. Herschel.

also somewhat according to locality and season. E. It consists of a gamut of tuning-forks arranged as spring rostrata, though one of the poorest in oils, is nevertheless contact-breakers. A key-board is attached, and the de important for malarian regions, as it will grow well on pression of any key directs the current through an ele&ro. periodically inundated places, and even in stagnant water magnet, under the influence of which the fork applied to not saline. E. oleosa (F. v. M.), from the desert regions it vibrates, and the corresponding fork is thereupon set in of extra-tropic Australia, might be reared on barren lands similar vibration. The feeble tone of the forks was much of other countries for the sake of its oil. According to increased when a telephone was placed in circuic, and was

Mr. Osborne's experiments, Eucalyptus oil dissolve the still further increased when the telephone was replaced by following, among other substances, for select varnishes and a piece of apparatus a&ing like a Leyden jar, and con

other preparations:-Camphor, pine-resins, mastich, elemi, sisting of a sheet of thin gutta-percha, with perforated sandarac, kauri, dammar, asphalte, xanthorrhæa-resin, zinc on one side, and thin tin-foil on the other.

dragon's blood, benzoe, copal, amber, anime, shellac, Mr. REYNOLDSON exhibited an automatic arrangement stances are arranged here in the order of their great solu

caoutchouc, also wax, but not gutta-percha. These subfor the continuous supply to an evaporating-basin of a bility. The potash obtainable from the ashes of various large given quantity of water ; also a model of an arrange. Eucalypts varies from 5 to 27 per cent. One ton of the ment for indicating the flow of acid through a Glover or Gay-Lussac tower. As these attracted considerable ash. A ton of the green wood, about 24 lbs.; of dry wood,

fresh foliage of E. globulus yields about 81 lbs. of pearl. attention, and were not accompanied by a note, Mr. about 4+ lbs. For resins, tar, acetic acid, tannin, and Reynoldson was requested to bring them under the atten- other products of many Eucalypts see various documents tion of the Society at some future meeting.

and reports of the writer, issued from the Melbourne Reagent Bottles with Embossed Labels." Messrs. | Botanic Garden." BRADY and Martin exhibited microscopes by Beck and I have had so many enquiries from different parts of the by Zeiss, and a set of reagent bottles, the labels of which world for seeds, and as to what sort will suit various soils were embossed in relief on the surface of the glass, and and climates, that I have asked Messrs. C. J. Cresswell and rendered more visible by being roughed by grinding, thus Co., seedsmen, of Sydney, to make a special point of forming dull letters on a bright ground.

securing pure seed of various kinds of trees, and from various Swan's dry photographic plates were the subject of an

parts of the Colony, so as to suit either tropical or cold interesting experiment, their extreme sensitiveness enabling climates (as whilst we never see frost in my garden near the Chairman to obtain two successful prints from a nega Sydney, yet at Kiandra the snow lies for months !); and I tive; one being exposed two seconds to the light of a

trust, therefore, that in a few years' time, with a little common bat's-wing burner at the distance of one foot, and patience and experience, the right sorts to thrive, either in the other exposed to the same light for only half this time. temperate England or torrid India, may be accurately

known, and reliable plantations thus secured. A. vote of thanks to the exhibitors and others who had

The Baron (at Melbourne) and Mr. Charles Moore, contributed information to the meeting brought the pro- F.R.L.S., Director of our Sydney Botanical Department, ceedings to a close.

will both be happy to afford any special information to parties really requiring it for practical use; but as amongst the three of us we have already answered over one hundred

letters on the subject, I trust that the information therein CORRESPONDENCE.

given will be " passed on" by the recipients as much as possible, so as to save us a little, as no leading Govern.

ment officials or men of business in these Colonies have AUSTRALIAN EUCALYPTI.

any spare time worth speaking of. I am, &c.,


Sydney, N.S.W., February, 1879.
To the Editor of the Chemical News.
SIR,-My old friend, Baron Ferdinand Von Mueller,
Director of the Vi&orian Botanical Department, has very

kindly sent me the special information you wished as to
the comparative analysis of some of the various Eucalypti,

To the Editor of the Chemical News. by which you will see that the celebrated E. globulus is by SIR, “In the otherwise accurate report of " Researches in no means the richest in the essential oil which gives the Dyeing: Part II.,” which appeared in the CHEMICAL News peculiar sanitary value to this class of trees, although it (vol. xxxix., p. 161), Mr. Campbell and myself are repre..

Chloride of Calcium,


April 18, 1879. sented as considering “the heat and souring used by are triling in amount also ; but I will allow 5 per cent of dyers” to be “unadvisable." The statements actually nitrate of soda for this loss. made in the papers were as follows:-“The heat and

II. Chemical Loss. souring to which dyers usually have recourse are questions quite apart from the intrinsic deposition of the pigment." This loss is incurred in the Glover tower, in the

" We think it advisable not to maintain this blue só chambers, and, according to Mr. Davies, in the Gaylong as is usually done at the dissociation temperature." Lussac column, though not there in form of reduction to For HCl read KCl.-I am, &c.,

nitrous oxide. This chemical loss is exceedingly difficult

EDMUND J. MILLS. to trace and to measure. As regards the chambers Mr. Anderson's College, Glasgow,

Davies's paper proves (if it proves anything at all) that April 11, 1879.

the amount of nitre lost in this way in chambers not con

nected with Gay-Lussac, and Glover columns is usually LOSS OF NÍTRE IN VITRIOL MANUFACTURE. from 10 to 15 per cent. But allow 20 per cent for systems

which are connected with such columns and you will find

that: To the Editor of the Chemical News.

The exaggerated total losses from all sources amount SIR,—In the CHEMICAL News, vol. xxxix., p. 198, I noticed to 45 per cent, leaving 55 per cent of the nitrate of soda a letter from Dr. G. Lunge, in which he asserts that all used still to be accounted for, These 55 per cent reprefear of any appreciable loss of nitrous compounds in the sent the chemical loss from the Glover tower, or the GayGlover tower has yanished,

Lussac tower, or both. I have opposed Dr. Lunge on a former occasion by Mr. Davies thought he had explained this loss by the publishing in Dingler's Journal (vol, 227, p. 465, also oxidation of the arsenious acid to arsenic acid in the vol. 228, p. 545), an account of some experiments on the Gay-Lussac column by the following reaction : subject of denitration, and a statement showing the loss of nitrate of soda as incurred at Messrs Gaskell, Deacon, and he gave it as his opinion that the N2O2 escaped into

As,O3+2N2O3=As2O3+2N2O2, and Co.'s works. Since that time I have continually the chimney. But this explanation will not hold good, watched the loss of nitrate of soda at these works, and for two reasons: (1.) Because this reaction does not take applied the most refined methods of ascertaining these losses. The result of this labour has been confirmatory place even at temperatures (220° 10 230° F.) which never of all the figures I published at that time.

obtain in Gay-Lussac columns. (2.) Even is the reaâion Chance has now presented me with the results obtained did occur to an infinitesimal amount, it does not follow at many of the largest English alkali works. I am not

that the nitric oxide is lost, since the gas usually contains at liberty to publish these. "They are the results of daily sufficient oxygen. (8 to 10 per cent) to re-convert it into tests of the exit gases extending over more than one

higher oxides; and any escape of such bigher oxides is month. The samples were all drawn by continuous already included in the mechanical loss (a). aspirators and were analysed by the same method in each

The mere fact that As2O5 occurs in Gay. Lussac vitriol works. The volumes were corrected for temperature and can be explained without having recourse to the imaginary pressure. These results and a few generally acknowledged reaction on which all Mr. Davies's calculations are based. faas enable me to make the following statements with

The loss of nitre from chemical causes cannot therefore regard to the loss of nitre in the manufaature of sulphuric be explained as taking place in the Gay-Lussac column, acid.

and, since only the Glover tower remains, I cannot agree I have for convenience divided the losses into two any such statement, that all fear of appreciable loss of classes. The first class includes losses due to mere

nitre in that piece of apparatus has vanished. mechanical causes, such as the loss incurred by leakage,

It is not, in my opinion, any service to the manufacby the withdrawal of nitrous anhydride from the systein

turer to put him off his guard and prevent further search either by imperfectly denitrated vitriol or by the exit by such statements.—I am, &c.,

FERDINAND HURTER. gases. The second class I called chemical losses, because they are due to the reduction of the higher oxides of

Laboratory of Gaskell, Deacon, and Co., nitrogen to either nitrous oxide or nitrogen. 1. Mechanical Losses.

CHLORIDE OF CALCIUM. (a.). Nitrous Anhydride withdrawn from the System by Means of Exit Gas.-Taking the average amount of

To the Editor of the Chenical News. oxygen, leaving the Gay-Lussac, column, at 10 per cent, Şir,- In the CHEMICAL News, vol. xxxix., p. 122, there and the average amount of nitrate of soda used at 4 per is an answer from Messrs. Gaskell, Deacon, and Co., u 100 of sulphur passing into the chambers, the results of my notice on chloride of calcium, which you kindly reven different largę works show that the loss of nitre published (p. 97). Allow me to add a few more words. from this source is about 10'5 per cent of the nitrate used. Very little knowledge of chemistry would be required

(6.) Loss of Nitrous Anhydride by Imperfeci Denitra- for any person to know that chloride of calcium is a tiin.- This loss is acknowledged by all authorities to be by-product in the manufacture of carbonate of soda by s nall. Mr. Dayiès (CHEM:CAL News, vol. xxxvii., p. 155) the Leblanc process and of bleaching powder by the allows from 10 to 15 per cent of nitrate as lost by vitriol Weldon process. I wished to ca!l the attention of manuwhich was not at all denitrated. In Messrs. Gaskell, facturers to the production of calcium chloride, because it Deacon, and Co.'s works the loss from this source hardly is produced in large and increasing quantities in the ever reaches 6 per cent., From analyses of Glover-tower manufacture of carbonate of soda by the ammonia process, vitriol, published by Mr. Maclear, I calculate a loss of which quantities are to be added to those produced by 2 per cent ; Mr. Davies usually finds traces only in the other manufactures. Messrs. Gaskell, Deacon, and Glover-tower vitriol. If I assume 10 per cent of loss from Co., advertise the sale of this product. I never doubted imperfect denitration I greatly exaggerate.

that it is sold by them; but I should like to know at what (c.) Loss from Leakage of Apparatus.—This loss cannot price these gentlemen used to sell it before the introbe estimated directly. The loss of sulphur, from all duction of the Solvay process, which has considerably sources does not exceed 10 per cent. Most of this is lost lowered its market value. It is on account of the low as sulphurous acid passing into the chimney with the price and the large production that I wished to hear of exit gas, and into the air from the kilns.. The amount | new processes in which it could be used.—I am, &c., leaking into the air from the chambers is trifling. Hence

0. GLUGE, the nitrogen acids leaking into the air from the chambers Sarrebruck, April 11, 1879.



April 18, 1879.
Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources.


is insoluble in ether. The yellowish brown solution

turns the plane of polarised light slightly to the right. To the Editor of the Chemical News.

A&ion of Cyanogen upon Amido-benzoic Acid and Sir,- I noticed in the abstract from the Chemiker Zeitung Anthranilic Acid in Aqueous Solution.-P. Griess.(No. 10, 1879), which appeared in the CHEMICAL News, From the reaction of cyanogen upon metamido-benzoic vol. xxxix., p. 150, on the above subject, that a certain J. acid the author obtained amido-benzoic percyanide and Marzelli proposes to add slowly the sulphacid of phenoi a new compound, cyan-carbimidamido-benzoic acid. The to concentrated nitric acid.I may just mention that I latter of these compounds has an acid reaction, but know of at least one English manufacturer who used this forms salts both with bases and acids. At elevated temmethod and manner of operating advantageously some

peratures and on treatment with acids it proves very ten years ago. So long ago as this I have also myself unstable, and a number of interesting compounds are used the method, allowing the sulphacid to fall drop by produced by its decompositions. The action of cyanogen drop through a tap-funnel into the concentrated nitric por anthranilic acid in aqueous solution gives rise to acid. This plan is an excellent one, and I am under the bicyan-amido-phenol. impression it is better and more widely known to manufac- Pinacons and Pinacolins.-W., Thörner and T. turers than J. Marzelli is aware of. I am under the impres. Zincke.—The authors give an account of the three acetosion, too, that I have seen; about a year and a half ago, more phenon-pinacolins. than one student in the Technical Laboratory of the Poly- Diphenyl-methyl-acetic Acid.-.W. Thörner and T.. technikum of this town preparing picric acid according to Zincke.-This compound, C13H1402, crystallises from the above-mentioned scheme, as that a known technical dilute alcohol in white ramified leaflets, but from pure process. I am, &c.,

alcohol in shining transparent cubes. It melts at 173". WATSON SMITH, F.C.S.; F.I.C. Several of its salts are described. Zürich, April 6, 1879.

Hydrocarbon, C6H12, from Phenyl-glycol. - A. Breuer and T. Zincke. - This hydrocarbon, on oxidation

with chromic acid, is converted into a quinon, C16H10021 CHEMICAL NOTICES FROM FOREIGN of light. With neutral and acid alkaline sulphites, it

which in solution is readily polarised under the influence SOURCES.

yields well-crystallised compounds. On treatment with alkali there is formed an oxy-quinon, C36H1003, and with

ammonia an oxy-imido-compound, C16H11 NO2. NOTE.--All degrees of temperature are Centigrade, unless otherwise Certain Derivatives of Phenyl-acetic Acid.- O. expressed.

Stöekenius.-By the reaction of ammonia upon phenyl.

brom-acetic acid the author obtains phenyl-amidacetic Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft zu Berlin, acid along with amygdálic acid. No. 16, 1879.

Dissociation of Sal-ammoniac.-C. Böttinger.—The Adion of Anhydrous Hypochlorous Acid upon bulb of a bulb-tube is charged with sal-ammoniac, and Ethylen.-E. Mulder and G. J. W. Bremer.— The authors the tube being placed nearly horizontally, a strip of red obtained a compound represented by the formula

litmus paper is placed in the upper end of the tube and a C H6C1202.

strip of blue litmus in the lower. The bulb is then heated, Cons:itution of Ultramarine.- Arthur Lehmann.- from the upper end and turns the red paper blue, and

when ammonia, being the lighter component, escapes Not susceptible of usesul abstraction. Double Salts of Calcium Sulphate with other Salts end and turns the blue paper red. Success depends on

hydrochloric acid, being the heavier, flows from the lower and Behaviour of Gypsum in Certain Saturated the inclination of the tube. Saline Solutions.--R. Fassbender.- A precipitate which the author had formerly obtained by adding solid sulphate Dita Barko (Alstonia s. Echites scholaris).- Erich

Physiologically Active Basic Constituent of the of potassa to a saturated solution of gypsum and potassic Harnack. The author's ditain, C22H30N20.4, is a true chloride proved to be a mere mixture of the two sulphates chemical individual, and is not to be confounded with the with varying quantities of potassic chloride. The latter ditain of Grupe, a mere mixture. Its physiological action salt is very obstinately retained by the sulphates of calcium and potassium as is also potassic nitrate. The author upon vertebrate animals agrees with that of curare. confirms Struve's result that calcio-potassic sulphate is

On Sulpho-selen-oxy-tetra-chloride.-F. Clausnizer. obtained by the action of potassic ch'oride upon gypsum.

—The composition of this body is SOz SeCl4. Adion of Hydrogen upon Meta-nitro-para-tri

Further Methods of Formation of Sulpho-selen. chlor-acetoluyd and Meta-nitro-para-valeryl-toluyd. oxy-tetra-chloride.-F. Clausnizer.- The author has ob-T. Friederici.-Not suitable for abstraction.

tained this compound by the joint adion of pyro.sulphuric New Method of Preparing Chrysanissic Acid.-T. acid and selenium tetra-chloride, of pyro-sulphurylFriederici.- The author oxidises dinitro-acetolayd by the / chloride and selenium tetra-chloride, and of salphuryl. action of potassium pyro-chromate along with moderately

hydroxyl-chloride and selen-oxy-chloride. dilute sulphuric acid.

Acion of Sulphuryl-hydroxyl-chloride upon ChloOn Chlor.nitro-anilins.-F. Beilstein and A, Kurba- rides of Titanium, Antimony, Tin, and Silicium.tow.—The authors examine the nitro-dichlor.anilins with F. Clausnizer. The author succeeded in obtaining a paca., ortho., and meta-position of the chlorine atoms.

double compound in the case of titanium only. On so-called Dichlor.azo-phenol.-R. Hirsch.-As

Experiments on the Preparation of Sulphuryl. regards the preparation and properties of dichlor.azo hydroxyl.bromide and Sulphur-oxy-tetra-bromide.phenol the author confirms the statements of its dis. F. Clausnizer.-The results of the experiments appear to coverers, Schmitt and Bennewitz.

By treatment with have been negative. hydrochloric acid he obtained from it hydrochlorate of Constitution of Ultramarine.-R. Rickmann.-Not dichlor-amido-phenol.

available for abstraction. On Cinchotenicin.-0. Hesse.—The author gives this Contributions to the Voluminar Law and Steric name to an isomer of cinchotenin. It is a dark brown, Law.-H. Schræder.-From this interesting and inperfectly amorphous mass, very brittle, and yielding a portant paper we can select only the following reșults, to yellow powder. It is readily soluble in water, alcohol, which the author draws more special attention :—The chloroform, dilute acids, ammonia, and alkaline lyes, but I organic elements, C, H, O, N, have in general the same

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