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more complex organisms perform each tissues are thus separated we may of these functions by a special appa- begin to trace differentiations in the ratus of organs, yet these organs skin, such as the papillæ, the secretthemselves are originally developed ing glands, and so forth : till
, from a from the envelope. We may, ideally, homogeneous mass of cells, we have reduce even a mammal to a cylindri- traced the development of that marcal envelope folded inwards at each vellous and complex structure, the end; from the enfolded skin are de- human hand. veloped all nutritive and reproduc- Applying this torch to the obscnre tive organs, while the nervous system question of the reproductive systein and its osseous sheaths are developed of the anemones, it at once discloses in the space between the outer and to us that the anemone being of a inner walls of the envelope. Thus very simple organisation, almost enevery advance in complexity of or- tirely envelope, we shall be wrong if ganisation takes place through a gra- we expect to find in it a high comdual differentiation, or specialisation, plexity of special organs. Anatoof the general envelope. These im- mists, indeed, have often neglected portant synonyms, differentiation and such a consideration, and have worspecialisation, I will explain by illus- ried themselves in the search after trating the law to which they point, organs, which à priori we may denamely, the law of animal develop- cide were not likely to be present. ment first enunciated by Goethe, and They have sought for and discostrikingly applied by Von Baer: De- vered” nerves and ganglia, each distelopment is always from the general coverer scornfully rejecting the alto the particular, from the homoge- leged discovery of his predecessor, neous to the heterogeneous, from the and declaring the nerves were in a simple to the complex; and this by totally different locality, while no one a gra:lual series of differentiations. anatomist could find them anywhere When we say an organ has been after another. They have worried formed out of a tissue, we say a diffe- themselves about the respiration of rentiation has taken place; and the the anemone, not perceiving that function, e. g. respiration, which be- respiration, like circulation and other fore was performed by the general functions elsewhere dependent on a tissue, is now specialised, i. e. per- special apparatus, was here performed formed by that special organ. A ho- in a direct and general manner. They mogeneous mass of organic matter, have not suspected that reproducsuch as the Amæba, which has notion takes place in the anemone, organ whatever, performs all the much in the same way as in the freshfunctions of assimilation, respiration, water polype — not in any special progression, and reproduction, by its and permanent apparatus of organs, general mass, not by any special or- such as ovary, oviduct, &c., but by a gans. The process of differentiation temporary specialisation of the geneby which special organs are gradually ral envelope including an accumuladeveloped in the ascending scale of tion of germ-cells and sperm-cells. I the animal series, is equally exhibited am aware that special organs called in any particular case of development. ovaries are described in all books, Thus if we follow the formation of the and that some writers describe an human hand, we find first a differen- oviduct—which only exists in their tiation between the carpus or wrist, imagination, for no duct of any kind and the metacarpus or hand; next is found. Of course, no philosophithe fingers are differentiated, but, cal à priori conclusion could be perwithout any division into separaté mitted to stand up in contradiction segments—this takes place later; to observed fact; if the organs are then we have a separation between there, it is of no use deductively estathe soft and hard parts, the cartilage blishing their non-existence. But are separating from the plastic mass; they there? then these cartilages become osseous; When I first commenced the inand in the soft plastic mass we dis- vestigation of anemones, I had no tinguish differentiations into muscle, reason whatever to doubt the statetendon, skin, &c.; when the single ment so generally and confidently
made, that the convoluted bands in any precise spot; near the base were the organs in question. At the about the centre, and close to the end of the first week my doubts be- disc, they may be found: nor are gan. These convoluted bands con- they in every interseptal space; sometained no trace of ova, but instead times we may make three or four inthereof they contained vast quan- cisions before detecting them. Once tities of those thread capsules which seen, they will easily be distinguished I then believed to be urticating cells. from the convoluted bands, although This was the last place in the world so difficult is it to remove them withwhere one might expect to find of- out at the same time removing some fensive weapons; and misled by the of the bands, that to this cause alone belief in these cells, I was led to ques- can I attribute the long continuance tion the function of the convoluted of the opinion that the bands were bands. Questioning, of course, meant the true ovaries. For it should be something more than supine doubt. observed that several writers have I began on the 14th May to examine discovered the ova, and one at least closely into the evidence, and on the (Spix) seems to have seen the ovaries; 12th June I was fortunate enough but that no one had clearly discrito confirm all doubts by the discov- minated and described the organs, is ery of the real ovaries (such as they evident in the confusion which our are) in a large Crassicornis: here text-books exhibit on the topic. I there were no thread capsules, but believe I may not only claim the disabundance of unmistakable ova, each covery, as having been made indewith its "vesicle of Purkinje." The pendently, and without any knowthrill of delight with which the ledge of what Spix had seen, but assurance broke upon me may be also as having for the first time disconceived. After exploring several criminated both anatomically and other anemones, to remove all ling- physiologically the ovaries from the ering doubt, I hastened to communi- convoluted bands, so as to clear up cate the discovery to my friend all confusion. I am not even certain Mr. Tugwell, in whose presence I that Spix recognised the real organs, again displayed the organs. At that since he describes ducts opening into time I, of course, believed that the the stomach by several apertures, grapelike cluster in which the ova when in truth there are no ducts, were lying, were true and permanent and the aperture at the base of the ovaries; but having since been fre- stomach is one, not several. It is quently unable to detect them in from Dr. Johnston's History of British adult specimens, and never in young Zoophytes (for a hasty reading of specimens, I come to the conclusion which I was indebted to Mr Tugwell
, that these ovaries are temporary after I had made the discovery) that organs, formed by an accumulation of I gather what Spix said. He degerm-cells in various parts of the lin- scribes the ovaries as forming several ing membrane of the envelope; that, grapelike clusters situated in the inin fact, they represent the first rudi- terseptal spaces with ducts which mentary state of what in higher ani- open into the base of the stomach by mals becomes the special organ. This several apertures, and hence the ova conclusion is, however, purely theore- are presumed to gain their freedom tical, and I will now state what anyby traversing the stomach and one may see, who examines an adult month. (De Blainville doubts this, fresh from the rockpool or tank. With being led to believe it more probable a rapid but not deep incision we lay that the oviducts may open into the open the envelope from the outside ; labial rim as they do in the asteroid the convoluted bands will bulge polypes." From this it appears that through the opening; but if we are even if Spix detected the ovaries, he vigilant and brush these aside, we did not accurately discriminate them shall perceive certain lobular or from the convoluted bands; he did grapelike masses of darker colour, not accurately describe their strucalmost entirely hidden by these ture, for be speaks of ducts where no bands, but growing from the walls of ducts exist ; he did not understand the envelope. They are not situated their nature, as temporary specialisa
tions of the membrane, including a added that the strongest confirmamass of germ-cells; and as a conse- tion is to be read in the admirable quence of this imperfect discrimina- Memoir on the Cerianthus—an anition, subsequent writers and ana- mal allied to the Actinia — by M. tomists have described the convoluted Jules Haime, in the Annales des bands as the ovaries. Mr. Teale does Sciences Naturelles, 1854 (41eme série, 80, if I understand the account given tome i.), which, on my return home, by Dr. Johnston.
I found to contain accurate and deIt is needless here to enter into the tailed descriptions of the same disdisputes on this point. The statement position of ova and spermatozoa I of Wagner that he had discovered detected in the Actiniæ. This paper spermatozoa in the convoluted bands may rob me indeed of some clain to has made several writers dubious priority, should the fact be substantirespecting the ovarian function of ated, but can very tranquilly waive those bands; but by a subsequent that, and rejoice in the discovery. discovery I am able to explain, I The excellent plates which illustrate think, the origin of Wagner's error, the Memoir by M. Jules Laime, as well as to revolutionise the current make it very important for the reader theories of reproduction in the ane- to consult, if he desires an accurate mones, bringing that process uoder idea of the structure in question. much simpler categories. That Wag- We thus return to the point from ner did see the spermatozoa, may whence we started, and find in the readily be admitted; but although he anemone a very simple structure, and thought they were in the convoluted a consequent simplicity in its reproband, I venture to say that they ductive process. Instead of separate were in the ovary, a portion of which sexes, and elaborate apparatus of orhe had removed unconsciously with gans, we find an accumulation of germthe convoluted band; for let any one cells and sperm-cells taking place snip off a portion of the band as it in certain indeterminate parts of the lolls out of the mouth, and he will lining membrane of the envelope, find nothing like ova or spermatozoa and the union of these cells in these there. On the discovery of the loca, parts, much in the same way as in the tion of the spermatozoa, which I simpler plants. made at Tenby in July last, I must speak with less confidence than on that of the ovaries; the difficulty of Charles Lamb, in one of his exthe observation, and the conscious- quisitely humorous letters, refers to ness that I was guided by an à pri- the probable feelings of Adam, purori conviction that the spermatozoa chasing a pennyworth of apples from would be where I sought them, to- an applewoman's stall, “ in Mesopogether with the fact that since then tamia,” and thinking of his former I have had few opportunities of re- plenty in Paradise ; and Dr. Johnson peating the observation, -make me said, that never but once in his life hesitate before announcing as abso- had' he found himself possessor of as lute, what is at present only a very much wall-fruit as he could eat. strong conviction in my mind. Let These two lingering retrospects of me say then that I believe the sper- former abundance appeal to us matozoa lie imbedded in the same forcibly; for although in the particu membranous sac which encloses the lar case of apples, a matured taste, ova; the two lie intermingled, pro- fortified by philosophy, and modified bably isolated by a delicate investing by dyspepsia, may pardonably be inmembrane, but at any rate enclosed in differentand although also in the the same organ. I believe that it is particular case of wall-fruit, the unhere the fertilisation takes place, and physiological mind, terrified by abthat the fertilised ovum passes by surd rumours as to choleraic infludehiscence of the membrane into the ences supposed inevitably to issue general cavity, where its subsequent from plums, peaches, nectarines, and development takes place. On my apricots, may think limitation rather Dext visit to the coast I hope to clear a benefit than an injury; yet every up this point; meanwhile it may be mind must recognise the general significance there lies in a noble, pro- summer, all its blooming companions digal, unstinted abundance. Books, having been dissected long ago; and for example-can we have too many my thoughts take wing to Ilfracombe of them, provided always they are and Tenby, where footpans, piewell selected ? Dogs—can they be dishes, soup-plates and vases were too populous in our court-yards? or crowded with specimens of every horses in our stables ? or friends at variety of form and colour. I think convenient distances ? or children- of that paradisaic abundance, and in the nursery? or creditors ?-no, not sigh over this one unhappy animal, creditors, except in a general catas- the mere pennyworth in Mesopom trophe or cataclysm. In a world, is not tamia, not simply because I love a abundance in and for itself a grand liberal prodigality in all things, and advantage? Painfully this obtrudes fret against niggardly limitations, itself upon me as I sit eyeing the soli- but also because only with abundtary anemone which mopes in a single ance can one hope to get at more vase upon my table, the last rose of “New Facts about Sea Anemones.”
A CHRISTMAS TALE.
How to account for this strange easily one can manage this in a ceradventure, or what explanation to tain frame of mind. put upon it, I cannot tell, but it It was rather a pretty countrybegan after a very prosaic fashion, especially when the sun caine glana rather more commonplace even that ing down over it, finding out all the the circumstances under which the rain upon the leaves—when it was Laureate meditated his Legend of only I that found them out instead Godiva. After a long drive to a little of the sun. When pushing down a country station, I found to my dis- deep lane, my hat caught the great may, that I had missed the train. overhanging bough of a hawthorn,
Missed the train! There was not and shook over me a sparkling shower another till twelve o'clock at noon of water-drops, big and cool like so of the next day, and it was then the many diamonds. I cannot say that afternoon between two and three I entirely enjoyed the impromptu o'clock; for the place in which I baptism, and the wet matted Úrambles was so fortunate as to find myself, underfoot were full of treacherous surwas one of the smallest of country prises, and the damp path under that stations
“ branch 'line." it magnificent seam of red-brown earth, seems extremely odd, looking back which had caught my eye half a mile upon it, that there should have been off, caught my foot now with unexsuch an unreasonable time to wait; ampled tenacity. Notwithstanding, but it did not puzzle, it only dis- the road was pretty; a busy little comfited at the time.
husbandınan of a breeze bega to And there was not even a single rustle out the young corn, and raise house, save the half-built little rail- the feeble stalks which had been way house itself, where dwelt the “laid” by the rain; and everything station-master, at this inhospitable grew lustily in the refreshed and station; so I had to be directed by sweetened atmosphere, through which that functionary, and by his solitary the birds raised their universal twitter. porter, how to get to Witcherley There appeared white gable-ends, bits village, which lay a mile and a half of orchard closely planted, a churchoff across the fields. It was sum- spiro rising through the trees, and mer, but there had been a great deal over the next stile I leaped into the of rain, and the roads, as I knew extreme end of the little village street by my morning's experience, were of Witcherley—a very rural little “heavy"-yet 1 set off with singu- village indeed, lying, though within lar equanimity on my journey across a mile and a half of a railway station, the fields. Altogether I took the secure and quiet among the old Arcabusiness very coolly, and made up dian fields. my mind to it. It is astonishing how Facing me was a great iron gate
extremely ornamental, as things were of very rural districts. I confess I made a hundred years ago, with a entered the Witcherley Arms with a minute porter's-lodge shut up, plainly little dismay, and no great expectaintimating that few carriages rolled tions of its comfort or good cheer. up that twilight avenue, to which The public room was large enough, entrance was given by a little postern- lighted with two casement windows, door at the side. The avenue was with a low unequal ceiling and a narrow, but the trees were great and sanded floor. Two small tables in old, and hid all appearance of the the windows, and one long one house to which they led. Then came placed across the room behind, with three thatched cottages flanking at a a bristly supply of hard highlittle distance the moss-grown wall backed wooden chairs, were all the which extended down the road from furniture. A slow country fellow in a the manor-house gates; and then the smock frock, the driver of the cart, path made a sharp turn round the drank his beer snllenly at one of the abrupt corner of a gable which pro- smaller tables. The landlord loitered jected into it, the grey wall of which about between the open outer door was lightened by one homely bow- and the “coffee-room," and I took window in the upper story, but no- my seat at the head of the big table, thing more. This being the Witcher- and suggested dinner to the openley Arms, I went no further, though eyed country maid. some distant cottages, grey, silent, She was more startled than I exand rude, caught my eye a little way pected by the idea. Dinner! there
The Witcherley Arms, indeed, was boiled bacon in the house, she toas the hamlet of Witcherley—it knew, and ham and eggs were pracwas something between an inn and ticable. I was not disposed to be & farmhouse, with long low rooms, fastidious under present circumsmall windows, and an irregular and stances, so the cloth was spread, and rambling extent of building, which it the boiled bacon set before me, prewas hard to assign any use for, and paratory to the production of the which seemed principally filled up more savoury dish. To have a betwith long passages leading to closets ter look at me, the landlord camo in and cupboards and laundries in & and established himself beside the prodigal and strange profusion. A bumpkin in the window. These few rade steps led to the door, with- worthies were not at all of the ruffian in which, on one sile, was a little kind, but, on the contrary, perfectly bar, and on the other the common honest-looking, obtuse, and leisurely: room of the inn. Just in front of their dialect was strange to my ear, the house, surrounded by a little and their voices confused ; but I plot of grass, stood a large old could make out that what they did elm-tree, with the sign swung high talk about was the “Squire." among its branches; opposite was Of course, the most natural topic the gate of a farmyard, and the doll in the world in a place so primitive; walls of a half square of barns and and I, examining my bacon, which offices ; behind, the country seemed was not inviting, paid little attento swell into a bit of rising-ground, tion to them. By-and-by, howcovered with the woods of the ever, the landlord loitered out again manor-house; but the prospect be- to the door; and there my attenfore was of a rude district broken tion was attracted at once by a voice up by solitary roads, crossing the without, as different as possible from moorland, and apparently leading their mumbling rural voices. This Dowbere. One leisurely country- was followed immediately by a quick cart stood near the door, the horse alert footstep, and then entered the standing still with dull patience, and room an old gentleman, little, carethat indescribable quiet conscious- fully dressed, precise and particular, ness that it matters nothing to any in a blue coat with gilt buttons, å one how long the bumpkin stays in- spotless white cravat, Hessian boots, side, or the peaceable brute withont, and hair of which I could not say which is only to be found in the with certainty whether it was grey extreme and andisturbed seclusion or powdered. He came in as a