Obrazy na stronie

April 4, 1879.
Manufacture of Phosphorus.

147 one branch of our science, but will lay claim to its fair , library was open in the evening should be extended from share of those borderlands in which the work of the che- seven to nine to seven to ten. mist blends with that of the physicist, the geologist, and The motion was then carried by acclamation. the physiologist. Scientific culture will also lead to a The President felt greatly honoured by the cordial perception of what are the higher aims of chemical manner in which the motion had been received and the enquiry. The formation of new compounds is valuable, kind way in which Dr. Odling had introduced it. He had but we are liable to be encumbered by the richness and experienced much pleasure during his occupation of the quantity of our materials, and to forget the necessity of chair, which any chemist would be proud to occupy. He grouping them together as a part of systematic knowledge. was very grateful for the way in which the Council and The construction of the most expressive formulæ is useful, the Society had seconded him in everything. but we must always be ready to modify these as the The Treasurer (Dr. Russell) then read his account of exigencies of further knowledge may require. We want, the finances of the Society. The state of the Society also, to know more of the chemical force itself, and how it was very satisfactory. The income for the year was acts; we want to distinguish those properties which are so £2350; the expenditure £2300. The balance in hand of profoundly connected with the ultimate molecules of matter the Research Fund amounted to about £230. that they are little, if at all, affected by chemical combina- Mr. Friswell then read the report of the Auditors, tion; from those which are the sport of every change; we Messrs. Spiller, Thomson, and Friswell. want to study all the transformations of energy involved in Dr. THUDICHUM had listened with great satisfadion to the phenomena of dynamical chemistry, and to determine the statement of the Treasurer. After making a few rewith precision how the chemical force is related to the other marks as to the present method of electing Fellows, Dr. great forces of nature. As to the diffusion of chemical | Thudichum proposed a cordial vote of thanks to the Trea. knowledge, our Journal is the main instrument in our surer, who had performed his important duties in the most hands for effecting this. But the new arrangements in perfect manner the Society could wish. regard to the lending of books from the Library will doubt. Dr. GILBERT seconded the motion, which was carried less advance the same object. It is happily the case that unanimously, with much pleasure. à knowledge of chemistry is fast finding its way into our Dr. Russell returned thanks to the meeting: upper and middle class schools; and though our science Mr. Neison proposed a vote of thanks to the officers is not recognised by the Government code, many attempts and Council. are being made to introduce into our elementary schools This was seconded by Mr. Grosjean, and carries šome primary knowledge of those facts and principles of unanimously. nature which lie at the foundation of chemical and physi. Mr. Perkin replied. cal science. Technical education is also rising into favour, Votes of thanks were subsequently given to the Audi. and the formation of a technical college is now engaging tors, the Editors, Abstractors, and the Reporter of the the attention of the great City companies. The Society, Society. as such, can perhaps do but little in this direction, although The following officers were then announced from the the practical applications of chemistry are directly alluded chair as having been duly elected for the ensuing year :to in our Charter, but its individual members may accom. President, Warren De La Rue, F.R.S.; Vice-Presidents, plish much.

F. A. Abel, C.B., Sir B. C. Brodie, E. Frankland, J. H. Dr. ARMSTRONG then read a list of grants rom the Re- A. W. Williamson, F. Field, J. N. Gilbert, N. S. Maske.

Gladstone, A. W. Hofmann, W. Odling, Lyon Playfair, search Fund made during the past year :-£50 to Mr. Hartley for an Investigation of the Absorption of the lyne, H. E. Roscoe, R. Angus Smith, J. Young; SecreUltra-violet Rays of the Spectrum by Organic Sub- taries, W. H. Perkin, H. E. Armstrong; Foreign Secretary, stances ; £30 to Dr. W. Ramsay for Determining the Hugo Müller;. Treasurer, W. J. Russell; other Members Ele&ric Conductivity and Resistance of Solutions of Hartley, C. W. Heaton, E. Riley, W. c. Roberts, W. A.

of the Council, M. Carteighe, A. H. Church, W. N. Salts at Different Temperatures ; £50 to Dr. Tilden for Tilden, 'w. Thorp, T. E. Thorpe, J. T. W. Thudichum an Investigation into the Chemical Nature of the Ter. penes; £10 to Mr. Shenstone for an Examination of Cer: R. V. Tuson, R. Warington. iain Reactions of Brucine and Strychnine ; £20 to Mr. W. Jago for a Research on the Organic Matter in Sea Water; £20 to Mr. Francis Jones for the Investigation of

PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY OF GLASGOW. Boron Hydride ; £15 to Mr. F. D. Brown for the Experi

CHEMICAL Section. mental Study of the Theory of Fractional Distillation ;

Ordinary Meetings. £10 to Dr. Burghardt for the Investigation of the Constitution of Topaz; £15 to Prof. Thorpe for the Inves- Mr. James MacTEAR, President, in the Chair. tigation of Abietine ; £30 to Dr. Dupré for the Estimation of the Organic Carbon in Atmospheric Air. The following gentlemen who have received grants have com

On the Manufacture of Phosphorus," by Mr. JAMES

READMAN. The author remarked at the outset that his municated papers to the Society :--Messrs. Johnson, Carleton Williams, Drs. Harrow and Wright; Mr! communication contained nothing absolutely new, but was Hartley in conjunction with Mr. Hartington has pre: simply an accouut of the practical aspects of the phossented his first results to the Royal Society, Proceed: phorus manufacture. Various mineral phosphates are now ings, xxviii., 233. The following gentlemen, who, for

used in the manufacture of phosphorus; bone-ash is no various reasons, have not yet communicated papers, have longer remunerative, on account of its high price. Among fent in reports to the Committee :-Drs. Crow, Carnelly, the varieties of mineral phosphate are-Canadian phos. Tilden, and Ramsay; Messrs. Bedson, Neison, Shenstone,

phate, German or Nassau phosphate, Charleston phos. and Jago.

phate, and Sombrero phosphate. The first stage in the

manufacture of phosphorusis to decompose the calcium phos. Dr. ODLING then moved a vote of tharks to the Presi phate completely in a large cylinder with sulphuric acid oi dent and the adoption of his report. It was very grati- 110° to 115o Twaddle, with constant agitation. The calfying to hear such a flourishing report, and thought the cium sulphate is then filtered off, and the filtrate is Fellows might congratulate themselves on having had evaporated to about 80° or 90° T., and then allowed to such a President.

cool. It contains over 25 per cent of P20s. It is then Mr. Neison, in seconding the motion, urged that a mixed with coase wood-charcoal, and dried in a muttecopy of the General Index should be presented to every furnace. The proportion of charcoal to liquor is i to 5. Fellow of the Society.

This substance contains the phosphoric acid in a partially Dr. Wright suggested that the hours during which the linsoluble state, so that it is different in its properties from


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CHEMICAL News, Manufacture of Sulphuric Acid.


April 4, 1879. meta-phosphoric acid. The mixture is then transferred to matics, $; whilst physiology and psychology are absent retorts of Stourbridge clay, capable of holding 30 to 40 lbs. altogether. On the other hand, architecture is favoured The malleable iron pipe through which the phosphorus with 8 columns, commerce with 4, capital and labour with distils is then luted on, and the heat is raised to bright the same space, lawsuits with 2, and railways with 4. redness. The phosphorus distils over, and is condensed in Hence we submit that the new periodical is altogether

It only remains to cast it in moulds, when it is sent wrongly named. We observe, further, that the French, to market. Mr. Readman, in contradiction to the usual Gernian, and other Continental scientific journals do not assertions in text-books, called especial attention to the appear to be indexed. Amongst our American con. fact that mono.calcium phosphate is not used as a source temporaries the Scientific American with its supplement of phosphorus, for the calcium takes up valuable room, is alone selected, to the exclusion of not a few journals of and the compound requires a much more intense heat to high and recognised value. Many British periodicals are effect its decomposition. Redonda phosphate of aluminium also overlooked. Thus we see no mention of the is regarded by the author as the future source of phosphorus, Chemist and Druggist, the Pharmaceutical Journal, but as yet no attempt to procure phosphorus from it has the Analyst, the Sugarcane, &c. The medical journals been pecuniarily successful.

are omitted in a body, as are also several impor. The President read a paper on the “ Leblanc Suda tant papers devoted to various branches of natural history. Process." He gave an historical resumé of the process of Now it must be clear that a partial and incomplete index alkali manufacture, mentioning that before Leblanc brought is of very doubtful value. A student hears a rumour conout his process it was very probably carried on as a secret cerning a certain memoir which has appeared. He searches process in England. The various reactions imagined by the “Seience Index," and finding no mention of it is ied different investigators to take place were then alluded to. to conclude that it does not exist, the fact being that it is Among these the following was given by Dumas :- to be found in some journal which has here been over. (CaCO3+ Na2SO4 = CaSO4+Na2CO3

looked. CaSO4+4C=CaS+4CO

Another defect is that certain memoirs are credited not It was afterwards supposed that an oxysulphide of calcium to the journals in which they first appeared, but to others

in which they have been reproduced. Typographical errors was formed in virtue of the equation

are also too numerous, and in certain cases are of a mis. 2Na2SO4+3 CaCO3+12C=

leading character. 2Na2CO3+CaO.2CaS+IoC2+3C; If the editor in future issues will attend to these sug. and Gossage represented the reaction as

gestions he may achieve a decided success. But we must 2Na2SO4+3CaCO3+9C=2Na2CO3+2CaS+ CaO+10C0 confess ourselves unable to recommend the January

number as a “Science Index." The author then gave an account of his own researches on the subject. As it is impossible to arrive at any definite conclusion by operating on the large scale, for differ. The Textile Colourist. Vol. I., No. 1. ent samples of black-ash, even when drawn with the This is a new periodical devoted to dyeing, bleaching, greatest possible care from the same charge, show the most varied composition, the reaction was simplified, printing, &c., and has just appeared at Philadelphia under sodium sulphate and carbon being

heated together in small the management of Dr. Frank. It contains a number of quantity: the proportions and temperature were varied in practical recipes illustrated by well dyed samples of dyed each experiment. Some preliminary experiments were

yarns, trimmings, &c. Concerning ihe chapter on more made, and proved that sodium carbonate is formed, esper gives the name " iron liquor,” not as usual to the acetate

dants, by M. P. Prunier, we will merely remark that he cially'at a red heat. At a higher temperature very little of iron, but to a nitro-sulphate, and that he terms his per. Na2CO3 was produced. The reaction evidently approxi. chloride of tin “red liquor," a name formerly peculiar to mated to

the acetate of alumina. This, we lear, will lead to fur. Na2SO4+4C = Na2S+4CO.

ther confusion in a nomenclature which is already compli. At 1250° F. the reaction between sodium sulphate and cated enough. carbon in a closed crucible is represented by the equation

We wish our new contemporary a prosperous and a 3Na2SO4 +6C =Na2CO3+ Na2S2+Na2S+ 4CO2+ CO.

useful career. In an open crucible the excess of sulphur is burned off, and it is probable that if more carbon were added all the sulphate of sodium would be converted into carbonate.

CORRESPONDENCE. On raising the temperature the Na2S2 and Na2CO3 are decomposed, and the only products are Na2S+CO. The next paper was read by Mr. COLEMAN. Its subject MANUFACTURE OF SULPHURIC ACID.

.". The Liquefaction of Gases.” The author gave a description of his apparatus for liquefying hydrocarbons

To the Editor of the Chemical News. with low boiling-points obtained in ine distillation of shale, and explained it on theoretical principles.

SIR,-Since in your review of a new treatise on the manu. facture of sulphuric acid my authority is referred to on a special point, that of the introduction of nitric acid in the

liquid form, I feel bound to state that I am no longer so NOTICES OF BOOKS.

decidedly in favour of that system as I certainly was some years ago. Having investigated this matter very carefully,

along with all other points of sulphuric acid and alkali The Science Index : a Monthly Guide to the Contents of the Austrian, and French Alkali works, I have come to the

making, on visits to the prominent English, German, Scientific Periodicals. January, 1879. Vol. I., No. 1.

conclusion that, on the whole, the decomposition of the * We were very much pleased with the fundamental idea of nitrate and sulphuric acid by the heat of the burner gas, this journal as conveyed in its title, but on looking further as practised in England and at many Continental works, we experienced no small degree of disappointment. A is the better plan, if carried out in the proper way. In relatively trifling portion of the space is devoted to science, that case the consumption of nitrate is just as low as whilst the lion's share is allotted to the industrial aris when employing nitric acid in the liquid form. The difand to commerce. Thus, of the 112 columns, chemistry ference between the two plans, as far as cost and convereceives 3; astronomy, it; electricity, it; natural his- nience are concerned, is certainly very slight now, since tory, I; physics, 1; geology, it; botany, 4; mathe. the nitric acid is now no longer introduced by “cascades,"



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April 4, 1879.
} Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources.

149 but it is, by some of the most careful German and

Gazzetta Chimica Italiana. Austrian manufacturers, simply run down the Glover

Anno viii., 1878. Fasc. viii. and ix. • tower, all fear of any appreciable loss of nitrous compounds

Cumo.phenol-carbonic Acid.-E. Paterno and G. in that tower having vanished. I cannot, of course, ex. Mazzara.—This acid takes the form of flat needles or plain these matters in detail here; this is done in my

nacreous laminæ, whi h melt at 120-5° and volatilise * Treatise on the Alkali Manufacture," the first volume of without decomposition ; sparingly soluble in cold water, which (Sulphuric Acid) has just been published in Ger.

more so in hot water, and very soluble in alcohol and man, whilst the English edition (published by Mr. John ether. The aqueous solution yields with ferric sales a van Voorst) is far on its way through the press.-I am, very intense violet-blue colouration. Its composition is &c.,

expressed by the formula C10H1203. The authors have GEORGE LUNGE.

examined its barium, lead, and silver salts.

Alleged Existence of Oxygenated Water in the

Organism of Plants.- Prof. Giuseppe Belucci.—The CHEMICAL NOTICES FROM FOREIGN presence of hydric peroxide in the juices of plants was SOURCES.

first admitted by Schønbein, and was maintained mure recently by Clermont. The assumption is reluted by the

author's experiments. NOTB.-All degrees of temperature are Centigrade, unless otherwis Two Propyl phenols and other Derivatives of Pro. expressed.

pyl-benzol.-Dr. P. Spica. The author describes syn.

thetic propyl-benzol obtained by the method of Fittig, Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances, l'Académie de Schäffer, and König, its sulph-acids and the a• and ß. des Sciences. No. 10. March 10, 1879.

derivatives of the latter. This issue is taken up with the annual presidential Dimorphism of the Aceto.toluides.-Dr. R. Pane. address and with an account of the awards of the various bianco.-An optical and crystallographical study, not prizes offered for certain branches of research. One of admitting of useful abstraction. these reports, relative to the prize awarded to M. Turpin for his non-poisonous pigments, requires notice. These, loro. --The author obtains the new acid by heating in a

Synthesis of Phenyl.cinnamic Acid.-Dr. A. Oglia. we are told, include not merely certain colours long known, reflux apparatus for eight hours, at a temperature of 150° such as zinc-white and chromate of zinc (!) but “ others which are new and absolutely inoffensive, as they derive viously' dried at 110° to 120°, with 16 gms of benzoic

to 160°, about 25 grms. of phenyl-acetate of sodium, pretheir origin from coal-tar." ' is not this a somewhat aldehyd and 60 of anhydrous acetic acid. The product hazardous conclusion ?

of the reaction, which, when hot, is entirely liquid, con

denses on cooling to a reddish brown crystalline mass, Bulletin de la Société Chimique de Paris,

which is diluted with water and boiled to expel the excess No. 3, February 3, 1879.

of acetic acid employed. The result is filtered when the Researches on Strychnine.-H. Gal and A. Etaid.

filtrate deposits the acid in white needles. The authors, on treating strychnine with hydrate of

Preparation of Ammoaialdehyds with Mixed baryta, have obtained two new hydrated bases, di- and tri. Radicles.-R. Schiff.-An examiration of the adion of hydro-strychnine.

benzoic aldehyd upon chloral-ammonium and butylOn Succinic Fermentation.-P. Miquel.—The author

chloral-ammonium. has detected the bacterium which effects the decomposi.

Studies on Teucrium Fruticans.-Dr. A. Oglialoro. tion of asparagin into succinate of ammonia. It is a

-The author has obtained from this plant a compound mobile organism formed of one, two, or rarely of a greater which he provisionally names teucrin. and has examined number of joints. The mature being and its germs are

its behaviour with nitric and sulphuric acids. destroyed by a temperature of 48° to 49° kept up for two Chemical Nature of the Essence of Laurocerasus hours.

and of Bitter Almonds.-Dr. M. Fileti.—The author Dextro-rotatory Amylic Alcohol.-J. A. Le Bel.- has studied the action of nascent hydrogen upon this Lævo-rotatory amylic alcohol, indicating – 4'33° for essence and upon amygdalin. 10 centimetres of a liquid column may be rendered in- The Alkaline Polysulphides as Reagents for Cobalt active by its transformation into amylate of sodium and -G. Papasogli.-Among the characteristic reactions of by the adion of an elevated temperature upon the latter. cobalt is one founded upon the blood-red colouration or The author separates the dextro-rotatory alcohol from rose, in small quantities) obiained if there is poured into the inactive kind by destroying a portion of the lævo. the solution of the double cyanide of cobalt and potassium rotatory kind by moulds.

A similar

some nitrite of potassium with nitric acid. Action of Diastase, Saliva, and Pancreatic Liquid colouration is obtained if, instead of adding nitrite of upon Starch and Glycogen.– F. Musculus and j. de potassium and nitric acid to the above-mentioned cobalt Méring.--Already noticed.

solution, there is added a little drop of a solution of a Aniline and the Methylated Toluydins, and on

yellow alkaline sulphide. In order that the reaction may their Coloured Derivatives.-P. Monnet, F.'Reverdin, be most sensitive the polysulphide should be added in such and E. Noelting: -The authors describe mono-methyl- but form two distinct strata. Il cobalt is present the

a manner that the two liquids may not completely mix aniline, dimethyl-aniline, mono-methyl-ortho-toluydin, dimethyl-ortho-toluydin, mono-methyl-meta-toluydin, di: plane of separation will show a blood-red, more or less methyl-meta-toluydin, and dimethyl-para-toluydin. It

intense according to the quantity of the metal. The author results from their researches that among all the bases has obtained this reaction with f c.c. of a liquid contain: found in commercial methyl- aniline pure dimethyl-aniline ing o-o00o5 grm. of cobalt. The presence of nickel does

not interfere. itself is the only one which can be advantageously used for the manufacture of violet. Mono-methyl-anilice and

Glucoside of Liquorice.-Prof. F. Sestini.-Not sus. dimethyl-ortho-toluydin give, indeed, good violets of a ceptible of useful abstraction. redder tone than that of dimethyl-aniline, but the yield is very trifling. Mono-methyl-ortho-toluydin gives a good

Chemiker Zeitung. return of violet, but it has the defect of being insoluble in

No. 9, 1879. water. The methylated derivatives of the two other Sugared Ultramarine.-C. Fürstenau.—The Austrian toluydins yield brown and grey colours of no value. ultramarine manufacturers sophisticate their colours with 150

CHEMICAL NEWS, Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources.



The following are the returns of the Society of Medical Officers of Health :

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Appearance in

2 foot Tube.


Nitrogen as Ni

trates, &c.

oj pasn uəsixo

Oxidise Organic



Total Solids.






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Degs. Degs Thames Water Companies. Grand Junction


O'000 0.007 0180 0'061 22'10 8.730 0*720 1'08 1.610 14'3 4:00 West Middlesex


0'000 0'009 0:180 0'047 22.00 8.890 0.684 1:15 1'430 132 4:60 Southwark and Vauxhall Clear

O'000 0.008 0*150 0'036 2170 8:460 0-720 1:15 1780 1342 3-30 Chelsea

0'000 0.007 0'135 0'062

7770 0*579 1'15

137 370 Lambeth,


0.000 0.006 0-135 0.087 21470 6.440 0'710 1'29 1740 1342 3430 Other Companies. Kent..

O‘003 00360 0'002 30-90 8:490

1.80 3.000 18.8 6.50 New River


0.006 0:180 0'032 22 40 7*280 0'540 1'15 І 1бо 14'3 3*70 East London


0.000 0.007 0·180 o'c62 26.00 9.570 0.600 1:36 1710 16.5 4560 The quantities of the several constituents are stated in grains per imperial gallon. Note.—The amount of oxygen required to oxidise the organic matter, nitrites, &c., is determined by a standard solu.

tion of permanganate of potash ading for three hours; and in the case of the metropolitan waters the quantity ol organic matter is about eight times the amouut of oxygen required by it.

C. MeymoTT TIDY, M.B.

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3 parts of gypsum, and lest the colour should appear too

No. Il, 1879. pale it is further mixed with glycerin or glucose, or a Utilisation of Animal Reluse.-Dr. B. Terne.-The mixture of both. This keeps the powder damp and author . points out that offensive gases are invariably renders the colour apparently deeper.

generated when fresh animal matters are boiled by means Formation of Ammonium Nitrite.–V. Löseke.- of steam at a high pressure, and recommends that they When water evaporates in air a little ammonium nitrite should be gradually passed through the surnace. is always formed. The author shows that this takes

Sensitiveness of Chemical Balances.-A. Verbeek. place at the expense of the free nitrogen of the atmo- –The author, by his compensating arrangement of the sphere, more of which enters into combination at low than axial knife-edges of the balance, renders it equally sensi. at high lemperatures.

tive when loaded as when empty. Industrial Activity.–At a ger.eral meeting of the Saccharification of Starch.-M. Riban. If starch is German Distillers' Association it was resolved to establish soaked for a year in a cold saturated solution of common and maintain a chemical laboratory, an experimental salt it is gradually converted into glucose. distillery, a school of distilling, a trade journal, a glass.

Reaction of Bile Pigments in Urine.-About 2 grms blowing establishment (for the manufacture of normal of the urine are poured into a test-tube, acidulated with hydrometers), and an office for general intelligence.

2 or 3 drops of concentrated sulphuric acid, and a small No. 10, 1879.

crystal of potássic nitrite is introduced, taking care that

it does not fall upon the side of the tube. If bile pigments Chloride of Lime.- Dr. Filsinger.—The author states

are present splendid grass-green stripes are immediately that in case of English samples the importers have very formed in the liquid.-Repertoire de Pharmacie, 35, 58. frequently to complain of differences in strength, whilst in German qualities important deviations from the stipulated strengih are almost unknown.

Les Mondes, Revue Hebdomadaire des Sciences. Spurious Seeds. According to Dr. A. Stutzer the

No. 10, March 6, 1879. manufacture of artificial clover seed is now a flourishing M. Adam lays great emphasis on the use of soot in business in Germany. Fragments of gravel of a suitable horticulture and agriculture as a means of destroying or size are obtained by sisting, and are then agitated with banishing noxious insects. certain colouring matters in a revolving drum till their appearance is considered satisfactory. Unwholesome Honey.-A sample of honey which

MISCELLANEOUS. had occasioned illness on consumption was found when microscopically examined to contain multitudes of Acari (Glycyphagno prunorum and agilis).

Russian Scientific News.—Some experiments exe

cured in Cronstadt, have shown that an explosion of two Manufacture of Picric Acid.-J. Marzelli proposes grammes of nitro-manoite, placed into a capsule, produces to add slowly the sulphacid of phenol to concentrated a full detonation of damp gun-cotton, containing at least nitric acid. The reaction proceeds slowly without re

25 per cent of water. The explosion of the nitro-mannite quiring the application of heat. The crystals of crude

was effected by the explosion of oʻ2 grm. of mercury ful. picric acid are washed in cold water, pressed, and re- minate, and in other experiments by using the same crystallised.- Monit. Prod. Chimiques.

amount of diazo benzol nitrale. Other sulminating com. Cerium Aniline-Black.-J. Lytsche, of St. Petersburg, pounds (KCIO3, C6H2(NO2)3.OK) gave the same effect, but has used this process sucer ssfully for unwards of a year, the quantity of them, wanted for the same purpose, exceeds employing a cerous sulphate formed by dissolving the i grm. cerite of Riddarhytta, in Sweden, in sulphuric acid. The M. Adrianovsky reports on the action of aluminium black is said to be faster than that produced with chloride on acetic and sulphurous anhydrides. Ading hy vanadium.-Dingl. Polyt. Fourn.

aluminium chloride on acetic anhydride at ordinary tem.

6,} April 4, 1879. Meetings for the Week.

151 perature acetyl chloride and aluminium acetate are pro. duced. Sulphurous anhydride with Al2Cl6 gives a com

NOTICE TO ADVERTISERS. pound having the following composition :-A1CI2S02C1. This reaction takes place at ordinary temperature, but is in the ensuing week, the Chemical News will

In consequence of GOOD FRIDAY occurring more easily conducted at 500 to 60° Celsius.

Prof. Bexetoff has made some new experiments on the be published on Thursday next, April the roth. absorption of hydrogen by palladium, and determined the Advertisements must therefore be forwarded to atomic heat of the hydrogen when alloyed with palladium, the Office not later than 2 o'clock on Wednesday, The atomic heat was found to be 5.88. 25'0938 grms.of the gth instant. palladium in the forın of wire and strips were used for the experiment. The metal absorbed 0'1418 grm. of hydrogen, corresponding to 1575 c.c.; in other words, the palla- An

n Assistant Chemist wanted, in a London dium absorbed 710 volumes of the hydrogen.

Sugar Refinery. Salary £40. Must have experience in

saccharometry:-M. W., CHEMICAL News Office, Bo: Court, Ludgato Sergius Kern, M.E., St. Petersburg Hill, London, E.C.

The Advertiser, with considerable practical NOTES AND QUERIES.

experience as Sugar and Brewing Chemist, is wishing to meet a position where his knowledge would prove of service. High testi.

monials and refererces.-Address, M. N. T., CHEMICAL NEWS Offi:e, . Testing of Coal-Tar Products.-Can any of your readers Boy Court, Ludgate Hill, London, E.C. recommend a book on the commercial testing of coal-tar products ?T.C.W.

Situation wanted by a Competent Analyst as Gases from Vitriol Chambers.--(Reply to W.L.)-You will find Assis'ant or Principal. Good teacher. Apply, Public Analyst, the information you desire in our new work on sulphuric acid, pub.

CHEMICAL News Office, Boy Court, Ludgate Hill, London, E.C. lished by Sampson, Low, and Co., 188, Fleet Street, E.C., and noticed in last week's CHEMICAL NEWS.-LOCK AND Lock.

The Runcorn Soap and Alkali Co., Limited,

Runcorn, are in want of a Youth in the Laboratory as an

Apprentice for three or four years.-Apply by letter only to the MEETINGS FOR THE WEEK.

Runcorn Soap and Alkali Co., Limited, Runcorn. MONDAY, 7th.-Mcdical, 8.30.

Wanted, by a Gentleman (age 19), an Apr Royal Institution, 5. General Mon:hly Meeting.

pointment in an Analytical Laboratory. Has been practically TUESDAY, 8th.-Civil Engineers, 8.

acquainted with general analysis for two years in the laboratories o Photographic, 8.

the Pharmaceutical Society. References permitted to Professor Anthropological, 8.

Attfield.-Address, E. A. R., Oxford Villa, Montague Road, Uxbridge,

WEDXESDAY, gth.-Geological, 8.
Microscopical, 8.

Wanted, an Under-Assistant in a Chemical

Laboratory in London; mus: have a general knowledge of THE

chemistry and good references.-Apply by letter only to G. Ansdell,

30, Duke Street, Piccadilly, W. MONTHLY JOURNAL OF SCIENCE


or Lead.Full particulars to Theta, CHEMICAL News Office,

Boy Court, Ludgate Hill, London, E.C.
Edited by WILLIAM CROOKES, F.R.S., &c.


Wanted, offers for solution; strength 20° to The third number of the Monthly Series (April, 1879) is

22° Baumé. Anyone taking regular deliveries could have it Now Ready.

upon very advantageous terms.-Address, Box 173, Post Office

Price One Shilling and Sixpence.

I. Is Nature Perfect ?

FOR SALE:- About 150 tons Monthly of II. Thoughts on Our Conceptions of Physical Law. By Prof. Woollen Shoddy Manure; free from grease; containing ritro. Francis E. Nipher.

gen equal to from 5 to 10 per cent ammonia.-Apply to David Shaw, III. The Old Stannaries of the West of England. By James near Clayton, Manchester.

and Ayrton.

V. The Jablochkoff Candle: Its Practical Results in London.

Works; Acid Chambers adjoining.-Address in first instance, G. J.
By Charles W. Quin.

Blower, 38, Lowe Street, Whitmore Reans, Wolverhampton.
VI. The Tornado at Wisconsin in 1878.
VII. The Electric Light for India.


Correspondence-The Sea-Serpent-Spider's Web for Micrometers
-Adhémar's Theory of Evolution-The Senses

TO LET, at Low Rentals, Works and Land of the Lower Animals-Optical Illusions.

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Instruction and preparation in CHEMISTRY and the EXPERI. Text-book of Petrology. By FRANK RUTLEY, F.G.S., of Her MENTAL SCIENCES under the direction of Professor E. V. Majesty's Geological Survey.


The Class Rooms are open from 1 to 5 a.m. and from 7 to rop.m “We strongly recommend this work to all who are entering upon

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THE STUDY OF ROCKS, an Elementary

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