Obrazy na stronie

I someric Dinaphthyls.


March 14, 1879. Dr. Armstrong had used a gas apparatus made after | sation of supersaturated solution by different experimenters. Mr. Thomas's model with great success. His stopcock Mr. Thomson's researches had modified the difficulties was bored. The leakage of the old stopcocks might be which existed as to the theory that the cause was the indue to corrosion by resin cerate. Bullocks' fat was most troduction of a crystal of the same salt, by pointing out suitable for lubrication (Prof. Frankland stated that melted that a similar salt would also act as a nucleus, and the india-rubber was always used, not resin cerate, for the method might prove an accurate means of determining taps). He suggested that the mechanism employed by whether two bodies of similar, were really of identical, Mr. Thomas for shifting the mercury trough caused much chemical composition or not. vibration : he had us a small hydraulic lift. If the Dr. Witt, in reply to a question put by Mr. Thomson, india-rubber tube were covered with double tape sewed said that supersaturated solutions were of frequent occur. longitudinally no difficulty was experienced.

rence in the salts of the aromatic substances, disulphoMr. Thomas, in reply, pointed out that his steel tap was derivatives of benzene, the acetates of the different of a much larger size than the old one. In answer to rosanilins, &c. He asked whether the phenomena of sur. Dr. Armstrong, no vibration was caused by the turning fusion were included by Mr. Thomson in the same class aside of the mercury trough.

as those of supersaturation. The next paper was read by Mr. J. M. THOMSON, On the Prof. Hartley suggested that the crystallisation of one Action of Isomorphous Salts in Exciting the Crystallisa- salt out of a mixture, by introducing a nucleus active to tion of Supersaturated Solutions of each other, and some it but inactive to the other salts, might be very useful for Experiments on Supersaturated Solutions of Mixed Salts." separation on the manufacturing scale. In this paper the author communicates the results of more Mr. GROSJEAN said that Crace-Calvert had thus crys. than 400 observations. The following are given as the tallised carbolic acid from a mixture of that substance and general results to be deduced from the experiments. The cresolic

acid. results of Gernez (Ann. Sci. de l'Ecole, norm. sup., 1861) Mr. THOMSON did not think any strict line could be have been confirmed and extended, showing that truly drawn between superfusion and supersaturation. isomorphous bodies act as exciting nuclei in inducing the The Secretary then read a paper by Watsox SMITH, crystallisation of supersaturated solutions; that mere On the Isomeric Dinaphthyls." This communication is form alone does not render the body active to a super- a continuation of the author's previous work. The imme. saturated solution of a salt isomorphous with the nucleus; diate objects of the present investigation were—(1) To but that it is necessary for the nucleus to possess an iden- prepare a quantity of the a-a--dinaphthyl (melting point tical chemical structure. Thus, cubes of iron pyrites and 1549) by Lossen's method, in order to compare it with the o&tahedral crystals of magnetite are inactive to alum solu- body previously obtained by the author in yellowish tions. In the case of mixtures of solutions two series of plates (m.p. 1439). (2) To examine the crude product obresults were experienced in the same solution :-A. When tained by Lossen to see if it contains besides the a-a-dithe mixture consists of two salts not isomorphous-naphthyl an appreciable quantity of the other two di(1) Sudden crystallisation may commence, spreading, naphthyls. (3) To prepare sufficient quantities of the however, gradually through the solution, on the addition three isomers in a completely pure condition, and to of a nucleus, causing a deposition of the body belonging determine their vapour-densities. (4) To discover further to the nucleus only. (2) That when sudden crystallisa- reactions in which dinaphthyl is formed, so as to find out, tion takes place, causing the deposition of both salts, if possible, so much about the conditions of its formation there is a preponderance of the salt of the same nature as as would lead to a method of preparation more easily the nucleus. (3) That the nucleus may remain growing carried out and giving a larger yield of product than the slowly in the solution, becoming increased by a deposition present method. (1) The author prepared the a-aof the salt of the same nature as the nucleus. B. When dinaphthyl, and found that it melted at 147°, but by a mixture consists of two isomorphous salts—(1) Sudden further boiling with animal charcoal in petroleum spirit, crystallisation may occur, giving a deposition of both salts colourless crystals were obtained, melting at 154° to 155o. apparently in the proportions in which they exist in solu- | (2) The B-b-and the a-ß-dinaphthyls could not be detected. tion. (2) That when slow crystallisation takes place the (3) The pure substances were obtained, and their vapour. nucleus increases by a deposition of the least soluble salt, densities determined by V. Meyer's new apparatus with showing that in mixed supersaturated solutions a grada- great facility; a lead-bath and nitrogen atmosphere were tion of phenomena may be experienced passing from those used. B-B-dinaphthyl, m.p. 187°, v.d. 8.73 ; a-a, m.p. 154°, shown in the crystallisation of a true supersaturated solu- v.d. 8.67; a-ß, m.p. 26°, v.d. 8.78; calculated v.d., 8.77. In tion to those shown in the crystallisation of an ordinary the fourth part the author has investigated the action of saturated solution. The experiments were chiefly made carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, carbon disulphide, as follows :-The saturated solution to be used as a nu- bromo-naphthalene on naphthalene. He has further in. cleus was placed either in a bulb-tube or a tube bent at vestigated the reactions which take place when a mixture its lower end into a double U (as used by Liversidge). The of bromo-naphthalene and naphthalene are passed over solution was then boiled, and the tube plugged with cotton- heated soda-lime, lime, ferric oxide, and silver. wool. The supersaturated solution was introduced into The Society then adjourned to March 20, when the a small flask. The tube with nucleus solution is plugged following papers will be read :—“On Perplumbic Ethide," tightly into the neck of the flask, and the solution boiled. by E. Frankland and A. Laurance ; “On the Decomposi. When cold, the nucleus solution is caused to crystallise, tion of Water by certain Metalloids,” by C. F. Cross and and lowered so that at first the glass only touches the A. Higgin; "On the Volumetric Determination of Chrosolution; this produced uniformly negative results. On mium," by W. J. Sole; « The Production of the Higher bringing the crystals in contact by breaking the bulb or Oxides of Iron, Chromium, Manganese, and Bismuth," by lowering the U-tube crystallisation commenced if the nu- W. Foster. cleus was active. The author is continuing his experiments, and promises a further communication on the subject. The substances already experimented with in

PHYSICAL SOCIETY. clude-Magnesium sulphate, 7H20, to which zinc, nickel,

Ordinary Meeting, March 8, 1879. cobalt, iron sulphates with 7H20 are all active ; sodium sulphate with 10 or 5H20 being inactive; sodium sulphate Prof. W. G. ADAMS, President, in the Chair. and seleniate, 10H2O, are active to sodium sulphate solu. tion, 10H2O.. Chrome and iron potassium alums with Dr. Hurst and Mr. Jacob were elected Members. 12H20 are active to the ordinary potash alum, &c.

Proí. Ayrton brought forward a new theory of terres. The PRESIDENT remarked how various were the conclu. trial magnetism, originated by himself and Prof. Perry, of sions which had been arrived at concerning the crystalli- | the Imperial Engineering College, Japan. It is well known

} March 14, 1879. Chemical Investigation of Japanese Lacquer.

113 that metal cages act as screens against induction in the MANCHESTER LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL case of static electricity or electricity at rest, and hence

SOCIETY. Clerk Maxwell, at the British Association meeting for 1876, suggested that no earth connection was necessary

Ordinary Meeting, February 18, 1872. for lightning-conductors, since a cage would be sufficient. But dynamic electricity is different from static in this

J. P. Joule, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., &c., President, in respect, and Profs. Ayrton and Perry found that even a

the Chair. thick block of copper will not screen a coil of wire from the induction by a current Aowing in a neighbouring one. James Bottomley, B.A., D.Sc., and RICHARD S. DALE, Some experiments of Dr. Muirhead, not yet published, would B.A., were appointed Auditors of the Treasurer's accounts. seem to favour the view that a current is a series of inter- "On a Chemical Investigation of Japanese Lacquer, or mittent changes of potential, and that the inductive effect · Urushi,'” by SADAMU Ishimatsu. Communicated by was due to a difference in the epochs of the currents in Professor Roscoe, LL.D., F.R.S. the two coils. It was found by Helmholtz that a quantity During a few months last year I had the opportunity of of static electricity in mechanical motion performs work examining roughly into the nature of “Urushi," in the conversely. Mr. Crookes finds that the stream of mole. Laboratory of Tokio University. cules from a - pole in vacuo is electrified and may be de- The specimen of lacquer which I had under my examin. fle&ed by a magnet. It is upon that fact that Profs. Ayrtonation was obtained from Kuyemon Nakamuraya, in Tokio, and Perry have based their theory, which is easily ex. a large lacquer merchant. plained by supposing the earth to be an isolated sphere It is a milky juice of pale grey colour, and gives out a with a static charge residing on its surface. Then, since certain kind of poisonous volatile gas. Some persons are each electrified particle at the surface will be moving terribly attacked by this poison, producing a great swelling relatively to a point in the interior, it follows that the in. where the acid comes in contact. During my examination terior must be magnetic. The theory is independent of in the laboratory one of the apparatus keepers was terribly the substance of the interior ; but in order to simplify the attacked by this gas, producing ugly swellings all over the working the authors treated the case of a solid iron ball, face. He told me at the time it was exceedingly itchy. and curiously enough arrived at the result expressed by By using the solution of chloride of sodium, carbonate of Biot's law for the distribution of magnetism on the sur- soda, acetate of lead, &c., he was said to have recovered face of the earth :

within a week. This poison acts only on certain persons. I'=MV1+3 cos 0.

I had to work with it for many days, yet never had any And, similarly, they found that if the carth were ele&rified attack of the kind nor felt any uneasiness from it.

It has a sweetish characteristic smell, and has an irrita. to the potential of 10% volts. relatively to interplanetary ting taste. It burns with very luminous flame, evolving space, its magnetisation would be as it is. If the earth dense black smoke like oil of turpentine. were alone in the universe, then, by this theory, it would have its own magnetic state by virtue of its electric charge alcohol, &c., leaving behind a blackish grey residue in

It is to a great extent soluble in benzol, ether, absolute and axial rotation. If other bodies in the universe, how which gum was found. ever, had their magnetic states too, these would influence the earth's, and hence we should have terrestrial tides and weight, and at the same time blackens on its surface ;

Lacquer on exposure to the atmosphere rapidly loses its storms of magnetic force, such as are known to exist, as, although this

loss is different in different specimens, yet for instance, when changes take place in the sun's atmosphere by approach of planets and other causes. Lastly, to vary from 25 to 37 per cent.

on the average of those which I have examined it seems the iron in the interior of the earth may give it a certain

When the lacquer is exposed to the action of sunlight amount of coercitive force, but the theory does not rest on

in hermetically sealed vessels in the atmosphere or in this. Dr. J. HOPKINSON then read an account of some experi: quantity of moisture collects on the sides of the vessel.

carbonic acid, blackening does not take place, but a large ments with the quadrant electrometer, which showed that

The loss of weight in the atmosphere is almost if not Clerk Maxwell's formula for the sensibility of the electro

entirely due to the escape of water, with a minute quanmeter,

tity of carbonic acid which may be formed by the oxidation A+B

of some organic compound existing in the lacquer. The

attempt has been made to estimate the relative amounts where A and B are the potentials of the two pairs of of carbonic acid and water; yet it was not successful at quadrants, and C the potential of the needle, only holds the time, being too difficult, and it must be left open to good when C (the charge of the jar cr needle) is less than some suture investigation. 200 Daniell elements. Above that a different law appears It is by many supposed to be due to the combined action to hold. Dr. Hopkinson also remarked that any degree of light and air that the blackening of lacquer in the air of low sensibility down to zero could be got from the takes place; but this seems to be erroneous from the fol. electrometer by connecting a condenser to each pair of lowing experiments :--First. I made a square box which quadrants, and adjusting their capacities.

had a well fitting sliding door, and the inside of which was Mr. F. D. BROWN described his apparatus for main-made perfectly black, so that practically no light is permitted taining constant temperatures and pressures. A constant to enter. In it was placed a small quantity of lacquer at temperature can be obtained if the pressure can be kept dark, and the door closely shut. On looking at it the next constant. The vessel in which the constant pressure is morning it was observed that the lacquer had turned per. desired communicates with an air-pump by a pipe in which fealy black, proving that it is not the light that blackens a movable tap or valve is placed.' By opening or closing the lacquer. this tap the pressure is regulated. This is effected by an Second. The bottle in which I kept my lacquer for more electric clutch arrangement. A mercury anemometer than three months during my examination was exposed to sends a positive or negative current from a battery through the incident light of the laboratory: The surface of the the clutch according as the pressure is too high' or low, lacquer was turned perfectly black, forming a wall as it and this current actuates the clutch to close or open the were ; while those portions which were in contact with the valve. The clutch consists of an axle driven by a turbine sides of the bottle, which receive as much light as if to get power to work the valve, and the current, by means there were not any glass sides before it, were 'not at all of electro-magnetism, connects the tap to the axle, which blackened. This phenomenon is just complementary to then opens or closes it as the case may be. In this way the first one, proving that the blackening in the at nosphere a pressure varying no more than one-fifth millimetre each is in all probability due to the oxygen of the air, but not way can be obtained.

the light alone, nor the combined action of light and air,

(A - B) (c-4+B)





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CHEMICAL NEWS, 114 Chemical Investigation of Japanese Lacquer.

[March 14, 1879. The lacquer when distilled with water gives a colourless cold water. When boiled with nitric acid nitrous fumes distillate which is slightly acid to test-paper, and the are given out, and the mass gradually becomes yellow, attempt has been made to examine the acid, but not suc- and finally a beautiful orange coloured mass was obtained. cessfully on account of too minute quantity of the sub. This mass was washed with hot water several times, and stance evolved. Distillation by itself and in a current of then treated with absolute alcohol. The mass was to a steam was tried also, but the results in both cases were great extent soluble in the alcohol, leaving behind a small the same as the first one. Lastly, distilled with a small quantity of a yellowish body (which I think to be part not quantity of dilute sulphuric acid, to aid the substance to sufficiently acted upon by the acid). This alcoholic exdistil over, into sugаr of lead, scarcely any precipitate was tract forms a beautiful yellow precipitate with both nitrate obtained.

of silver and acetate of lead. "I took a quantity of alco. Lacquer mixes with any kind of fixed oil in all propor- holic extract, precipitated it with acetate of lead, and the tions; hence oil is often added as adulteration, but some precipitate was thoroughly washed with absolute alcohol, times it is purposely added to increase its mobility. and then decomposed by means of dilute sulphuric acid.

The specimen of lacquer which I examined consisted of ' (It might be better to decompose this salt with sulphu. the following three substances :

retted hydrogen, but we cannot do so on account of re

ducing action of this gas.) The mass was dissolved again Part soluble in absolute alcohol } 58:24 (resin)

in absolute alcohol, then separated from sulphate of lead. 58 23

Now then this separated alcoholic extract was again Gum

6:34 6:30 precipitated by sugar of lead, and, after filtering, and Residue

2'24 2:30 washing, the precipitate was dried partially in an air-bath, Moisture and other volatile matter 33:175 33'170 and carried under the receiver of an air-pump and dried

over sulphuric acid.

This lead salt exploded when heated. The amount of As I have already mentioned, the lacquer loses its weight lead was estimated as oxide by igniting it with nitric acid, very rapidly when exposed to the atmosphere. For the and the salt was subje&ted to organic combustion. Nitroabove determination I weighed out each time samples gen was determined by Dumas's method. from well stoppered bottles, and determined the weight by The following numbers were obtained as the mean difference. Then this was treated with absolute alcohol results :and the filtiate evaporated to small bulk and dried in an


.: 26.93 air-bath at 100° C. until the weight remained constant.


4'11 This is put down as the part soluble in alcohol in the


18:44 above analysis. The residue was then treated with hot


4742 water, and the filtrate evaporated and dried at 100° and


3:10 weighed as gum. The residue, after the gum had been removed, was then washed, and dried on weighed filter at

100'00 100° C., and weighed as residue. The moisture and other

Now I prepared the silver salt of the same, and obtained volatile matter were of course determined by the difference. 18.5 per cent of silver as the result. It seems to give no

The estimation of the amount of part soluble in alcohol, help as to the formula of this body. after the lacquer had been exposed to the sunlight in open

As such was the case, I took alcoholic extract of the vessel for some twenty or thirty days, shows that the original lacquer and precipitated it with acetate of lead, soluble part increased up to 72.82 per cent. This number, and after requisite purification and drying the precipitate when calculated for the substance to have lost 28 per cent

was analysed. Lead determined as before. moisture and other volatile matter during exposure, then equals 58.3 per cent, which is nearly equal and practically was only able to try :

The following is the mean of two experiments which I the same as the analysis previously given; hence there


50-450 seems to have been no material change in the amount of


5'705 matter soluble in alcohol. Now the perfectly dried lacquer,


3*775 after being finely powdered, was dried at 100°, and analy


40'070 sis gave :Part soluble in absolute alcohol 18:07

100'000 Gum

3.63 (2.) The gum is soluble in cold as well as in warm water. Residue...

78.30 It has no smell, almost no taste; it has a yellowish or

rather brownish colour, and is of a non-crystalline body,

It is quite insoluble in alcohol. Altogether, from this analysis, the residue being in. On subjecting this substance to organic analysis I got creased, the lacquer seems to have undergone some change; the following percentage of hydrogen, carbon, and but possibly this is owing to the fact that the alcohol as oxygen :well as water seem to have had less complete access to

II. the material.

Carbon ..

4120 41445 Thus the “ Urushi” consists of three principal consti


6:51 6.58 tuents, (1) a resinous part soluble in alcohol, (2) gum, and


52'29 51097 (3) residue. Although there are, in addition to these, water and volatile matter, as they go away sooner or later before it is used they are not properly called the consti. These analyses yield a formula approximating to the tuents.

composition of common gum. (1) Part soluble in alcohol (resin) seems to be the prin- (3.) The residue is, I think, nothing more than the mix. cipal portion, and has a smell like ordinary lacquer, but ture of cellulose, bark, dust, &c. it never dries as the original does. It is brownish black, In concluding my paper I must say that I am not at all and slightly sticky to the touch. When treated with satisfied with my present analyses, but I thought it might potash solution it forms a bluish black precipitate, but be of some interest to some of you from the point that, nothing is obtained on addition of sulphuric acid to the although the varnished articles from this juice are so celefiltrate.

brated, yet, as far as I am aware, this is the first analysis When boiled with hydrochloric acid the resin is trans- of the kind that has been heretofore attempted, and might formed into a substance elastic while hot, something like be of some use to those who are interested upon this the mass obtained when heated sulphur is dropped into subje&.




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March 14, 1879.
Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources.


to the will and provided with nerves for centrifugal action,

have further a very analogous chemical composition, and THE INSTITUTE OF CHEMISTRY.

even some points of structural resemblance. These views,

put forward before physicists had developed the theory of To the Editor of the Chemical News.

the correlation of forces, were necessarily very vague.

It might even be conceived that in the living organism, as SIR,—Judging from the erroneous statements contained in well as in our physical instruments, analogous conditions

letter signed" A Disgusted Promoter," in the CHEMICAL might produce either mechanical work or electricity. News, vol. xxxix., p. 102, it would seem either that all Having found that muscular acts are complex, i.e., that a the notices and papers sent to Members had miscarried in, muscle in tetanus or in contraction executes a series of his case, or that the writer, although on the original Com- minute successive movements, which the author calls mittee, as he intimates, is not actually a Fellow of the shocks, which accumulate to produce muscular contraction, Institute. So far from it being true “ that the executive dared not there a similar complexity. Having passed this discharge

he has examined the discharge of the torpedo, and found publish a report of the meeting because nearly all the through an electro-magnetic tracing apparatus he found speakers upheld the system of giving certificates for that it was made up of minute stocks, which recur at advertising purposes," a report of the Conference on

the rate of 150 in a second. Cold reduces the rate alike Trade Certificates has been printed for the use of Mem- of the muscular and electric shocks, whilst heat acts inbers. Again, the writer says—"In a few days' time a versely. Hence the author concludes that these two second conference will be held, at which the subject of functions are really homologues. The gymnotus gave the · Adulteration of Food and Drugs' will be discussed." similar results to those of the torpedo. The latter fish, If he were actually a Fellow of the Institute he ought to

when connected with a telephone and slightly excited, know that that conference took place a fortnight ago, and produced a very short croaking. If a prolonged discharge that the notice sent out stated the subject to be “ Adultera

is occasioned by pricking the electric lobe of the brain tion of Articles of Food," and not “ Adulteration of Food and Drugs.” If, however, "A Disgusted Promoter" is tonality borders upon mi (165 vibrations).

the sound produced lasts three or four seconds and in really a Fellow of the Institute, and through some extraordinary and unfortunate coincidence all the notices, &c.,

Does the Didymium of Samarskite Differ from that have miscarried in his case, I should feel much obliged it of. Cerite ?-Lecoq de Boisbaudran.— The author conhe would communicate with me on the subject, and I will cludes that both give alike the three blue rays 482-2, endeavour to ascertain the cause.

475.8, and 469·1. In conclusion, I may say that although the Council New Spectral Rays in Substances Extracted from welcome open and fair criticism of their proceedings by Samarskite.--Lecoq de Boisbaudran.-On examining independent Members, an anonymous letter recommending with the spectroscope both by absorption and by means the Fellows not to pay their subscriptions can scarcely be of the electric spark, the products of his operations on the considered as of that nature.-I am, &c.,

mixture of earths from samarskite, the author has obCharles E. GROVES, Secretary.

served rays or bands not to be referred to any element Somerset House Terrace, W.C.

formerly known, and not corresponding to the descriptions

of the spectra of the earths recently announced by MM. CRYSTALLISATION OF PHOSPHORUS.

Delafontaine, L. Smith, Soret, and De Marignac. These new rays of absorption and emission seem to belong to

one and the same body. The emission spectrum is comTo the Editor of the Chemical News.

posed of four bands shaded towards the left and formed of SIR,-Seeing Mr. Whewell's interesting contribution on

narrow rays, the strongest of which is the most refrangible farina in the CHEMICAL News (vol. xxxix., p. 97) reminds and forms the right margin of the band. The absorption me of a question I have often wished to ask. Having been spectrum comprises two strong bands in the blue, and now interested for some years in the crystallisation of several rays of less importance in the green. The metal phosphorus, anthracen, &c., in vacuo, I have eagerly looked which yields these new spectra is precipitated as a double for further details of 'Mr. Whewell's experiments (vol. potassic sulphate along with didymium; its simple sul. xxxviii., p. 205); Mr. Whewell there states that if the phate is rather less soluble than that of didymium; its phosphorus is heated and spread over the sides of the oxalate is precipitated along with didymium, but ammonia tube "beautiful colourless crystals" will be obtained, separates the oxide of the new metal before that of " which will be slightly red.” He also states that having didymium. made some of these peculiar crystals he sent them to a

Unequal Propagation of Light Polarised Circu. well-known mineralogist, who promised to examine them. Is Mr. Whewell in a position now to give us more infor: larly in Bodies Submitted to the Action of Mag:

netism According to the Direction of Magnetisation mation concerning them or even the well-known mineralo- and of the Luminous Vibrations.-H. Becquerel.gist's report.—I am, &c.,


The phenomena of magnetic rotatory polarisation is accompanied, like natural rotatory polarisation, with a varia

tion in the speed of propagation of two luminous rays CHEMICAL NOTICES FROM FOREIGN polarised circularly in an inverse dire&ion.

Compressibility of Gases at High Pressures.-E. SOURCES.

H. Amagat.-Under a pressure of 430 atmospheres the volume of a gas is nearly 1 greater than that which is

deduced from the law of Mariotte. NOTE.-All degrees of temperature are Centigrade,onless otherwis expressed.

Improvements in Harrison's Electric Lamp.-E.

Ducretet.—This paper is not intelligible without the acComptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances, l'Académie de companying figure. des Sciences. No.7, February 17, 1879.

Relations which Connect the Tetric and Oxytetric

Acids and their Homologues to Succinyl, Malyi, Researches on Electric Fishes; Characters of the Discharge of the Gymnotus; Effects of the Dis. and other Radicles of the Bibasic Acids.-M. E. charge of the Torpedo Received in a Telephone.- Demarçay... The nature of the radicle of oxytetric acid is

that of mallyl, the radicle of malic acid. E. J. Marey.-Physiologists have been struck with the analogies presented by a muscle and the apparatus of Bromo-citraconic Acid.-E. Bourgoin.-Not adapted ele&ric fishes. These two kinds of organs, both subject | for useful abstraction.


Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources.

March 14, 1879. Les Mondes, Revue Hebdomadaire des Sciences.

No. 8, February 20, 1879.

MONTHLY JOURNAL OF SCIENCE A Last Word on Matter.-E. Lafond." I announce to our friends that matter is known. I know now what it BIOLOGY, ASTRONOMY, GEOLOGY, INDUSTRIAL ARTS is. I will confine myself to telling you that it is essen

MANUFACTURES, AND TECHNOLOGY. tially the negation of being! Inanis et vacua. This is a great step for science and the coronation of my system.

Edited by WILLIAM CROOKES, F.R.S., &c. We float in God, like the fish in water. · The latter kncws its element; man denies his. Which is the fool ? "

The second number of the Monthly Series (March, 1879) is Improvement in Bunsen's Battery.-F. Lefebure.—

Now Ready. The oxidation of the exterior surface of the zincs con.

Price One Shilling and Sixpence. tributes nothing to the liberation of electricity, so it may

CONTENTS. be safely covered with varnish, thus reducing the consumption of zinc by one half.

1. The Keys of Death.

II. A Curious Thermo-Magnetic Motor. By Profs. Edwin J. Poisonous Properties of Phenic Acid.--According

Houston and Elihu Thomson. to M. E. Küster the surgical use of this acid is not un

III. The Heat of the Comstock Mines. By Prof. John A. Church,

E.M. attended with danger. He has collected twenty-six cases IV. Matter Active. of evident poisoning, more or less severe. He recom- V. Some New Optical Illusions. By Silvanus P. Thompson, mends thymol, salicylic acid, or dilute solutions of zinc

BA., D.Sc., F.R.A.S.

VI. On Electrical Insulation in High Vacua. By William chloride (8 per cent) as antiseptic dressings.

Crookes, F.R.S. An Unfortunate Pharmacist.-A French pharmacist VII. Spider's Web for Micrometers. has been fined 625 francs for illegally practising medicine.

VIII. The " Jumpers," or " Jumping Frenchmen." He had sold a few sous worth of " white water" (Goulard's

Correspondence-The Character of the Sexes.-Transformation of

Species. lotion) for the treatment of a burn. The patient died of

Reviews of Scientific Works-Science Notes-Proceedings of tetanus and the pharmacist was accused of poisoning, but

Scientific Societies. finally escaped with the penalty above mentioned. The Birth-rate in France.-Dr. Bertillon calculates

London : 3, Horse-Shoe Court, Ludgate Hill. that France capitalises it milliards yearly by reason of its small birth-rate, whilst Germany loses is milliards

JUST PUBLISHED, 4th EDITION. yearly by the rapid increase of its population.

1os. 6d. cloth, Demy 8vo., pp. 420, Preservation of the Eggs of the Silk-worm in


preserved the eggs of the silk-worm in hydrogen, carbonic PATENTEES' MANUAL.

acid, oxygen, and nitrogen for about three months. Those which had been kept in carbonic acid and in A Treatise on the Law and Practice of Letters Patent, nitrogen after removal hatched well and gave an almost especially intended for the use of Patentees and Inventors. complete yield.


Verhandlungen des Vereins zur Beforderung des
Gewerbfleisses. Part 1, January, 1879.

of the Middle Temple, Barrister-at-Law, and This part contains no chemico-technological matter.

Solicitor and Patent Agent, Assoc. Inst. C.E. 47, Lincoln's

Inn Fields, W.C., and Glasgow.

This Edition, much enlarged, gives a practical reference MONDAY, 17th.-Medical, 8.

to every reported case of importance, and contains all the
Society of Arts, 8. " Dwelling Houses
Sanitary Construction and Arrangements," by and Patentees can require.

Their information on the law and practice of Patents Inventors
Dr. W.'H. Corfield, M.A. (Cantor Lectures.)
London Institution, 5.

The Appendix contains the Statutes and Rules, and a TUESDAY, 18th.--Civil Engineers, 8.

Royal Institution, 3. “Animal Development," summary of the Laws of all Foreign States and British
Prof. Schäfer.

Zoological, 8.30.

London : LONGMANS and Co.
Society of Arts, 8. “ Africa, a Paramount Necessity

for the Future Prosperity of the Leading Industries
of England," by James Bradshaw.

ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA. WEDNESDAY, 19th.-Society of Arts, 8. " Economical Gardens for

Londoners," by W. Mattieu Williams,
F.R.A S., F.C.S.

Analytical Chemists will find this a concise and yet complete book
Meteorological, 7.

of reference for the isolation and examination of the active principles THURSDAY, 20th.-Royal, 8.30.

of drugs. Special appendix on the microscopic characters of the Royal Institution, 3. "Sound," Prof. Tyndall.

starches in food and drugs. Copious index and qualitative courses Royal Society Club, 6.30.

or resins, &c. Chemical, 8. "On Perplumbic Ethide,"_by E.

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at the Office of the South London School Frankland and A. Lawrance. On the Decom of Pharmacy, Kennington Cross, S.E., and sold by Messrs. Simpkin position of Water by Certain Metalloids," by C. and Marshall and Messrs. Baillière, Tindal, and Cox. F. Cross and A. Higgin." On the Volumetric Determination of Chromium," by W. J. Sole.

Oy POLYTECHNIC.-BUNYAN'S Chromium, Manganese, and Bismuth," by W. PILGRIM'S PROGRESS, illustrated by Dissolving Views and

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