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feared to look at lest she should something, or try what she can do for be offended, smiled approvingly; Louis,” said Mamma ; she did not patted the shoulder of Agnes as she think how impossible it would be to passed her, left “ her love for the do anything for Louis, until Louis other poor child," and went away. graciously accepted the service; nor Mrs. Atheling looked after her with indeed, that the only thing the young & not unnatural degree of compla- man could do under his circumstancency. “Now, I think it very likely ces was to trust to his own exertions indeed that she will either leave them solely, and seek service from none.


The visit of Miss Rivers was an trouble,” was nearest of all at that early one, some time before their mid- moment to her mother's heart. day dinner ; and the day went on When suddenly a violent sound of quietly after its usual fashion, and wheels from the high-road broke in fell into the stillness of a sunny after- upon the stillness, then a loud voice noon, which looked like a reminis- calling to horses, and then a dull cence of midsummer among these plunge and heavy roll. Mrs. Atheling early October days. Mrs. Atheling lifted her startled eyes, drowsy no sat in her big chair, knitting, with a longer, to see wbat was the matter, little drowsiness, a little stocking, just in time to behold, what shook though this was a branch of art in the little house like the shock of a which Hannah was found to excel, small earthquake, Miss Anastasia's and had begged her mistress to leave two grey borses, trembling with un. to her. Agnes sat at the table with usual exertion, draw up with a bound ber blotting-book, busy with her and commotion at the little gate. special business ; Charlie was writing And before the good mother could out a careful copy of the old deed. rise to her feet, wondering what The door was open, and Bell and could be the cause of this second Beau, under the happy charge of visit, Miss Rivers herself sprang out Rachel

, ran back and forwards, out of the carriage, and came into the and in, from the parlour to the gar- house like a wind, almost stumbling den, not omitting now and then a over Rachel, and nearly upsetting visit to the kitchen, where Hannah, Bell and Beau. She did not say a covered all over with her white word to either mother or daughter, bib and apron, was making cakes she only came to the threshold of the for tea. Their merry childish voices parlour, waved her hand imperiously, and prattling feet gave no disturb- and cried, “Young Atheling, I want ance to the busy people in the you!" parlour; neither did the light fairy Charlie was not given to rapid step of Rachel, nor even the songs movements, but there was

no misshe sang to them in her wonderful understanding the extreme emotion voice-they were all so well accus- of this old lady. The big boy got up tomed to its music now. Marian at once and followed her, for she and Louis, who did not like to lose went out again immediately. Then sight of each other in these last days, Mrs. Atheling, sitting at the window were out wandering about the fields, in amaze, saw her son and Miss or in the wood, thinking of little in Anastasia stand together in the garthe world except each other, and that den, conversing with great earnestgreat uncertain future which Louis ness. She showed him a book, penetrated with his fiery glances, and which Charlie at first did not seem of which Marian wept and smiled to . to understand, to the great impahear. Mamma sitting at the window, tience of his companion. Mrs. Athelbetween the pauses of her knitting ing drew back troubled, and in the and the breaks of her gentle drowsi- most utter astonishment-what could ness, looked out for them with a it mean? little tender anxiety. Marian, the "Young Atheling," said Miss only one of her children who was "in Anastasia abruptly, “I want you to give up this business of your father's directions. I will make your forimmediately, and set off to Italy on tune, boy ; you sball be the richest mine. I have made a discovery of pettifogger in Christendom. Do you the most terrible importance : though hear me, young Atheling-do_you you are only a boy, I can trust you. hear me! He is the true Lord Do you hear me?-it is to bring to Winterbourne – he is my father's bis inheritance my father's son !" lawful son!”

Charlie looked up in her face as- To say that Charlie was not stuntonished, and without comprehen- ned by this sudden suggestion, or that sion. “My father's business is of im- there was no answer of young and portance to us,” he said, with a mo- generous enthusiasm, as well as of mentary sullenness.

professional eagerness in his mind, “ So it is; my own man of business to the address of Miss Rivers, would shall undertake it; but I want an have been to do him less than jusagent, secret and sure, who is not tice. “Is it Italy ?-I don't know a like to be suspected,” said Miss Anas- word of Italian," cried Charlie. tasia. “ Young Atheling, look here !” “Never mind, I'll go to-morrow. I

Charlie looked, but not with en- can learn it on the way.” thusiasm. The book she banded The old lady grasped the boy's him was an old diary of the most rough hand, and stepped again into commonplace description, each page her carriage. “Let it be to-morrow," divided with red lines into compart. she said, speaking very low; “tell ments for three days, with printed your mother, but no one else, and do headings for Monday, Tuesday, not, for any consideration, let it Wednesday, and so on, and columns come to the ears of Louis-Louis, my for money. The wind fluttered the father's boy !—But I will not see leaves, so that the only entry visible him, Charlie ; fly, boy, as if you had to Charlie was one relating to some wings till you come home. I will purchase, which he read aloud, be- meet you to-morrow at Mr. Temple's wildered and wandering. Miss An- office-you know where that is--at astasia, who was extremely moved twelve o'clock. Be ready to go imand excited, looked furious, and as mediately and tell your mother to if she was almost tempted to ad- mention it to no creature till I see minister personal chastisement to her again." the blunderer. She turned over the Saying which, Miss Rivers turned fluttered leaves with an impetuous her ponies, Charlie hurried into the gesture. “Look here," she said, house, and his mother sat gazing out pointing to the words with her im- of the window, with the most blank perative finger, and reading them and utter astonishment. Miss Analond in a low, restrained, but most astasia had not a glance to spare for emphatic voice. The entry was in the watcher, and took no time to pull the same band, duly dated under her rose from the porch. She drove the red line—“Twins-one boy—and home again at full speed, solacing Giulietta safe. Thank God. My her impatience with the baste of her sweet young wife.”

progress, and repeating, under her “ Now go-fly!” cried Miss Anas- breath, again and again, the same tasia, "find out their birthday, and words. “One boy — and Giulietta then come to me for money and safe. My sweet young wife !"

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SINCE the British mind was all sioned this sudden enthusiasm for alive and trembling with that zoolo- anemones; lovely, indeed, but by no gical fervour which the appearance of means the most lovely, and certainly the bippopotamus in Regent's Park not the most interesting wonders of excited for many months, no animal the deep. Mr. Gosse by his pleasant has touched it to such fine issues books, and Mr. Mitchell by his tanks and such exuberant enthusiasm as in the Regent's Park Zoological the lovely sea-anemone, now the or- Gardens, have mainly contributed to nament of countless drawing-rooms, the diffusion of the enthusiasm ; and studies, and back parlours, and the now that enterprise has made a delight of unnumbered amateurs. commercial branch of it, we may In glass-tanks, and elegant vases of consider the taste established, for at various device, in finger-glasses, and least some years. One good result of common tumblers, the lovely creature this diffusion will be an extension of may be seen expanding its coronal of our knowledge, not only of this, tentacles, on mimic rocks, amid mimic but of many other of the simpler forests of algæ, in mimic oceans of animals. For many years the writpump-water and certain mixtures of ings of zoologists have given a place chlorides and carbonates, regulated to observations on the anemones; by a “specific gravity test.” Fairy but the observations have been infingers minister to its wants, remov- complete, and all hand-books and ing dirt and slime from its body, treatises which repeat these observafeeding it with bits of limpet or raw tion are very naturally, crowded beef; fingers, not of fairies, pull it with errors. To give the reader an about with the remorseless curiosity of idea of the state of current opinion science, and experiment on it, accord- on this one topic, it is enough to ing to the suggestion of the moment. mention that on the second page At once pet, ornament, and “sub- devoted by Professor Rymer Jones* ject for dissection,” the sea anemone to a description of the habits of the has a well-established popularity in anemone, there are six distinct erthe British family circle; having the rors : yet this is no fault of his ; he advantage over the hippopotamus of states what all preceding writers being somewhat less expensive, and state, and his excellent summary of less troublesome, to keep. Were sea- what is known bears the date of cows as plentiful as anemones, one 1855. the habits have been so could not make pets of them with imperfectly observed, you may guess the same comfort. There would be what chaos the anatomy and objections to Potty in the drawing- physiology of this animal present.

There would be embarrass- Such being the state of the case, we ments in the commissariat. There may hope that the wide diffusion of a would be insurgents among the taste for vivaria will in a little while domestics; for the best tempered furnish Science with ample material ; Betty might find it impossible “ to and meanwhile, as many of Maga's stand” the presence of such a pet, loving readers are possessors of and resolutely refuse to bring up his vivaria, actual or potential, and will water, and clean out his crib; where- certainly not content themselves with as, although the red - armed Betty blank wonderment, but will do their thinks you a little cracked when you utmost to rightly understand the introduce “them worm things” into anemones, even if they make no your house, she keeps her opinions wider incursions on the domains of within the circle of the kitchen, and the zoologist, I may hope they will consents to receive her wages with- be interested if I group together the out a murmur.

results of investigations, pursued at It is difficult to say what occa- Ilfracombe and Tenby during last



* General Outline of the Animal Kingdom, p. 66.

summer, and, with less energy, fines of the animal and vegetable because with less prodigality of kingdomswhen all the while specimens, during the autumn and Nature knows of no such demarcatwinter at home. In the present ing lines. The Animal does not state of knowledge, the independent exist ; nor does the Vegetable: both observations of every one who has are abstractions, general terms, such had any experience cannot but be as Virtue, Goodness, Colour, used to welcome.

designate certain groups of partiIt must be assumed at starting culars, but baving only a mental that the reader knows what a Sea existence. Who has been fortunate Anemone is, in aspect at least. No enough to see the Animal ? We description will avail, in default of have seen cows, cats, jackasses, and direct observation ; even pictures 80 camelopards; but the “ rare monster" admirable as those in Mr. Tugwell's Animal is visible in no menagerie. charming little book,* only give an If you are tempted to call this metaapproximate idea ; while to those physical trifling, I beg you to read who have seen neither picture nor the discussions published on the animal it will be of little use to de- vegetable or animal nature of Diatoclare that the “ Actinia is a fleshy maceæ, Volvocinæ, &c., or to attend cylinder, attached by one extremity to what is said in any text-book on to a rock, while the free end is sur- the distinctions between animals and mounted by numerous tentacula vegetables, and you will then see arranged in several rows, which, there is something more than meta-. when expanded, give the animal the phisics in my paradox. In the appearance of a flower.”. Assuming simpler organisms there is no mark then that you know the general which can absolutely distinguish the aspect of the Actinia, you may follow animal from the vegetable ; and if my description of the animal's bear in the higher organisms a greater ing and habits. How do I know that amount of characteristic differences it is an animal, and not a flower, may be traced, so that we may, for which it so much resembles ? Well, purposes of convenience, consider a to be perfectly candid, I do not certain group of indications as enknow it. Nobody does. No one titling the object to be classed under yet has been able to distinguish, in the Animal division, we must never the face of severe critical preci- forget that such classifications are sion, between the animal and plant- purely arbitrary, and as the philosoorganisation, so as to be able authori- phers saysubjective. tatively to say,

“This is exclusively Now what are the characteristic animal.” To distinguish a cow from marks of the Sea Anemone, which a cucumber requires, indeed, no pro- entitle it to be removed from the found inauguration into biological hands of the botanist, and placed in mysteries; we can “venture fearlessly those of the zoologist ? Rymer Jones to assert" (with that utterly uncalled- assures us, that its animal nature “ is for temerity exhibited by bad writers soon rendered evident," and he thinks in cases when no peril whatever is this evidence is the manifestation of hanging over the assertion) that the sensibility. “A cloud veiling the COW and cucumber are not allied- sun will cause their tentacles to fold no common parentage links them to as though apprehensive of danger gether, even through remote relation- from the passing shadows." Ünship; but to say what is an animal, happily, the fact alleged is a pure presupposes a knowledge of what fiction; and, were it true, would not is essentially and exclusively ani distinguish the Actiniæ from those mal ; and this knowledge unhappily plants which close their petals when has never get been reached. Much the sun goes down. A fiction, howhot, and not wise, discussion has ever, it is, as any one may verify. occupied the hours of philosophers in If Actiniæ have been seen to fold up trying to map out the distinct con- their tentacles when a cloud has

* A Manual of the Sea Anemones commonly found on the English Coast. By the Rev. GEORGE TUGWELL. 1856.

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reasons :

passed before the sun, this has been much in the same way as plants
a coincidence, not a causal relation; assimilate the organic material dif-
so far from light being the necessary fused through the soil and atmos-
condition of their expansion, they are phere. Filter the water carefully,
in perfect expansion in the darkness; and remove from it all growing vege.
and if the venturous naturalist will tation, and you will find the animal
imitate Mr. Tugwell, and, with the fasting, but speedily dying, however
solemn chimes of midnight as accom- freely oxygen may be supplied. It
paniment, take his lantern on the is on this account that when we
rocks, he will find all the Anemones make artificial sea-water, it is ne-
in full blossom. Then again, al- cessary to allow algæ to grow in it
though the Anemone entraps its prey, for some two or three weeks before
or anything else that may come in putting in the animals ; by which time
contact with it tentacles, this is no the water has become charged with
proof of animality, for the sensitive organic material.
plant, known as the Flytrap of Venus Mere sensibility and capture of
(Dionæa muscipula), has a precisely food, therefore, are not the distin-
analogous power ; any insect, touch- guishing marks we seek, since the
ing the sensitive hairs on the surface plant is found to possess them as
of its leaf, instantly causes the leaf to perfectly as the animal. Is sponta-
shut and enclose the insect, as in neous locomotion a sufficient mark?
a trap ; nor is this all : a mucilagin- No; and for these two
ous secretion acts like a gastric juice Some animals have no such power ;
on the captive, digests it, and ren- some plants, and all spores, have it.
ders it assimilable by the plant. There are animals which no botanist
which thus feeds on the victim, as has ever claimed—the Ascidians, for
the Actinia feeds on the annelid or example, which can scarcely be said
crustacean it may entrap. Where, to exhibit any motion at all (the
then, is the difference? Neither seeks rhythmic contraction and expansion of
its food : place the food within a their orifices not deserving the name,)
line's breadth of the tentacles, or while their whole lives are spent root-
sensitive hairs, and so long as actual ed to the rock or shell, as firmly
contact is avoided, the grasping of as the plant is rooted in the earth.
the food will not take place. But Nay, even with regard to the ane-
you object, perhaps, that this mode mones, it is said by Dr. Lands-
of feeding is normal with the Actinia, borough, Dr. Carpenter, and others,
exceptional with the Flytrap. The that they will not move towards the
plant, you say, is nourished by the water, should the vessel be gradually
earth and air, the animal depends on emptied, or the water evaporate, not
what it can secure. I must contra- even if their tentacles can reach its sur-
dict you; indeed I must, although face. This is incorrect; but I mention
with the profoundest respect. For it as one of the difficulties which
granting-what, in_fact, I sturdily would meet the student in the way of
dispute that the Flytrap is in no distinguishing the

froin way dependent upon such insect food plants. It is one of the many inacas may fall into its clutch, we shall curate statements, grounded on imperstill observe the Actinia in similar fect observation, which are repeated independence. Keep the water free in hand-books.' The original obfrom all visible food, and the Actiniæ server probably noticed an anemone continue to flourish and propagate some time out of the water, making no just as if they daily clutched an un- effort to return; had the observation happy worm The fact is well been continued, the doubt would have known, and is currently, but errone- been solved. Some anemones, especiously, adduced as illustration of the ally the common smooth species (Meanimal's power of fasting. But there sembryanthemum) accustomed is no fasting in the matter. In this daily to be left out of water by the water free from visible aliment there receding tide, so that in captivity they is abundance of invisible aliment,- may be supposed rather to enjoy an infusoria, spores, organic particles, occasional air-bath. I have repeatedly &c., which the animal assimilates, seen mine crawl out of the water,



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