Obrazy na stronie

Apparatus for Estimating Free Oxygen.

March 28, 1879.

gases, which in itself would have been ample attraction Ordinary Meeting, March 22, 1879.

for the meeting; but, unfortunately for the Society, it was

still in use at the Royal Institution, and in consequence Prof. W. G. ADAMS, President, in the Chair.

could not be spared; but in the absence of this great attra&ion, there were yet objects that would repay ex

amination, and he invited Mr. Starks to describe the mode New member-Capt. Hastings R. Lees, R.N.

of using the apparatus for estimating free oxygen in a Capt. Abney, R.E., F.R.S., read a paper“ On Obtaining mixture of gases, and the two forms of nitrometer. Photographic Records of Absorption Spectra." Absorp- The following notes, descriptive of the apparatus, were tion spectra have hitherto been recorded by the difficult read :process of hand copying; but the discovery by Capt. Abney of a silver salt sensitive to all rays in different Apparatus for Estimating Free Oxygen Volumetri. degrees renders the photographic method available. call;,” by Messrs. Mawson and Swan. The records thus obtained are photographs of the spectrum The accompanying sketch represents a simple and conof the naked light of the source, and of that of the same venient apparatus for the rapid and correct volumetric light reduced by insertion of the absorbing material in estimation of oxygen when mixed with other gases. It its :rack, and these are taken parallel, so that the dark consists, as will be seen, of a measuring tube, A, holding absorption lines can be readily compared. Examples of from o to the three-way tap 100 c.c, and graduated in the these were thrown on the screen. This method can be used as a new weapon in attacking solar physics, and determining whether or not compound bodies exist in the sun. Absorption spectra to compare with the sun's can be got for compound bodies by burning the matter in question in a fame in front of the slit, and passing a bright light through the flame.

Prof. GUTHRIE, F.R.S., then read a paper “On the Fracture of Colloids," as illustrated by experiments on the breakage of glass plates either by pressure or heating at the centre or round the circumference. Circular plates of glass pressed at centre or circumference break in radial lines. 'However supported a plate breaks in the same fashion if heated in the same way. If heated in the middle the crack is peak-shaped, like an obelisk on a

D double pedestal, two cracks forming the outline, with sometimes a third down the middle. The two cracks unite before they reach the edge on one side, and (as afterwards pointed out by Prof. W. G. Adams) the three extremities of the two cracks all meet the edge at right angles to it. The crackage varies with the size and shape of the plates, the flame, and kind of glass; but the type

A is the same for all. Cracks cross each other. Prof. Guthrie defined a crack as the line where the ratio of cohesion to strain is least, and likened it to the lightning flash.

Mr. W. Chandler Roberts, F.R.S., said that he had observed once a volute spiral crack in dried hydrated silicic acid, and recommended Prof. Guthrie to study cracks in agate, which is the most perfect colloid known.


Mr. J. W. Swan in the Chair.

The minutes of the previous 'meeting were read and confirmed.

Mr. John Cliff was elected a member.

The following names were read for the first time :-Mr. lower narrower portion into c.c. and tenths; of an absorpJames C. Rollin, 1, St. Nicholas' Buildings, Newcastle-tion arrangement, B, which is a glass bell in which is upon Tyne ; Mr. Thomas Douglas, Blaydon Manure placed a coil of copper gauze, suspended in an outer glass Works, Blaydon.on-Tyne ; Mr. Alfred Poole, Bottle vessel which contains the absorbing liquid ; a three-way tap, Works, Blaydon-on-Tyne ; Mr. W. F. Vint, Chemical c, which serves to communicate between the measuring Works, Seaham Harbour.

and absorption tubes, or with either and the external atmoThe Chairman, in drawing attenion to the collection of sphere; and of a globe, , which serves the purpose of apparatus sent for exhibition, alluded to the difficulty drawing the gas for examination into the measuring tube, which had always been experienced in getting the meeting and chasing it backwards and forwards between the immediately preceding Christmas satisfactorily filled in measuring and absorption tubes. The solution used to the usual manner-a difficulty which had led to exhibitions absorb the oxygen is made of two parts of a saturated of little novelties such as were then before the meeting, solution of chloride of ammonium and one part of liquid and to the passing the evening in a less formal and more ammonia, s.g. 880. For an examination, the vessel, B, havsocial manner. The secretaries had been in corresponding been about two-thirds filled with the ammonium solu. ence with such friends as they thought likely to cond. tion and sufficient water put into D to fill the measuring tribute obje&s of interest, including. Messrs. Aug. Bel and tube, expelling the air by the vertical outlet, c, the tap, c, Co., from whom they had been hoping till the last day to is opened so as to make communication between A and B; receive M. Cailletet's apparatus for the condensation of D is then lowered so as to fill the glass bell and tube

March 28, 1879.
. }
Modern Blast-Furnace.

133 above it is as far as the tap with the ammonium solution, , A is now taken out of the spring clamp, violențly shaken then close con the side B, and open the vertical outlet; D is for two minutes (no more is necessary), replaced in the then raised so as to fill the measuring tube with water up clamp, and B adjusted, so that the levels of mercury of to the tap; the vertical outlet is now connected with the both tubes are equal, except that an allowance is made in gaseous mixture to be examined, and by again lowering d B for the acid contained in A, įth of the heigth of the the gas is drawn into the measuring tube to c, when exactly | latter being either allowed for as an addition to the 100 c.c. will be present for examination; now turn c so mercury in B, or else being deducted from the barometrical as to make communication again between a and B, and pressure. After the temperature has become constant chase the gas backwards and forwards by the raising and (quarter of an hour suffices for factory work, one hour for lowering of the glass vessel, D, two or three times, finishing exact analyses), the volume of gas in a is read off (which by bringing the gas back to the measuring tube, and the can be done to ao c.c.) and reduced to oo and 760 m.m. absorbing solution to the original starting point ; lastly, in the usual way. Each c.c. at oo and 760 m.m. correclose the three-way tap altogether, and bring D down so sponds to r.343 m.gr., NO=14701 m.gr., N203 = 2.417 m.gr. that the two water levels in D and a coincide, when N2O3=3.805 m.gr., NO3Na, &c. Now D is opened so the reading of the liquid in A will give the percentage of that A and c communicate, B is raised, and thus first the oxygen that has been absorbed. By using other solutions gas then the acid are driven into c, from whence the acid it is obvious it may be used for the examination of other is run away by the lateral bore of D; everything is now gases.

ready for a new test. “ Dr. Lunge's Nitrometer for Determination of Nitrous Model of Modern Blast-Furnace," by P. A. BERKLEY. and Nitric Acids," by Messrs. Mawson and Swan.

Mr. P. A. BERKLEY exhibited a model of a blast-furnace, The method of using is thus described by Dr. Lunge :- which he said appeared to give the most satisfactory results You will observed the measuring tube, A, holding 50 c.c., in working, producing about three times as much iron per divided in oths, provided with a funnel, c, and a two week as the old forms of furnace, and had not been surbore glass cock, D, hanging in an instantaneously-opening passed by furnaces of either larger or smaller dimensions.

it had worked incessantly since 1872. The model was accompanied by the following note :

The model 'shows section through middle, with the various charges of iron ore, limestone, and coke, made to the scale of 1 inch equal 1 foot. The counterpart of this furnace is at Jarrow. It is 85 feet high, 26 feet boshnearly 30,000 cubic feet capacity. It is blown by 5 tuyeres, 5 inches and 54 inches in diameter, with blast at a pressure of 41 lbs. and heated up to about 1200° F. The heat for the blast is raised from the waste gases from the furnace, as well as the steam for working the blast engine. This furnace is making 500 tons of pig-iron per week, in the making of

which it consumes about 1750 tons of Cleveland ironB

stone, or other ores equivalent thereto, 587 tons of coke, and 300 tons of limestone. The furnace was erected in 1872, for Messrs. Palmer and Company, by Mr. Philip A. Berkley, the Company's Engineer and Blast-Furnace Manager.

A brief discussion followed, in which Messrs. Hill, Morrison, Berkly and the Chairman took part.

(To be continued).

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Ozone in Relation to Health and Disease. (An Address delivered before the Congress of the Sanitary Institute of Great Britain, held at Stafford, 1878.) By HENRY

DAY, M.D. London: J. and A. Churchill. In this Address the author gives us the history of the discovery of ozone, and notices the successive theories of Schonbein, Williamson, and Odling concerning its nature. He then describes the pathological action of this form of oxygen, and reveals facts which will probably startle those who believe ozone and "ozonised” articles of food or of medicine to be universally beneficial. He describes the death of animals after exposure to ozonised air under

symptoms closely resembling those of acute bronchitis. spring clamp; an elastic tube connects A with the plain He considers that if present in excess in the atmosphere, tube, B, of equal size, sliding up and down in another catarrh, bronchitis, and even pneumonia would be it's clamp. First of all, B is placed so that its lower end is natural results. Whether there is ever such an excess as Dearly at a level with p; mercury is poured into B till would involve these consequences is an open question. it has filled A and has got into c; is turned so as to

He feels also bound to admit, according to the researches close the communication between A and B, and so run off of Dr. Moffat, that during ozone periods " apoplexy, the excess of mercury through the lateral bore ; B is epilepsy, vertigo, neuralgia, and diarrhea are more frelowered in its clamp, and I c.c. of the nitrous vitriol, quent. Further investigations in this dire&ion are im. &c., to be tested is introduced into c by means of an peratively needed, but what has been said may serve as a accurate pipette. By carefully turning d, the acid is caution to dabblers in science who keep an ozone apparalus sucked into A without any air following, and c is rinse

in action in their sitting-rooms as a prophylactic against out by a few c.c. of pure acid, run into a in the same wa

diseases in general.

Chenical Notices from Foreign Sources.

March 28, 1879

NEWS, 'The absence or the deficiency of ozone has been, per: Any of your readers can try this by procuring samples of hass, tuo hastily placed in connection with zymotic Coleman's and Glenfield's starch weigh equal quantities, disease. But thit such a conntation exists in case of and boil with equal quantities of water and starch ewo cholera can scaicely be doubted. The author shows that pieces of cloth of equal size, without squeezing out the in 1864 in the Bombay Presidency, cholera was in its i excess of starch, and dry; the touch will be able to determine greatest ascendancy when ozone was either wanting or at which is the stiffest. Mr. Thompson says: " and weight its minimum ; that the disease showed a most marked for weight the farina which possesses the least tenacity' decrease when ozone was registered as increasing, and would produce the greatest stiffness, because the thinner when at its maximum the epidemic ceased altogether if the sample boils the more easily will the solid matter be the maximum continued for any time. Similar results able to enter the fibre, and it will enter in greater quan. were obtained at Strassburg in 1854 and 1855, and the city.” In the process of sizing when the yarn has passed experiments of Mr. Glaisher and of Dr. Moffat give con. through the size trough and got saturated with the size firmatory testimony. Whether there may be other causes (say starch) it passes between two rollers, which squeeze in operation in addition to deficiency of oxygen is still out the excess of size. Now, although the thinner doubtful. As a disinfectant the author pronounces it the sample may enter the fibre more readily and in greater best, safest, and least objectionable known. That it may quantity than the more solid, yet in passing through the kill disease-germs--whatever they may be--is no doubt iollers the thinner sample will be squeezed out in greater highly probable from its action on the superior animals ; quantity and more readily than the thicker sample, and but the question arises, Which will be killed first? We as a consequence weight for weight the sample with the are somewhat suprised at finding in this address no refer- greatest tenacity will give the stiffest cloth, and what the erce to the well known and justly admired work of Dr. manufa&urer has found out by experience is correct in C. B. Fox.

theory, and Mr. Thompson and not my reasoning is fallacious.--I am, &c.,


Exchange Chambers, Blackburn,

March 25, 1879.





To the Editor of the Chemical News.

To the Editor of the Chemical News. Sir, -The long time that elapsed between the date of the SIR-In the Chemical News, vol. xxxviii., p. 193, there is Conserence and the issue of the report to the members of a short article by Mr. T. H. Davis, " On the Testing of the Institute, as alluded to by your correspondent" An Gas Liquors.” To those who have many of these liquors Appeased Pronoter," was caused chiefly by the decision

to test any contrivance that would tend to abridge the 10 send it cut together wish the annual report of the labour and at the same time affurd reliable results would be Council.

hailed as a boon, and Mr. Davis is much to be comThe financial posi:ion of the Institute at the presen: mended for his efforts in that direction. The usual com. time is excellent, but I fear few people would consider it mercial valuation of gas liquors by degrees in Twaddle's to be such if the Council were to follow your correspond hydrometer is so unsatisfactory that it is quite time it was ent's advice and “spend the large sum they have in superseded by some better method, and I think the test hand,” especially when it is remembered that our invest: proposed by Mr. Davis gives at any rate a more reliable ment in consols does not cover the Life Compositions and indication of the real strength of gas liquor than the Entrance Fees received up to the present. I do not for method usually employed. I have not, however, found an instant suppose that “An Appeased Promoter" desires that this test is sufficiently accurate to supersede the this to be spent. A man who lives up to his income is usual distillation process, and I am not sure that Mr. a poor man, however large his income may be, and this Davis intends it should do so. saying applies to corporations as well as to individuals.

I have recently had five gas liquors placed in my hands If, however, your correspondent thinks that the Council has for examination, and below I give the results of analysis left anything undone which it ought to have done, and will by the method proposed by Mr. Davis (A), and also by send me any suggestions, I can safely promise that they the process of distillation (B)will have the most careful consideration from the Council. In conclusion let me thank " An Appeased Promoter"

NH3 per 100 parts of the Liquor. for his frank reply, and at the same time to express a

No. 1


2'93 wish that he had not written anonymously, as it would


2.66 have enabled me to have answered his first letter more



1.86 satisfactorily, and have saved valuable space in these


2-72 columns occupied by Yours, &c.,



2.84 Chas. E. Groves, Secretary. I am, &c., Somerset House Terrace, W.C., March 22.

Wellfield Villa, Turnchapel, Plymouth,

February 22, 1879.

To the Editor of the Chemical News. CHEMICAL NOTICES FROM FOREIGN Sır, --In reply to Mr. Thompson's letter (CHEMICAL News,

SOURCES. vol. xxxix., p. 122) I beg to say that the method for determining lhe tenaciiy of starch is not intended to determine the tenacity of a sample of British gum or the relative Norg.-All degrees of temperature are Centigrade, unless otherwis tenacities of British gum and starches, but only to com.

expressed. pare samples of starches with each other. When I devised the method I conducted some experiments on the starches Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances, l'Académie de found in the market. I found that when equal weigh's

des Sciences. No. 9, March 3, 1879. of the different samples of starch were boiled with eq? Reply to M. Van Tieghem Concerning the Origin quantities of water and pieces of cloth of equal siz of the Amylobacter.-A. Trécul.—The author points starched with the different samples, that those sample: out that his words have been inaccurately quoted by M. which had the greatest tenacity gave the stiffest cloth, Van Tieghem.



March 28, 1879.
Chemical Notices froin Foreign Sources.

135 Emissive Power of Coloured Flames.-M. Gouy.-, platinum metals are precipitated with ammonia, the free A mathematical paper, not susceptible or useiul abstraction. chlorine is expelled, and the liquid is mixed with

Absorption Spectra of Didymium and of certain excess of ammonio-ferrous sulphate, the excess of which cther Substances Extracted from Samarskite.-J. L. is determined by titrating back with permanganate.Soret. — The author has compared didymium chloride Zeitschrift Anal. Chem., 18, 104. extraded by M. Marignac from samarskite with a sample Reactions of Bile Acids and their Detection in from a different source. In the entire less refrangible part | Urine.-A solution of the bile acids, if oxidised by the of the spectrum, from the red to the green, he finds no addition of ferric chloride, antimonic chloride, lead perappreciable difference either in the colour or in the inten. oxide, barium peroxide with the addition of hydrochloric sity of the rays, and the spectrum agrees very exactly with or sulphuric acid, especially if exposed to direct sunlight, the figures in the work of M. Lecoq de Boisbaudran. In passes through a variety of colours from yellow, red, the blue and the indigo differences of intensity appear. vinous red, to blue and blue-violet. Similar colours are Hence the author is led to the conclusion that the di- produced by the addition of stannous or antimonious dymium from samarskite contains some foreign body. chlorides along with sulphuric acid. Casali takes ad. The same substance is present to a smaller extent in vantage of this play of colour for the deteaion of bile terbia, and less still in the didymium obtained from cerite. acids in urine. The urine is precipitated with sugar of

Action of Ammonium Sulphocyanide upon Mono lead and ammonia, the precipitate treated with ether and chloric Aceton.-T. H. Norton and J. Tcherniak.- dilute hydrochloric acid, and the ethereal extract is drawn Instead of sulpho-cyan-aceton, as was expected, there was off and evaporated in three porcelain capsules at common produced the sulphocyanide of a base, C4H6N2S.

temperatures. To the first residue are added barium perAmidated Acids Derived from the a:Butyric and sulphuric acid; and to the third antimonious chloride

oxide and sulphuric acid; to the second tin crystals and Isovaleric Acids.-E. Duvillier.—The acids described and sulphuric acid.—Zeitschrift Anal. Chem., 18, 128. are the methyl-amido-isovaleric, the ethyl-amido-a-butyric, the ethyl-amido-isovaleric, the phenyl-amido-a-butyric,

Examination of Water for Bacteria.-Himly fills a and the phenyl-amido-isovaleric.

flask, previously washed out first with hot concentrated Influence of Oxygen on Alcoholic Fermentation as

sulphuric acid and then with the water in question, threeProduced by Beer Yeast.-A. Béchamp.-Oxygen was

quarters full of the water, and adds a little solution of found to exercise a favourable influence upon the produc. in a large quantity of water. The flask is then stoppered

meat.extract, prepared by boiling extract for fifteen minutes tion of alcohol. The quantity of acetic acid seems to

and heated to 98° F. on the sand-bath. Bacteria, if present, depend much more on the temperature and on the nature of the yeast than on the oxygen. In short, the oxygen surface of the water.

increase rapidly, occasioning a turbidity and a film on the

The experiment requires about seems to act as a stimulus, under the influence of which the life of the yeast and the changes of its matter are shows no turbidity.—Zeitschrift Anal. Chem., 18, 117.

twenty-four hours. Distilled water similarly treated more active. In a second set of experiments it was proved that the oxygen was actually absorbed.

Action of Animal Charcoal on Salts.-Many salts, on.filtration through animal charcoal, are held back more

or less completely, or decomposed so that a part of the Chemiker Zeitung.

acid runs through, while the rest, in combination with the No. 2, 1879.

whole of the base, is retained by the charcoal.-Zeitschrift

Anal. Chem., 18, 97.
Detection of Chromates and Free Chromic Acid.
To detect mono-chromate along with bichromate add to

No. 3, 1879. a few c.c. of the boiling solution a drop of a moderately Dr. J. Volhard has been appointed Professor of Chemis. concentrated solution of manganese sulphate. In presence try at the University of Erlangen, as successor to the late of monochromate a blackish brown precipitate is formed. Gorup-Besanez. Bichromate in monochromate is detected by adding to a A. Podewils proposes to convert fæcal matters into boiling solution of hyposulphite of soda an equal volume poudrette by treatment with snioke, either of wood or coal. of a hot solution of the chromate in question. A brown

Determination of Ferrous Oxide in Silicates.precipitate or a distinct turbidity proves the presence of Dölter recommends the following process :-The Anely bichromate. The precipitate is chromic peroxide. Free pulverised mineral is covered with sulphuric acid and chromic acid in a solution of bichromate is detected by hydrofluoric acid in a platinum crucible set upon an iron adding solution of iodide of potassium and agitating with plate. Over the plate is inverted a high beaker, whose sulphide of carbon, which is coloured a deep purple by the edge fits into a groove made in the margin of the plate, liberated iodine.—Zeitschrift Anal. Chem., 18, 78.

and made air-tight by means of mercury or sand. From Determination of Sulphites and Hyposulphites.- above, through å hole in the bottom of the beaker, a tube If both salts are present together in solution, it is neces- is passed to just over the crucible, and introduces a consary to find the quantity of iodine which a part of the stant stream of carbonic acid. The whole apparatus is liquid requires if mixed with acetic acid; and the quantity heated on the sand-bath, and the hydrofuoric acid of sulphate of baryta which an equal part of the solution escapes through the hole in the bottom of the beaker. yields after complete oxidation with bromine. Two equa. Zeitschrift Anal. Chem., 18, 50. tions are thus obtained with two unknown quantities. If a sulphate is also present its quantity is ascertained by

No. 4, January 23, 1879. adding to the liquid bicarbonate of soda, passing a current A Contribution to the Fat-Industry.-Dr. B. Terne. of carbonic acid through the liquid, heating alter expul. - The author speaks of the application of the vapour of sion of the air, and after the addition of hydrochloric benzol in America for extracting oils and fats, not merely acid in excess concentrating to quarter its volume. The from wool and offal, but from bones, hoofs, &c. The fat sulphurous acid being thus expelled the sulphur is filtered of swine he remarks is apt to contract an objectionable off, and the sulphuric acid in the filtrate is determined in colour. The chief difficulty is the removal of the charac. the ordinary manner.-Zeitschrift Anal. Chem., 18, 79. teristic odour of benzol. He has tried the action of benzol

Separation of Gold and Silver.—The metal is alloyed vapour upon tallow-greaves which had been previously with 5 to 8 parts of zinc, for which the heat of a Bunsen submitted to hydraulic pressure of 10,000 to 12,000 lbs. burner is sufficient. The alloy is dissolved in nitric acid, per square inch, and obtained from 8 to 10 per cent of fat. when gold (with platinum and tin as stannic oxide if The new Sanitary Office at Gera carefully examines all present) remains undissolved. To separate gold from meat for Trichine. platinum and tin they are dissolved in aqua regia, the Dr, Upmann, in consequence of some experiments upon

CHEMICAL News, Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources. 136

March 28, 1879. dogs, pronounces oxalic acid harmless. Dr. Pfeiffer, in | ally transferred from his body to the wood of the coffin reply, points out that the stomach and intestines of dogs and the adjacent soil. generally contain considerable quantities of calcium Determination of Iron in Grain and other Food. phosphate by which the oxalic acid would be converted Plants.- Eliosoff proposes the following method for the into calcium oxalate, an inoffensive salt.

determination of iron in presence of phosphoric acid. According to the Revue Industrielle a metal has been the ash is evaporated to dryness with nitric acid, again extensively produced in France, which is a combination taken up in dilute nitric acid, filtered, concentrated, preof iron and steel. The two metals are run separately cipitated with the molybdate of ammonia ; the precipitate into a mould divided into two parts by a thin plate of is digested upon the filter for some time with citric acid, sheet iron, when the whole becomes welded together. the filtrate evaporated to dryness, the residue ignited, and The new metal is particularly adapted for armour-plating, re-dissolved in hydrochloric acid with the aid of heat, anchors, and safes.

and the liquid separated by filtration from the liberated According to Fischer, in the Metallarbeiter, petroleum molybdic acid. In the filtrate the iron is determined as is adulterated with so-called solar oil, which occasions the usual.--Fourn. de Pharm. et de Chemie. dull yellow colour of the ordinary oil and its yellowish flame.

No. 8, February 20, 1879.
No. 5, January 30, 1879.

Dichromates.-Schulerud has prepared the dichro

mates of silver, thallium, and lithium, but has not suc. Dr. H. Geissler, of Bonn, died on the 26th ult. His ceeded in obtaining corresponding salts of lead, barium, establishment for the construction of physical apparatus and mercury. He concludes that univalent metals only will probably be carried on by Franz Müller, who has been yield dichromates, and argues hence to the univalence of for twenty-live years first his pupil and afterwards his | lithium. assistant.

Detection of Salicylic Acid in Beer. --Blas recom. Lead, in dangerous quantities as an ingredient in the mends to drink the beer and in about three hours to test so-called tinning of sauce-pans, &c., has been detected

20 c.c. of the urine with ferric chloride in the usual by Dr. Brockhoff, of Magdeburg.

manner, as the reaction is about five times more delicate Dr. Wolff, inspector of factories for the Düsseldorfi | in urine than the original beer. circle, has introduced a respirator for the use of men Extraction of Animal Pigments.-C. Méhu separates employed in white-lead works, lead smelting establish- colouring matters from animal fluids by the addition of ments, &c. The results are said to be satisfactory. ammonium sulphate. In this manner he readily isolates

Test for Olive Oil.-Poutet proposes the following the pigments of pathological urines, fæcal matter, bile, method :-Nitrate of mercury (doubtless mercurous) is serous liquids, &c. prepared by dissolving 6 grms. mercury in 7°5 grms. nitric Formation of Mannite in Beer.—The formation of acid at 380 to 46° B. in the cold. Next 96 grms. of the mannite is always a mark of the want of cleanliness, and oil in question are mixed with 8 grms. of the mercurous is particularly promoted by decaying wood. In such nitrate and shaken together every ten minutes for two cases the sugar present enters nut into the alcoholic but hours. After being allowed to settle for twelve hours, the mucic fermentation. is the oil was pure the elaidin thus formed is pale yellow and quite solid. In adulterated samples the elaidin is orange or dark red, and only partially or not at all solid. To detect the presence of the oil of sesame 2 parts of the

Moniteur Scientifique, Quesneville. sample are shaken up at a temperature of 20° to 25° with

January, 1879. I part of pure hydrochloric acid at 22° B., in which


Critical Examination of a Posthumous Work by to o'r grm. of sugar has been previously dissolved. After Claude Bernard on Alcoholic Fermentation.-M. standing for some time the oil separates from the acid, Pasteur.-This is merely the reproduâion in full of a and if sesame is present assumes a rose colour. The paper read before the Academy of Sciences, Nov. 25, 1878. more intense this colour the greater is the quantity of the Causes of Death in Carbuncular and Septicemic impurity.

Affections.-M. Colin.-According to the author's views No. 6, February 6, 1879.

there is a death by the blood resulting from the inaptitude

of this liquid to maintain the life of the cells and of the A. G. Moser, of Graben, in Thun, is said to have in other anatomical elements. This type of death must be vented a remedy for the phylloxera, which completely added to those characterised by Bichat, and is probably eradicates it without injury to the vines.

common to a great number of maladies, the carbuncular, T. Salzer has observed that sal-ammoniac and calcic the putrid, the typhic, and the pestilential. hypochlorite react upon each other so violently as to give Chemical Composition of Yeast.-M. Nægeli.-In rise to an explosion.

this lengthy paper the author ascribes to bottom-yeast the Schneider, on preparing sodic hypochlorite by passing following chemical composition :chlorine-gas into sodic bicarbonate, observed a rose

Cellulose and vegetable mucilage, forming the colouration, which he traces to the presence of sodic ferrate.

cellular membrane

37 No. 7, February 13, 1879. Proteic matters-(a) In the state of albumen 36

9 A curious toxicological case is reported from Hamburg.

(6) In state of phosphorous compounds .. The body of a man who died in 1867 was taken for ex

Peptones, precipitable by sugar of lead

5 amination. It was thought necessary to determine arsenic

Fatty matters

Ash not merely in the corpse in question, but in the soil of


Extractive matters, &c. the churchyard at different distances from the coffin, and

4 also in the body of another man who had been subse. quently buried in the same grave. This latter body was perfealy free from arsenic, which, however, was found in Under the extractive matters are included small quantities the first corpse in ample fatal quantity (0-24 grm.), whilst of invertine, leucine, and grape-sugar; still smaller quanin the lid of the coffin and in the adjacent very minute tities of glycerin, succinic acid, cholesterin, guanin, quantities were traced. Hence the conclusion was fairly xanthin, sarkin, probably of inosite and traces of alcohol. drawn that the man in question had been poisoned with Alkaloids of Veratrum.-A. Tobien.--Taken fro arsenic, and that a portion of the poison had been gradu. I the American Fournal of Pharmacy, 1878, No. 3, p. 12


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