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152 Advertisements,

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April 4, 1879. INSTITUTE OF CHEMISTRY OF GREAT BRITAIN / Cowell, Charles Benjamin, F.C.s., 13, Gcorge-road, Birmingham

Courch, Professor A. H., K.C.S., Agricultural College, Cirencestar AND IRELAND.

Clapha , Robert C lvert, P.C.S., Ears on, Dear Newcastle-on-Type.

Clark John, Ph.D., F.C.S. 138, Bath-street, Glasgow
LIST of OFFICERS and COUNCIL.

CI udet, F. F.C S., 6 and 7, Col man-strert, E.C.

Cleaver, Edward Lawrence, F.C.S., 289n, King's-road, S.W.
President-E. FRANKLAND, Ph.D., D.C.L., F.R.8., &c.

Clemensh W, Edward, F.C.S., Gree bill, Sherborne
VICE-PRESIDENTS.

Clue, Thomas Charles, Assoc. R.S.M., Walla oo, South Australia

Clower, Frank, D.Sc., P.C.S.. Newcastie-u der-Lyme F. A. Abel, C B., F.R,8,

William Odling, M A., M.B., Coleman, Joseph James, F.C 8., 45, West Nile-Street, Glasgow Alexa der Crım Brown, M.D., F.R.S.

Coole, Samuel, M.A., Civil Fa ineering Collee, Pons, India D.sc., F.RS.E.

R. Angus Smith, P.D., F.R.S. Coomber, Thomas, F.C.S., 80 Kingedown parade, Bristol Robert Galloway, M.R.I.A., Augustus Vuelcker, Ph.D., F.R.S., Corfield, Professor W. H., M.A., M.B., F.C.s., 10, Bolton-row, Maye F.C.S. F.C.S.

fair, W. Treasurer-C. R. Alder Wright, D.Sc., F.C.S.

Cownler, Alfred John, F.C.S., 106, Fenchurch-street, E.C.

Cranston, George, Messrs. Storer and Sons, Sydney-street, Glasgo ORDINARY MEMBERS of COUNCIL.

Crookes, William, F.R.S., F.C.8., 20, Mornington-road, N.W. John Attfeld, Ph.D., F.C.S. David How rd, F C.S.

('rowder, William, 2a, Evering-villas, Evering-road, U. per Clapton, E James Bell, F.C.S. C. T. Kingzítt, F.C.S.

Dalziel, John Graham, Uited College, St. Andrew's, N.B.
Dugald Campbell, F.C.S.
A. F. Marreco, F.C.S.

Darby, Steph:n, F.C.8., 140, Leadení all-street
Michael Carteighe, F.C.s.
F. A. Manning, F.C.S.

Darling, William Howarth, F.C.s., 126, Oxford-street, Manchest r W. Crookes, F.R.S., V.P.C.S. E. J. Mills, D.Sc., P.R.S.

Davies, Edward, F.C.8., Royal Institution, Liverpool G. E. Davis, F.C.S.

E. Yeison, F.C.S., F.R.A S. Davies, R. Higgins, F.c.s., 6, Bradmore-park-terrace, GoldbankWarren 1 ela Rue, D.C.L., F.R.S. John Patti son, Ph.D., F.C.S.

road, w William Ditt nar,F.A.S.E., F.C.S. T Redwood, Ph.D., F.C.S.

Davis, G. E., P.C.S., Dagmar-villa, Heaton Chapel, n-ar Stockport A. Dupre, PhD, F.R.S., P.C.S. J. Ewerton Reynolds, M.D., Davis, H ury Wilson, Laboratory, Somerset-house, w.C. R. J. Friswell, P.C.S.

M.R.I.A., F.C.S.

ay, Jamer Juhn, 18, London-slreet, Verby,
J.H.G'adstone, Pu D., FR8., &c. Thomas Stevenson, M.D., F.C.S. Deacon, Henry Wade, Appleton-house, Widnes
George Gore, LL.D., F.R.8.
K. R. Tatluck, F.R.S.E., F.C.S.

De Chaum nt, Francis, M.D., Army Medical schoo', Netley
W. N. Hartley, F.R.S.E., F.C.S. R. V. Tuson, F 0.8.

De la Rut, Warren, D.C.L., F.R.S., F.C.8., 73, Portland-place, w. Douglas Herman, F.C.8, J. T. Way, P.C.S.

Dent, William Y., F.C.S., Royal Arsenal, Woolwich, S.E.

Dewar, Professor James, F.k.8., Cambridge
Secretary-C. E. Grures, F.C.S.

Dittmar, Professor W., Anderson's College, Glasgow
ofices-somerset-house-terrace, 8.W.

Divers, Professor E., M.D., F.C.S., Yokohama, Japan This Institute was established in 1977 to ensure that Consulting and Dixon, William A., F.C.š., Chemical Laboratory, School of Arts, Analytical Chemists are duly qualified for the proper discharge of the Bydney duties they undertake by a tuorough stady of Chemistry a d allied

Dodd, Thomas Heary, F.C.S., Royal Arsenal, Wool wich, S.E. branches of Sci nce in their application to the Arts, Public Health,

Dorkin, W. F., University Museum, Oxford Agricu.ture, and Tecbnical Ildu.try.

Dougail, Samuel S., Glenpark-villa, Busby, near Glasgow

Downar, George Frederick, Workington
NAMES of FELLOWS.

reyfus, Charles, 7, Chapel-walks, Manchester

Duncan, James, F.C.S., 71, Cromwe l-road, 8.W.
Abel, F.A , C.B., F.R.S., P.C.S., Royal Arsenal, Woolwicb, B.E. Dupre, Auguste, Ph.D., F.R.S., Westminster Hospital, s.W.
Abney, Capt. w. w., F.R.S.F.C.S., 3. St. Aloan's-road, Kensington, W. Ea ly, William, Trinity College, Dublin
Ackroyd, William, Kelso High school, Roxburgoshire

Elioit, Thomas, F.C.S., 55, Torriano-avenue, Camden-road, N.
Acwort., Joseph J., F.C.s., Oakvil e-bouse, Gravesend

Estcourt, Charles, F.C.S., St. James's-square, Manchester Aitkin, Audr w P., D.Sc., Edinburgu University

Evershed, Frank, 8, Dalryinple-terrace, Glenarm-road, C.apton, E. Alldred, C.H., F.C.S., 3., Mincing-lane, E.C.

Fairley, Tiomas, F.R.S.E., F.C.8., 16, East-par de, Leeds Allen, Alfred H., F.C 8., , oll-giate-crescent, Sheffield

Farries, Thomas, F.C.S., 16, Coleman-stret, E.C. Alison, Henry 1. Thornaby Iron Worw8, Stockton-on- Tees

Fenton, Henry J. u., Christ's College. C-mbri ge Angeil, Artbur, Ph.D., 4, Portland-terrace, Suthampton

Ferguson, Professor John, M.A., F.U ., Universits, Glasgow Angell John, F.C.8., Grammar school, Manchester

Field, Frederick, F.R.S., F.C.S. Hither-green-lodge, Lewisham, 8.E. Appleyard, G Ibert C. W., Prestolee, near Manch ster

Fletcher, Alfred, 5, Edge-ane, Liverpooi Aimstrong, H. E., Ph.D., P.R.S., F.C.s., Lindon Institution, E.C. Foord, Geor«e, F.C.S., Ryal Mint, Melbourne Atkinson, Edmund, P..D., F.C.S., Portesbury-hill, Camberley

Foster, Wiliam, B.A., F.C.S., Middlesex Hospital. W. Atkinson, Robert Williaın, D.Sc, F.C.s., University of Tokio, Japan Francis Ernest E. H., F.C.S., Port of Spain, 1 rinidad Attfield. Pro:essor Jobu, Ph.D., T.C.8., 17 Bloomsbury-square, W.C. Frankland, Professor E., D.C.L., F.R.D., F.C.8., Royal College of Baoni-ter, Richard, F.C.S., Labora ors, Somerset-pouse, W.c.

Chemistry, South Kensi v ton Museum, s.w. Barff, Frederick s., F.C.8., 100, abbey-road, Kilburn, n.w.

Friswell, R. J., F.C 8., 10, Clapton-square, E.
Barrett, Edward Louis, B.Sc., F.C.S., 53, Springfield-road, N.W. Fuller, W. J., F.C.S., Corve-lody, Greenway-rond, Redland, Bristo
Bassett, henry, F.C.N., 4., St. Paul's-road N.W.

Gale, Samuel, F.C.S., 338, Oxford Street, w.
Baynes, James. jun., F.C 6.,
Kingston-upon Hull

Galloway, Professor Robert, F.c.s., 'M.R.I.A., Royal College of
Bean, Cbarie. Edward, F.c.8., Brooklyn-house, Shepherd's-bush, W. Science, St. Stephen's-green, Dublin,
Beilby, George, Midcalder, ocolland

Gardner, John, F.C.S., 11, St. Paul's-crescent, Camdea-square, N. Bell, J. Carier, F.C.8., 'Assoc. R.8 M., Kersal Clough, Higher Garrick, Andrew R., PO.V., St. Helens, Lanca hire Broughton, Manchester

Gatehouse, James Wright, 36, Broad-street, Bath Bell, Janes, F.C..., Laboratory, Somerset-house, W.C.

Giib rt, John Henry, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.C.., ua penden, St. Alban's Bell, Williain Gumm, Assoc. R.Š.M., 6 , Duchess-roa'i, Birmingham Gilebriet, Percy c., F.C.8., Assoc R.S.M., Blaer.avon, Monmouthshire Bickerdike, William Edward, F.C.S., Surbitun-place Blackburn Gladstone, J. 8., Ph.D., F.R.S., F.C.S., 17, Peinbridge-equare, HşdeBickertou, Professor A.W., Christcburcb, New Zea and

park, w
Bischof, é ofessor Gustav, F.C.S., 4, Hart-street, Bluomsbury, W.C. Glover, G. T., P.C.S., 30, Donegall-place, B lfast
Bourch er, Charles Edwaru, Messie Birdley and Co., The Brewery, Gordon, Joseph Gordon, F.C.S., 20, King-screet, s.W.
Burton. n-Trent

Gore, George, LL.D., F R.S., Islington-ruw, Eagbaston, Birmingham Bowdler, Arthur Ciegs 20. Wellington-str. et, Blackburn

Gr ham, A. McDonald, F.C.S., 5. Easttel, the Liaks. Leich Bowrey, James Jobu, F.C.S , Kiogston, Jamaica

Graham, Charles, D.Sc., F.C.S., University College. W. Brazier, Professor Jalles omith F.C.s., University, Aberdeen

Greenaway, A J., F.C.S., 11. Pemberton-gardens, Upp r llollnway, N. Brock, John, British Aikali Wo ks, Win-8, Lanca ter

Greenway, Thomas, The sheffield Smelt ng Con pan , Sheff Id Brooie, Sir Benjamin C., F.R.S., F.C.S., Bruckbum Warren, Surrey Gregiry, Henry Richard, 7, Quality.court, Coancery-lane, E.C. Brown, Professor A. Crum, M.D., D.Sc., F.C.S., 8, Belgrare-ciescent, Greville, Henry Leicester, F.C.s., Benunc«-house, str. ud-gret 8-road Eainburgh

Griess, Peter, Ph.U., F.R.S., K.C.S., Burton-on-Trent Brown, adrian John, F.C.S., Burton-on-Trent

Gro-jean, B.J., F.C.3., Messrs. L.wes' Chemical Works, Millwall, E. Brown Edwiu Ormund, F.C.S., R y al Arsenal, Woolwich, S.E. Groves, Charles Edward, F.C.S., Somerset-house-terrace, W.C. Brown, James Campb. li, D.Sc., F.C.s., Liverpool

Gu dey, H. S. Lewis, Wilderspool, Wrringtun. Brown, Horace T., F.C.S., Burt n-on-Trent

Hake, Henry Wilson, Ph.D., F.C.8., Carlton.cbambers, 12, RegentBruce, A.C., M.A., F.C.S., King Edward School, Birmingham

street, W. Buchanan, Job Young, K.R 8..., 10, Moray-place, Edinburgh Helse, William Edward, F.C.3., 21, Mincing-lade, E.C. Bulinck, J. Lloyd, F.C.8., 3, Hanover-strett, W.

Hilbury, C rn-lius, F.C.S., Plough-court, E.C. Borg, Charles A., Laboratory. Somerset-house, W.C.

Harkness, William, ..C.8., Laboratory, Somerset-beuse, W.C. Burghardt, Charles Anthony, Ph.D., Owen's College, Manchester Hartley, W. Nvel, F.R.S.E., F.C.S., King's Collige, w.. Butterfield. John Cope, F.C 8., 106, Queen Victoria-stret, E.C. Hastinxs, 8. Mitchell F... 16, Vicarage-gardes, Kensington, W. Calderwood, Jubo, addi well, West Calder, N.B.

Heaton, Charles William, F.C.S., Charinx-cross Hospital, W.C. Cameron, Charles A., M.D., F R.S.C.1., 15, Pembroke-road, Dublin. Heddle, Professor Matthew Forster, M.D., P.K.S.E.. St. Audrey, Cameron, James, Laborator , romerset-house, W.C.

Scotland
Cameron, Joon Macdonald, F.C.8., 7, Oxford Villas, Glentborn-road, Hebner, Oito, F.C.S., 54, Holborn Viaduct, E.C.
Hammersmith

Helm, 1 nry James, F.C.S., Laboratory, Somersel-house, W.C. Cammack, John, 50, Pecker's-hill, Sutton, near St. Helen's

Henry, William Charles, M.D., F.R.S., H.C.S.,

Hatfield, Dear Ledbury Campbell, Dugald, F.C.S., 7, Qual ts-couri, Cuancery-lane, E.C. Herman, Douglas, F.C.s., Cropp-r's-biu, st Helen's,

Lanca-bir Carey, Eustace, Wianes, Lancashiro Carteig he, Michael, F.C.s., 180, New Bond-stre.t, W.

| Hewitt, David B., Beecd-hou-e, Prestwich, Radcliffe, near Manchester

Hibbert, Walter, F.C.S., 2a, Chapel-street, Edgware-road, W.

Advertisements.

QÅBNICAB News,
April 4, 1879.

153 Biggin, James, F.C.3., Woodhey, Kersal, Manchester

O'Sullivan, Curaelius, F.C.8., 140, Aigh-street, Burton-on-Trent Hill, Alfred, M.D., F.C.S., Birmingham

Packer, George Switbers, F.C.S., Cambuslaug, by Glasguw Hills, Tuomas Hyde, F.C.S., 338, Oxford-street, w.

Page, David, M.D., F.C.B., Netherfield, Kendal, Westmoreland Hodges, Frederick, Queen's College, Belfast

Page, F. J. Montague, F.C..., Assuc. Ř.S.M., Duiversily Coilege, W.C Hodges, John Freder ck, M.D., F.C.8., Queen's College, Belfast Parker, Joba spear. 13, New Porter-street, Sueffleld Hodgkinson, W.R., Ph.D., 106, Bramley-road, Notting-nill, W. Parkins sn, Robert, Ph.D., Bradford Hoft han, G.C., 76, St Gabriel.street, vont, eal, Canada

ratterson, Toomas Law, F.C.S., Belmont, Margaret-street, Greenock Holm 8, J. bn, Laboratory, somerset-house, w.C.

Pattinson, John, F.C.8., 75, The side, Newcastle-on-Tyne Hopwood, George Ma ley, F.C.S., Mining Di artment, Melbourne Pearce, Walter, Maiden Dead Hward, David, F.C.S., Rectury House, Walthamstow, E., and Strate Pedler, Profesror Alexa.der, F.C.S., Presidency College, Calcutta ford, E.

Persin, William Henry, F.R.8, F.C..., The Chestnuts, sudbury Howard, Thomas, F.C.8., 52, Swinton.street, Gray's-inc-road

Phillips, John Arthur, C.E., F.C.8., 18, Fopstone-road, Kensington, W Howard, William Dilworth, Stratford, E.

Flowman, Sydney, Residences, St. Thowas's Hospital, s.E,
Hugoes, John, 79, Mark-lane, E.C.

Pocbin, Henry Davis, F.C.S., baru Elms, Barnes, s.W.
Huotingdin, Altred Kirby, Asoc. R.S.M., Abbeville-house, Green-hill, Prevost, Edwaro, Ph.D., P.C.S., Oxford
Hampstead, N.

Price, Astley Past n, PA.D., F C.8, 41, Lincoln's-inn-fields, W.C. Hurter, Ferdinand, Ph.D., Widnes.

Price, Davia Simps n, Ph.D., F.C.s., 26, Gr at George street, W. Huskisson, Peory Owen, F.C.S., 41, Highbury-park, N.

Proctor, William Wilson, 33 and 35, Side, Newc..stle-on-l'yne Hus n, Charles William, B.Sc. (Lond.), 5, York-buildings, Dale-street, Purdie, Tho as, jun., F.C.s., Assoc. R.S.M., 31, Westbuurne-park. Lirerpool

c esc. DI, W Hutchings, William Maynard, Rock Les, Mount Pleasan:-road, Rumsey, William, Ph.D., F.C S., 11, Ashton-terrace, Glasgow Libc ra, Birkenbead

keadr p, Joseph, F.C.s., Loncon and North-Western Railway, Crewo Huxley, J. H., Assoc. R.S.M , Crescent road, Snarrow, Sbeffield Redwood, Professor T., Ph.D., F.U.S., 17, Bloom-uury-square, w.C. Jack-on, Edgar, Assou, R.S.M., 06, Queea Victoria-sticei, E.C. Redwoor, T., Boverton, E.c.s., Fairlawn North Finchley, Middlesex Japp, Franc Kobert, M.A., Po.D., F.C.s., 18, Brompton-crescent, Reid, Walter Cecil, 124, Park-road, dewcastle on Tyne South Kensington, W.

Ku yı olds, Profesor J. Emr.ou, M.D., F.C.8., Trinity College, Dublin Jarmain, George, F.C.s., 44, Northgate, Huddersfield

keyuuids, William J., M.A., F.C S., Royal Military asylum, Chelsea Jobosen, George, Sulling fleet, F.C.8., 1., Savile-row, W.

Rich, syaney William, -3, Ll yo-square, w.c. Johnson, l'homas H., F.C.3., 96, Duke-street, Liverpool

kichárds, Edward, Assoc. R.S.M., Barow-in.Furuess Johnstone, W., Lowther-bill, Forest-bil , s.E.

R ley, Edward, F.C.o. 14a, Finsbury-square, E.C. Joe. E, W. T., F.C.S., Wolverdampton

Rimmington, G orge, y, Bridge-strtet, Bradlord Jones, Francis, F.R.S.E., F.C.S., Grammar School, Manchester Roberts, Thomas, 4, Alfred road, Handsworth, near Birmingham Kea es, Thomas William, 0, Spring-gardens, W.

Robinson, Joon, H.C.S., Downside, at ke Bishop, Bristol K-ene, James Boddely, 38, Hartham.roud, Camden-road, N.

Robinson, George Carr, F.R.S.E., Labora.ory, University, Edinburgh Keightley, lfred Duuley, F.C.D., Old.balí, Miintnorpe

Rubsun, Th:mas 8., 57, The Side, Newcastle-on.Tyne
Kellner, William, Ph.D., F...,8., Royal Arst nal, Woolwich, 8.E. kocoud, Heiurich, Mic diesboru-on-Teer
Kend li, James Altre , F.C S., Suvertown, E.

kodwell, Geurge Farrer, F.C.8., Mariborough College Kincb, Edward, F.C.S., Tok o Japan

Ronalds, Eamuna, Ph.D., F.R S.E., Bonninglon-Douse, Edinburgh Ki 8, Jubn Falconer, P.C.o., Edinburgh

Roscoe, Proiessor Henry E, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.C.8., uwen's College, Kingzati, Charles T., F.C.8., 12, Aurol-road, The Cedars Estate, West Manchester Keneington, W.

Rosen ihal Gustav, Ph.D., Wandsworth-bridge-wharf, Fulham, s.w, Kitcoin Arcoibuld, F.C S.. 27, King-street, Whitehaven

Russell, William James, Ph.D., F.a.s., K.C.8., St. Bartholomew's Ky naston Josiah W., F C.S., St. Helen's

Hospital, E..
Lawe, John Bennet, F.R.S., F C.S., Rotbamstead, St. Albans

Ryan, Dennis, The School of Medicine, Liverpool
L.wson George, LL.D., Dalhousie College, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Salter Muriyn John, F.C.8., 112, Forest-roau, Daiston, N.
Capada

Savery, T. J., 4, ih resa-terrace, Hammersmith
Leebody, Professor Joba Rubinson, M.A., Magee College, Londonderry schunck, Euward, Ph.D., F.R S., 7.C 8., Kersall, near Manchester
Letis, Fdmund Albert, University College Bristol

Sell, William Jam-e, B.A., 12, Dowing-terrace, Cambridge Lewin, George, Luboratoiy, Somerset ouse, W.C.

Sen er alfre, M.D., F.C.8., 12 Brownswood-vilias, Fin.bury-park,N. Liveing, Professor Geor«e Downing, M.A., F.C.s., Cambridge she stone, William Ashwell, c.c.8., Exeter School, Ex ler Liv roedge, A., Asroc. R.S.M., University, Sydney

Shepherd, Harcourt H.B., F.C.S., The Leighs, Charlion-lane, S.E. Lott, Frank Edward, A-soc. R.S.M., Dwapienuill, Burton-on-Treut Bbeppard, i homas Wiliams, M.D., Paina, Bengal Loram, Herberi Y, F.C 8., 24, Ockenden-road, Southgate-road, N. Sebuld, Louis, F.C.S., Uxfurd-stieet, Manchester Lovett, Wuliam Jesse, 295, Blackburn-road, Accrington

Siemens, C. William, D. L., F R.., F.C.8., 12, Queen Anne's-gato, Lowe, Alfred John George, 167, Fenchurch-street, E C.

Westminster, .W., and 3 Palace-bouses, Kensington-gardens, W. Lowe, William Foulkes, F.C.s., Assoc. R.8.M., Hough-green, Chester Swee, Alfred Hutcbinson, f.C.S., 7, Finsbury-circus, E.C. Lapton, sidney, F.C.S., The Harebilis, Leeds

Sith, rıhur r'orcy, F.C.S., Teaple Observatory, Kugby Lyte, Parnuan Maxwell, F C.8., Cutford, Oakhill-road, Putney, S.W. Smith, J. Denham, F.C.E., Fairlawn, Coon be-wood, Kingston.onLyon, Juho George, Pontefract

Thames Macadam, Stevenson, Ph.D., F.R.S.E., F.C.S., Edinburgh

Smith, Robert Angus, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.C.S., 22, Devonshire-stueet Macdouga d, G. D., 41, Reform-street, Dundee

Manchester Mac'ı ar, Jaines, r.C.s., St. Rollox, Glasgow

Smith, Watson, F.C.S., Wilmslow, near Manchester Makin, George Hogarth, F.C.8., Wa.ton-on-Thames

nelus, George James, F.C.S., A8800. R.S.M. Workington Manning P. X., F.C.8., 28, Billiter-street, E.C.

Sunstadt, E., F.C.S., 2, Osborne-villas, Duncon,be-road, Hornsor. Marcet, Will am. M.U., F.R.S., F.C.S., Athenæum Club, London, W.

rise, N Marr.co, Professor A. F., F.C.S., College of Physical Science, New- Spiller, John, F.C.S., 2, St. Mary's-road, Canonbury, N. castle-on-Tyne

spiller. William, F.v.8., Atlas Works, Hackney-wick, N.E. Maskelyne, Nevil Story, F.R.S., F.C.8., 112, Gloucester-terrace, W. Siead, Johu Euward, Middiesboro gb Mattbey, George, F.C.S., 78, Hatton-garden, E.C.

Stenhouse, J., IL.D., F.R.s., F.C.s., 17, Rodney-street, Penton. McL od, Professor Herbert, F.C.D., Cooper's-oll, staines

ville, N. Meldoln, kap ael, F.C.8., 21, Jobn-street, Keaford-row, W.C.

Bleuart, Daniel Rankin, Broxburn, Scotland Miller, B. Bowyer, F.C.8., Royal Mint, Melbourne

Stevenson, James Cocbran, M.P., F.C.S., Westoe, South Shields Mills, rofessor Edmund J., D.Sc., F...s., F.C.8., Anderson's College, Stevenson, Thomas, M.D., F.C.S., Guy's Hospital, S.E. Gasgow

Stewart, A Younx, F.C.s., Apotheca ies' Hail, Bla k riars, E.C. Mona, Ludwig, F.C.S., Winnington-hall, Northwich

Sock, William Freitrick Keating, F.C.s., Darling.on Morfit, Campbell, Ph.D., F.C.S., 16, Harley-road, South Hampstead, Stoddart, William Walur, F.C.8, 1, Park-street, Bristol N.W.

Stoker, George Naylor, Laboratory, Somerset-Loure, W.C. Mo gan, Thomas M., Victoria College, Jersey

Sutton, Francis, t.c.s., Norwich Moss, John, F.C.S., 300 High Holoorn, w.č.

Swan, Joseph Wilson, P.C.8., Newcastle-on-Tyne Morriso... Robert Milner, V 8c., 13, Douglas-crescent, Edinburghe Szczepauowski, Sianlolas A. Prus., F.C.8., 6, Stafford-place, Buck. Mucklow, John Dav es, F.C.S., 34. Pen -road, N.

ingham-gute, -.W. Mu ler, bugo, PW.D, F.R.S., F.C.8., 110, Bunbiu-row, E.C.

Tate, Alexander Norman, 7 and 9, Hackins Hey, Liverpool Müspratt, i diuud K., F.C.s., Seaf irth-hall, near Liverpool

Tate, Walter, Bridgewater Sme ting Company, St. Helens Napier, James, F.C. ., ipping.cottug', Bramford, near Ipswich Tarluck, Robert K., F.C.S., 138, Bath street, Glasgow Xe.son, da und, v.o.s., Scientific Club, Savile-row, w.

Taylor, James, F.C.S., Farmers' Club, long : Court Hotel, Bolborn, Newlands, John A. R., F.C.S. 18, Josephine-ave, ue, Brixton-rise, 8.W.

E.C.
Atwangs, Benjamin E. R., F.C.s. Cijde-wharf, Victoria Dock, E. Taylor, Robert L., F.C.8., 45, C lendale, Lower Broughton, Man.
Newin, G.S., New College, Hampsu ad

c ester
Nicholson, E. baca bers, F.R. ., F.C.s., Carlton-house, Herne-hill Thomas, Joseph William, F.C.S., Pen-s-lan, Cardiff
Nicho son, Edward, A.M.D., F.C.s. St. Thomas Mouui, Mudras Toomron, Jonn Millar, F.C.8., King's College, W.C.
Nickels, Benjamin, F.C.S., Sudbury, Harru w

Thomson, William, F.C.8. Royal Institution, Manches:er
Odline, Professur' w., M.B., F.R.s., F.C.8., 15, .orham-gardens, i horp, William, B.sc., F.C.8., 39, Sandringham-road, West Hackne.
Oxford

N.E. Oding, Walter, F.C.S., Burton-on-Trent

T cuborne, Charles, R.C., M.R.I.A., F.C.8., 40, Mary-street, Dublin ugu vie, Thoma R bertson, F.C.8., B nk-top. Lyle-street, Greenock Tids, Charies Moymott, M.B., F.C.8., 3, Mapdeville-place, Mun. Ogstin, Gewige Henry, F C.8, 9, De bay-street, Westainster, S.W. ccester-square, W. O.lerenshaw, ramuel, Butron alkaii Works, si. Hrlen's

Tilden, William Augustus, D.Sc., F.C.8., Clifton College, Bil-tol O'neill, Charles, F.C..., 72, Denmark-road, Manchester

Tookey, Charles, F.C.8., The Museum, Jermyn-strost, W.

The President has offered Two Prizes of £50

THE MIDDLESEX HOSPITAL MEDICAL

,

154 Advertisements.

CHEMICAL REws,

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N.W. Tuckir, Alexander E., Lawn-terrace, Rhymney, South Wales

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Fellows and Associates are requested to give notice of Change o Umney, Charles. F.C.8., 50, Southwark-street, E.C.

Adir ss to the Secretary.
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INSTITUTE OF CHEMISTRY.
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Vincent, Charles, W., F.R.S.E., F.C.8., Royal Institution, Albemarle-

street, W., and 23, Harvest road, Holloway, N.
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each for the two best original investigations involving Gas Walker, John Francis, M.A., F.C.S., Sidney Surs. x College, Cam

Analysis. These Prizes will be open to Associates, and to all son.

Fellows of the Institute who shall before the 31st December next have bridge, and 16. Gillygate. York Wallace, Willian, Ph.!'., F.R.S.E., 138, Ba'h-street. Glasgow.

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SCHOOL.-SUMMER SESSION, 1879.
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Lectures and Clinical Instruction will commence on Thursday Whewell, George, F.C.S., Exchange-chambers, Blackburn

May 1.--- For Prospectus with full details apply to the Dean or the Whiffen, William George, Lombard-road, Battersea

Resident Medical Officer at the Hospital. Williams, John, F.C.s., 16, Cross-stre-t, Hatton-farden, E.C. Williams, M. Witley, F.C.s., 18, Kempsford-gardens, Brompton. S.W. The Prestolee Alkali Works, Farnworth, near Bolton, Lancashire, Williams, William John, F.C.S., Fron-deg, Abergele, N. Wales

fitted with costly Plant, Machinery, and Apparatus for the Manu. Williamson, Robert, F.C.S, Messrs. Burt, Bolton, and Heywood,

facture of Soda-ash, Bleaching-powder and Liquor, and Sulphuric Silvertown, E.

Acid, in complete working order, with possession.-Preiiminary. Wils, Thomas, F.C.8., Royal Naval College. Greenwich, S.E. Wilson, George Ferguson, F.R.S., F.C.S., Heather.bauk, Wes bridge Wilson, James Henry, Oak Hall, East Ham, Essex

and Co. are instructed to SELL by AUCTION, at the Palatine Wilson, Willim, F.C.S., Jubilee street, Mise end, E.

Hotel, Manchester, on Thursday, April 17, at 3 o'clock precisely, in Wirser, Percy James, F.C.S., Marsden-street, Manchester

one lot, unless an acceptable offer be previously made by private conWittun, James Cecil, B.Sc., 29, Queen-street, Lancaster

tract, ihe PRESTOLEE ALKALI'WORKS, a freehold property, Wood, Charles Henry, F.C.S., Medical College, Calcutta

having a superficial area of 95,741 square yards of land, subject to Woodcock, Reginald C., F.C.S., 23, Abingdon Street, Westminster.

chief rents amounting to £407 135. od. per annum, with the building, Wright, C. R. Alder, D.Sc., F.C.S., St. Mary's Hospital, W.

plant, machinery, and apparatus erected thereon, capable of manufac. Young, James, F.R.S., F.C.S., Kelly, near Greenock

turing monthly a product exceeding in the aggregate 2000 tons of Young, William Charles, F.C.S., Pluistow, Essex

soda-ash, bleaching powder and liquor (by Weldon's patent process),

and sulphuric acid, also caustic soda and muriatic acid. The amount NAMES of ASSOCIATES.

expended in the construction of these works has been very large. A Adair, A., Vale-view, Whitehaven.

valuation was made with great care in 1874 by Messrs. Holmes and Bascombe, Frederick, 180, New bund.street, w.

Son, the well-known valuers, of Manchester; their estimate tben Bayne, Jame-, F.C.s., Royal Veterinary College, N.

amounted to £99,900, and since that time a sum exceeding £10,000 Beckett, George Henry, F.C.S., 12, Malrerr-road, Dalston, N.

has been expended. The whole of the works and plant have been Bendis, David, F.C.S., Pruce Kegini's-wharf, Victoria Docks, 8.F.

well kept, and are conveniently arranged for working. The Bury, Billing, Henry Samuel, Me:bir, Burzard, Lack, and Alger, Piymouth property, affords facility for economical water carriage, and the

Bolton, and Manchester Canal, which forms one boundary of the Chen, ical Works, Pymuuth.

Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway is within a very short distance. Carpenter, Henry anders, 4.C.S., 'I he Firs, Alton, Hants Clark, Wilim ing is, B.Sc., Messrs, Luncan, Flockhart, and Co.

There is a plentiful supply of water for all manufacturing purposes,

free of cost, from the river Croal, and coals are raised from pits in Edinburgh,

the immediate neighbourhood. Pyrites, salt, lime, and limestone are Copley, James, Gregory-street, Nottingbam

ail brought by boats direct to the wharf on the canal. The works Cowper, Richard, F.C.S., Assoc. R.S.M., 3, The Resider.ces, South

may be economically worked with a small capital, as arrangements Tienziogton Museum, W.

may be made with the vendors for a very considerable portion of the Davey G. W. 8 IIax thorne-t: rrace, Barking, Essex Davidson, James, jun., Summerville, near Dumtries

purchase money to remain upon mortgage. Large profits have been

realised in the past, and the high reputation of the Prestolee manu. Dyer, Bernard, F.C.S., 17, Great Tower Street, E.C.

factures in the market will ensure to an energetic :nan, even at the Firby, Alfred, ?, Fallowfield-terrace, Leeds

existing low prices, an ample return for his capital invested and Gaban, William Patrick, 56, Walion-street, S.W.

possession of works not surpassed for completeness or compactaess Gaskell, Francis, New nham-lodge, Spring grove, Isleworth

by any in the kingdom. May be viewed till the sale. Printed par. Gill, Edward J.G., 59, King Henry's-road, N.W. Gibson, Jobp, Ph.D., F.R.S.E., -9, Greenhill-gardens, Edinburgh

ticulars are in course of preparation, and may shortly be had at the Greenish, Hei ry George, 20, New-street, Dorset-square, N.W.

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Wakeman and Bleeck, Solicitors, Warminster; of Messrs Addleshaw Haddock, Arthur, Royal Institution, Liverpool

and Warburton, Solicitors, Norfolk Street, Manchester; and of Hannay, James Ballantyne, F.C.S., Owens College, Manchest r

Messrs. Fuller, Horsey, Sons, and Co., 11, Billiter Square, London, Hellon, Robert, Assoc. R.S.M., Whitebay:n

who are empowered to treat for the disposal by private contract, or Hollis, Percy Best, Mersey Chemical Works, Widnes

an offer for renting would be entertained, Hooker, Ayerst Henham, Court lodge, Lessuess-beath, S. E. Hughes, Hugh, 81, Trovghtou-street, Edgebill, Liverpool Huichinson, Thomas Jumes, 91, Wood-street, Elton, near Bury WILLIAM AND WILLIAM T. FIELD, Jago, William, F.C.S., School of Science and Art, Brighton Jobson, Thomas, Jun., Stockbridke Works, near Sheffield Jude, K. H., D.Sc., 37, Kempsford-gardens, South Kensington

STAFFORDSHIRE BLUE BRICKS, specially adapted for Lapraik, William, É.c.8., 211, Southgate-road, N.

Chemical Plant, i.e., Acid Towers, &c. Also all other kinds of Best Lerg, J. E., 5, Winsor-terrace, City-road, N. Luff, Arthur Pearson, 13, Lisson-street, Marylebone-road, N.W.

Staffordshire Blue Bricks, Pavings, Plynths, Splays, Copings, &c.

&c. Prices and samples on Application. Macadam, W. Ivison, F.C.S., Surgeons'-hall, Edinburga Maclvor, R. W. Emerson, 29, Queet-street, Melbourne

TESTIMONIAL. MacGowan, George A., 22, East laremont-sireet. Edinburgh

“We have used the Blue Staffordshire Brick for Sulphuric Acid Marsden, kobert Sydney, Tapton-grove, Sheffield

Towers, &c., manufactured by Messrs. Field, for the last fifteen years, Matthews, Charles George, F.C.8., St. John's-lodge, Beckendam during which time they have given great satisfaction. We recommend Miller, John, 19, Londo. -street, Glasgow

them to the Chemical Trade, believing there is nothing better in the Naigamvala, K.'D., Elphinstone College Laboratory, Bombay

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Alkali Works, pear Wednesbury, Staffordshire, February, 1878. Paterson, George, 93,' anuing street, Liverpool

TOLL END BRICK.WORKS,
Patterson, George, S, Aruncel-eqoare, N.
Pearson, Alfred Naylor, 7, Warwick-square, Kensington, W.

TIPTON, STAFFORDSHIRE.
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Sear, Frederick. 17, Rooney-street. Penton ville, N,

MAGENTA RESIDUES,
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Smetham, Alfred, F.C..., 18 Brunswick-street, Liverpool

AND FREE FROM LIME.
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An immediate purchaser may meet with a quantity cheap by Starling, John H., F.C.S., The Avenue, Erith

Addressing Cerise, CHEMICAL NEWS Office, Boy Court, Ludgate Hill, Thorne, Leonard Temple, Universtats, Wurzburg Laboratorium London, E.C.

MANUFACTURERS of the Celebrated

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CHEMICAL News,
Molecular Physics in High Vacua.

155

taking place. The glass recovers its phosphorescent THE CHEMICAL NEWS. power to some extent after rest.

In this apparatus a shifting of the line of molecular dis.

charge is noticed. If the coil is stopped and then set going VOL. XXXIX. No, 1on1.

repeatedly, always keeping the oblique pole negative, the spot of green light occurs on the glass at the spot where it should come supposing the discharge were normal to the

surface of the pole. CONTRIBUTIONS TO MOLECULAR PHYSICS IN positive, the next time it is made negative the spot of

But if once the flat pole is made HIGH VACUA.

light appears nearer the axis of the tube, and instantly

shifts to its normal position, where it remains so long as By WILLIAM CROOKES, F.R.S.

its pole is made negative. There seems no limit to the

number of times this experiment can be repeated. This Paper is a continuation of one " On the Illumination A suggestion having been made by Professor Stokes of Lines of Molecular Pressure, and the Trajectory of that a third, idle, pole should be introduced between the Molecules,” which was read before the Royal Society on negative and positive electrodes, experiments are described the 5th of December last. The author has further ex- with an apparatus constructed accordingly. The potential amined the aâion of the molecular rays electrically pro. of the idle poles (of which there are two) at low exhaustions jected from the negative pole in very highly exhausted is very feebly positive; as the exhaustion gets better the tubes, and finds that the green phosphorescence of the positive potential increases, and at a vacuum so good as glass (by means of which the presence of the molecular to be almost non-conduding, the positive potential of the rays is manifested) does not take place close to the negative idle poles is at its greatest. The result is that an idle pole. Within the dark space there is absolutely no phos. pole in the direct line of fire between the positive and phorescence; at very high exhaustions the luminous negative poles, and consequently receiving the full impact boundary of the dark spark disappears, and now the phos. of the molecules driven from the negative pole, has a strong phorescence extends all over the sensitive surface. positive potential. Assuming that the phosphorescence is due either directly It is found that when the shadow of an idle pole is proor indire&ly to the impact of the molecules on the phos-jected on a phosphorescent screen the traje&ory of the phorescent surface, it is reasonable to suppose that a

molecules suffers deflection when the idle pole is suddenly certain velocity is required to produce the effect. The uninsulated by conneding it with earth. The same author adduces arguments to show that within the dark result is produced by connecting the idle pole with the space, at a moderate exhaustion, the velocity does not negative wire through a very high resistance, such as a accumulate to a sufficient extent to produce phosphor- piece of wet string, instead of connecting it with earth. A escence, but at higher exhaustions the mean free path is tube, which has already been described in a paper read long enough to allow the molecules to get up sufficient before the Royal Society on December 5th last, is used to speed to excite phosphorescence. At a very high ex illustrate this deflection. The shadow of an aluminium haustion there are fewer collisions, and the initial speed star is projected on a phosphorescent screen. So long as of the molecules close to the negative pole not being the metal star is insulated the shadow remains sharp, but on thereby reduced, phosphorescence takes place close to the uninsulating the star by conne&ing it with an earth wire pole.

the shadow widens out, forming a tolerably well-defined Experiments are described in which a pole folded into penumbra outside the original shadow, which can still be corrugations is used at one end of a tube, the pole at the seen unchanged in size and intensity. On removing the other end being flat set obliquely to the axis of the tube, earth connexion the penumbra disappears, the umbra reand having a plate of mica in front pierced with a hole maining as before. opposite the centre of the pole. The questions which It is also found that the shadow of the star is sharply this apparatus was designed to answer are :-(1.) Will projected when it is made the positive pole, the negative there be two sets of molecular projections from the corru- pole remaining unchanged. gated pole when made negative, one perpendicular to each These experiments are explained by the results just facet, or will the projection be perpendicular to the elec- mentioned, that the idle pole, the shadow of which is cast trode as a whole, i.e., along the axis of the tube ? (2.) Will by the negative pole, has strong positive potential. The the molecular rays from the oblique flat pole, when this stream of molecules must be assumed to have negative is made negative, issue through the aperture of the screen potential ; when they actually strike the idle pole they are along the axis of the tube, i.e., direct to the positive pole, arrested, but those which graze the edge are attracted in. or will they leave the pole normal to the surface and strike wards by the positive potential and form the umbra. the glass on its side ?' With the corrugated pole experi- When the idle pole is connected with earth, its potential ment shows that at high exhaustions molecular rays are would become zero were the discharge to cease; but projected from each facet to the inner surface of the tube, inasmuch as a constant supply of positive electricity is where they excite phosphorescence, and form portions of kept up from the passage of the current, we must assume ellipses by the intersection of the planes of molecular rays that the potential of the idle pole is still sufficient to more with the cylindrical tube. When the oblique flat pole is than neutralise the negative charge which the impinging made negative, a stream of molecules shoots from it molecules would give it. The effect, therefore, of alternearly normal to its surface, and those which pass through nately uninsulating and insulating the idle pole is to vary the hole in the plate of mica strike the side of the tube, its positive potential between considerable limits, and forming an oval patch of a green colour.

consequently its attractive action on the negative moleThe oval patch in this apparatus happens to fall on a cules which graze its edge. The result is a wide or a portion of the glass which has previously had its phospho- narrow shadow, according to circumstances. rescence excited by the molecular discharge from the After a definite shadow is produced, it is found that other corrugated pole. The phosphorescence from this increasing the exhaustion makes very little change in the pole is always more intense than that from the flat pole, umbra, but it causes the penumbra to increase greatly in and the glass, after having been excited by the energetic size. Experiments recorded in the paper already quoted bombardment, ceases to respond readily to the more feeble have proved that the velocity of the molecules is greater excitement from the fat pole. The effect, therefore, is, as the vacuum gets higher, and consequently the trajectory that when the oval spot appears, it has a dark band across of the molecules under deflecting action, whether of a it where the phosphorescence from the other pole had been magnet or of an insulated idle pole, is flatter at high than

at low vacua. * Abstract of a Paper rend before the Royal Society, April 3, 1879. An experiment is next described, having for its obje& to

156 Volumetric Estimation of Śulphuric Acid, Tannin, &c.

CAÉMICAL NEWS,

April 10, 1879. ascertain whether two parallel molecular rays from two the most strikingly phosphorescent. The ruby glows adjacent negative poles attract or repel each other. It is with a rich full red, and it is of little consequence what considered that if the stream carries an electric current, degree of colour the stone possesses naturally, the colour attraction should ensue, but if they are simply streams of of the phosphorescence is nearly the same in all cases; similarly electrified bodies, the result would be repulsion. chemically prepared and strongly ignited alumina phosExperiment proves that the latter alternative happens, phoresces with as rich a red glow as the ruby. The lateral repulsion taking place between two streams moving phosphorescent glow does not therefore depend on the in the same direction.

colouring-matter. E. Becquerel* has shown by experi. Many experiments are given to illustrate the law of ments with his phosphoroscope that alumina and many of action of magnets on the molecular stream, but the

results its compounds phosphoresce of a red colour after insoare of too complicated a character to bear condensation lation. without the diagrams accompanying the original paper. Nothing can be more beautiful than the effect presented

The molecular stream is sufficiently sensitive to show by a mass of rough rubies when glowing in a vacuum; appreciable deflection by the magnetism of the earth.

they shine as if they were red-hot, and the illumination The author, after numerous experiments, has succeeded effea is almost equal to that of the diamond under simi. in obtaining continuous rotation of the molecular stream lar circumstances. under the influence of a magnet, analogous to the well- Masses of artificial ruby in crystals, prepared by M. C. known rotation at lower exhaustions. Comparative expe- H. Feil, behave in the vacuum like the natural ruby. riments are given with a "high vacuum" tube, where no In the spectroscope the alumina glow shows one intense luminous gas is visible, but only green phosphorescence on and sharp red line less refrangible than the line B, and a the surface of the glass, and a “low vacuum " tube in faint continuous spectrum ending at about B. The wave. which the indu&ion spark passes in the form of a luminous length of the red line is 6895. band of light joining the two poles. These two tubes are

The paper concludes with some notes by Prof. Maske. mounted over similar electro-magnets, the direction of lyne, on the connexion between molecular phosphorescence discharge being in a line with the axis of the magnet. and crystalline structure. Numerous experiments, the details of which are given in The crystals experimented on have been the diamond, the paper, show that the law is not the same at high as emerald, beryl, sapphire, ruby, quartz, phenakite, tinstone, at low exhaustions. At high exhaustions the magnet hyacinth (zircon), tourmaline, andalusite, enstatite, mine. causes the molecular rays to rotate in the same direction, rals of the augite class, apatite, topaz, chrysoberyl, periwhether they are coming towards the magnet or going dot, garnet, and boracite. Of these, the only crystals from it; the direction of rotation being entirely governed which give out light are the diamond, ruby, emerald, by the magnetic pole presented to the stream. The north sapphire, tinstone, and hyacinth. The light from emerald pole rotates the molecular discharge in a direa* sense, is crimson, and is polarised, apparently completely, in a independent of the direction in which the induction current plane perpendicular to the axis. Sapphire gives out a passes. The direction of rotation impressed on the mole- bluish grey and a red light polarised in a plane perpendi, cules by a magnetic pole is opposite to the direction of the cular to the axis. The ruby light exhibits no marked electric current circulating round the magnet. These distinction in the plane of its polarisation. results offer an additional proof that the stream of mole

Among positive crystals tinstone glows with a fine cules driven froni the negative pole in high vacua do not yellow light, polarised in a plane parallel to the axis of the carry an electric current in the ordinary sense of the term.crystal. So far the experiments accord with the quicker

The author, after giving details of experiments in which vibrations being those called into play, and therefore in a platinum and glass are fused in the focus of converging negative crystal the extraordinary, and in a positive crystal molecular rays projected from a concave pole, describes the ordinary, is the ray evoked. Hyacinth, however, in. observations with the spectroscope, which show that glass troduces a new phenomenon, being dichroic; the colours, obstinately retains at even a red heat a compound of in three different crystals, being pale pink and lavenderhydrogen-probably water—which is only driven com

blue, pale blue and deep violet, and yellow and deep violetpletely off by actual fusion.

blue, polarised in opposite planes. The permanent deadening of the phosphorescence of The only conclusion arrived at is that the rays, whose glass is shown by projecting the shadow of a metal cross direction of vibration corresponds to the direction of max. on the end of a bulb for a considerable time. On suddenly imum optical elasticity in the crystal, are always originated removing the cross, its image remains visible, bright upon where any light is given out. As yet, however

, the induca dark ground.

tion on which so remarkable a principle is suggested canOne of the most striking of the phenomena attending not be considered sufficiently extended to justify that this research is the remarkable power which the molecular principle being accepted as other than probable. rays in a high vacuum have of causing phosphorescence in bodies on which they fall. Substances known to be phosphorescent under ordinary circumstances shine with great splendour when subjected to the negative discharge VOLUMETRIC ESTIMATON OF SULPHURIC in a high vacuum. Thus Becquerel's luminous sulphide

ACID, TANNIN, &c. of calcium has been found invaluable in this research for the preparation of phosphorescent screens whereon to

By ARTHUR G. HADDUCK, A.I.C. trace the paths and trajectories of the molecules. It shines with a bright blue-violet light, and when on a surface of IN the volumetric estimation of sulphuric acid by a several square inches is sufficient to faintly light a room. standard solution of baric chloride I have found that by

The only body which the author has yet met with which the usual method of spotting on a black glass plate, it is surpasses the luminous sulphides, both in brilliancy and often extremely difficult to tell exa&ly when the operation variety of colour, is the diamond. Most diamonds from is finished. It is still more so in the estimation of tannin South Africa phosphoresce with a blue light. Diamonds by standard gelatine solution, especially when the extra from other localities shine with different colours, such as

is highly coloured. bright blue, apricot, pale blue, red, yellowish green, orange, I find that by using a small glass mirror instead of the and pale green. One very beautiful diamond in the author's black plate this difficulty is entirely obviated, and that collection gives almost as much light as a candle when the point of complete precipitation is well and sharply phosphorescing in a good vacuum.

defined-one drop of the standard solution in excess pro. Next to the diamond, alumina and its compounds are ducing a very distinc reaction. It matters not how highly * Like the hands of a watch,

* Annales de Chimie et de Physique, 3rd series, vol. Ivii., P. 50.

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