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and imperfections, from which no com- hieroglyphic history, both at home and pilation of so much difficulty and re abroad, promoted by easy access to search can be exempt, are brought to. the originals, unembarassed by spegether in a far more accessible, digested, culation. and useful form, than any in which In 1832 appeared the enlarged sethey have before appeared.
cond edition of the collection; and, The Egyptian department is, under although a lustrum has now passed present circumstances, the most attrac over our heads since this work has tive. The dynasties of Manetho, of been in the hands of the learned world, which we now possess many in the and been silently and effectively protexts of the original contemporary moting the labours of the historical sculptures, appear in all the forms in student, we are not aware that it has which they are found scattered in hitherto been made known to the geancient writers, disposed in parallel neral reader as such a work deserves ; columns; so that the opening of an but it is never too late to do justice to octavo page stands in the place of the a treatise of the first literary necessity. folios of Josephus, Eusebius, Syncellus, The present edition came out after and Scaliger, which are inaccessible to the sun of the two original hiero. all but the slaves of literature at home, glyphic discoverers had set for ever, and altogether so to travellers abroad. but at the heiglit of the Egyptian To these are added the collateral state. race; and it has contributed more ments of Sanchoniatho, Herodotus, than any other work of the times to Diodorus, Eratosthenes, and the old render that a useful race for the purEgyptian chronicle, Chæremon, Arta- poses of history, by presenting the panus, and Apion of Alexandria; to
written versions of the recovered hiero. gether with the historical and scientific glyphic records in all the forms in fragments relating to Egypt, which are wliich history has transmitted them. to be found in other Greek and Roman The first edition has been augmented authorities.
fourfold, and the versions and authorBy a fortunate coincidence of cir- ities which we have already mentioned, cumstances, the labours of Mr Cory together with many others relating to were directed to this collection soon Egyptian and contemporary history, after those of the hieroglyphic de- have been added to its contents. Nor cipherers originated, and were brought ought we to omit noticing the sciento partial maturity nearly in time to tific fragments from Ptolemy, Censomeet the historical wants of the latter; rinus, Theon, Berossus, and other writfor, previously to the appearance of ers, all bearing on the same historical the first edition in 1828, although the system. general principles of the hieroglyphic But a few observations on Egyptian records of succession had been aseer- history in general, its claims, nature, tained by Champollion, the method of and principles, and the results to which applying these principles was still in these will conduct us, may best illusits infancy, nor had the collateral and trate our subject and serve the cause connecting records of Karnak, Beni- of enquiry, besides practically demonhassan, and Medinet Abon, brought strating the value and utility of the to light through the zeal of our anti- work before us, and eliciting data for quarians resident in Egypt, been at a probable restoration of the original that period discovered.
text of Manetho's history, from the An authentic copy of the dynasties various mutilated and conflicting veraccording to Africanus, was by this sions extant in Mr Cory's conipilation : useful volume placed in the hands of an object which the hieroglyphic verienquirers and travellers; and this was fications of Manetho have rendered of accompanied by the fragments of Ma- extreme importance to history. netho from Josephus, the remains of Egyptian history, as set forth in the the Theban chronicle of Eratosthenes, remains of Manetho, the only writer of the old Egyptian chronicle, and of who has left a complete outline of the the correlative Phænician record of subject, is distributed into thirty-one Sanchoniatho. The mutilated and dynasties, concluding with the Macecorrupted transcripts of chronologersdonian conquest. It clearly distinwere thus far replaced by genuine guishes itself into two portions, each data, and the labours of enquirers into of which possess equal, although very
differently grounded claims to credi- ments ; and here, accordingly, the. bility, derived from wholly distinct connected succession of Manetho, who criteria and evidences.
concludes the second book of his anThe first of these portions, of which nals with the nineteenth dynasty, we have already in some
breaks off. He, however, acquaints treated, is the most obscure and un us that the next, or twentieth dynasty, manageable. From its remoteness in consisted of Diospolites, as well as the time, from its want of connexion with eighteenth and nineteenth, and was known synchronous history, and in the last family of that line: and we, asmuch as it can be tested only by accordingly, find the tombs of a num. the contemporary monumental tablets, ber of uncatalogued Ramses, succesit is the most obnoxious to hypothesis sors of those of the Tablets, in the Neand theory. It is not, however, the cropolis of Thebes, where the last ten less authentic, and is the most import of the catalogued kings, the line of ant part of the annals of Egypt, being Ramses I., are found entombed. The the great age of the arts and empire former have no place in the subseof the Pharaohs, and that which, con quent dynasties of Manetho, of which sequently, has received the most illus we possess nearly all the names, and tration and proof from hieroglyphic therefore belong to the nameles: discovery. Hieroglyphic discovery twentieth dynasty. has thus replaced the contemporary Again, as the Diospolites end with witnesses which the records of other this dynasty, the records of the Ne. nations supply to authenticate the se cropolis of Thebes also finish with cond portion of the history, to which, the above-mentioned kings, none of in a more particular manner, we shall those of the dynasties after the twenpresently advert.
tieth being buried there. The portion of which we are now Thus far we have a wonderfully speaking subdivides itself into two authenticated portion of history, not parts-the first consisting of the first only as to the succession, but the thirteen dynasties, which are excluded years of the reigns, which, so far as from Manetho's chronological canon, dates appear in isolated tablets, critiby the consent of ancient writers, as cally agree with Manetho. Thus, we well as from the primary succession find a tablet of the twenty-second of of the monuments; but which occupy Amos, who reigned twenty-five years, a collateral place in both. The se- according to that historian ; one of the cond part comprises the dynasties of twenty-eighth of Thothmos III., anManetho's canon from the fourteenth swering to the Thmosis of Manetho, to the twentieth, including the great who reigned thirty-nine years ; one of Diospolite family. It is, as already the thirty-sixth of Amenoph III. or stated, connected with that period of Rathek, and Rathotis reigned thirtysacred history which separates the nine years : one of the sixty-second of ages of Abraham and Solomon, and Ramses II., or Amon me Ramses, in the annals of which, the Kings of the constructor of the tablet of AbyEgypt are mentioned only under the dos, and the Rameses Meiamoun of general title of Pharaoh, as in the Manetho, whose reign was sixty-six days of Abraham, of Jacob and Jo- years.t Still, from the want of synseph, of Moses, David, and Solomon. chronous history, and from the ab
It comprehends, as above, the early sence of the proper names of the early dynasties from the fourteenth down Scriptural Pharaohs, the place of this to the close of the nineteenth of Dios great line in time is far from agreed polites; and these are, accordingly, to: and, whether the Exodus of the the limits which the Jewish annalist* Jews be referable to the beginộing, assigns to the time of the Pharaohs middle, or end of the eighteenth dyproperly so called. To this period, nasty, are questions on which the inand no lower, we have the unbroken genuity of writers has not yet tired tabulated succession of the monu itself, notwithstanding the evidence
It is from the last col
Collate Joseph. Antiq. viii. 6, with Lib. contra Apion. i. † This important tablet enriches our National Museum. lection of Mr Salt.
VOL, XLIV. NO, CCLXXIII,
of Josephus and all the oldest eccle, rather connected history, but we have siastical authorities in favour of the hieroglyphic tablets of Mandouphth, first of these opinions.
which can only be referred to Mendes, We shall for the present pass over Amendes, or Smendes, its founder ; the thirteen early contemporary dy, and the chronological place of this fanasties, and devote the remainder of mily is sufficiently determined by those this article to the second portion of of the twenty-second and succeeding the annals, as of more immediate im- dynasties, all of Lower Egypt, as well portance to general history. To it as the twenty-first, belong the dynasties named from the The synchronous history of this pecities of Lower Egypt, from the riod affords us every facility for col. twenty-first downwards – Tanites, lating the various Egyptian statements, Bubastites, Saites, Sebennytes, and and more particularly the copies of Mendesians; besides the foreign Ethi. Manetho's history, and of hence deteropian and Persian dynasties.
mining which of the latter affords the Of these, the historical pames of original and uncorrupted account, to nearly all the princes (those of the the exclusion of those which exhibit first of them, the twenty-first dynasty, not merely the errors of transcribers, excepted), have also been identified but the systematic corruptions of theoon their monumental remains, with rists, who admitted original evidence sufficient difference in style to mark only so far as it harmonized with their their relative ages compared with the particular views on ecclesiastical hisremains of the great Diospolite age; tory. And this being ascertained, it whereas, the monumental records of may direct us to the true versions and the general succession of this period principles of the annals with reference are wanting, and we are in a great to those portions which are not obdegree dependent on written history noxious to the test of contemporary for the order of the reigns, confirmed, history. By this process we shall also however, in a variety of instances by arrive at hitherto unnoticed proofs of the hieroglyphic genealogical Tablets. the high place in which Manetho
The synchronous records of the should be ranked as a historian, indeHebrew and Greek writers are, how- pendently of the recent monumental ever, so complete during the greatest verifications, and which ought at all part of this interval, that we are in times to have protected him from the no want of monuments to verify Egyp- doubts and freedoms of past and pretian history, although evidence from sent criticism. that source is in many cases most com This portion of history ascends four plete.
centuries above the Ethiopian conThe sacred writers begin to give quest and dynasty, B.c. 732, to the age the names of the kings of Egypt with of Samuel, Judge of Israel, and de. Shishak, who was reigning in the last scends an equal period below the same years of Solomon, and took Jerusalem epoch, to the overthrow of the Perin the fifth year of Rehoboam; and sian empire and invasion of Egypt by he, accordingly, appears as Sesonchis, Alexander. It involves, as above, the the first king of Manetho's twenty- scriptural landmarks of the reigns of second dynasty of Bubastites, while his Shishak, So, Tirhakah, Necho, and monumental counterpart, Sheshonk, is Hopbra, and the reigns of the Perfound on the sculptures of the temple sian monarchs from Cambyses to Alexof Karnak, with the King of Judah ander, which the researches of the (having the title of Jouda Melek) Greek astronomers have fixed with among his captives. The So and Tir- mathematical certainty ; so that we hakah of Scripture appear in the Se- have every opportunity of investigatvechus and Taracus of the twenty-fifth ing it. dynasty, and the Necho and Hophra The dynasties of this period may be of the former, in the Neco and Va- stated as follows, according to the data phres or Apries of the twenty-sixth which contemporary Jewish and Gredynasty, and of the Greek historians; cian history supplies for determining while all these, and the rest of their the correct Egyptian version from respective lines, have left monumental among the copies of Manetho given remains.
by Africanus, Eusebius, and Syncelof the twenty-first dynasty of lus, and brought together in the work Tanites we have no synchronous, or before us :
Versions. 1115. XXI. Tanites,
7 130 0 Afric. Eus. 985. XXII. Bubastites,
9 120 0 Afric. 865. XXIII. Tanites,
4 89 0 Afric. 776. XXIV. Saite,
1 44 0
Eus. Syn. 732. XXV. Ethiops,
3 44 0
Eus. Syn. 688.
1 12 0
Eus. 676. XXVI. Saites,
9 150 6 Afric. 525. XXVII. Persians,
8 120 4 Eus. 405. XXVIII. Saite,
1 6 0 Afric. Eus. Syn. 399. XXIX. Mendesians,
4 20 4 Afric. 379. XXX. Sebennytes, 3 38 0 Afric. Eus. Chron. 341. XXXI. Persians,
3 9 0 Afric. 332. Macedonian Conquest.
It will be seen from the foregoing to the Ethiopian and Egyptian kings table that the oldest copy of this por as that of Phra or Pharaoh, “the tion of Manetho's history, that of sun,” we have no data for identifying Africanus, furnishes the greatest num that prince among the immediate sucber of true historical periods, so that cessors of Shishak or Sesonchis, as has it may be viewed as the basis for re been attempted by several learned men. storing the original series-replacing Fourthly, the war of Tirhakah or Tathe mistakes of Africanus from the racus, third king of the Ethiopian other copies, as contemporary Hebrew dynasty, and the Sethon of Heroand Grecian history supply the cri- dotus (II. 141), against Sennacherib, teria.
King of Assyria, in the fourteenth or These criteria are, first, the flight fifteenth year of Hezekiah, King of of Jeroboam to Shishak or Sesonchis, Judah, (2 Kings, xviii. 13., xix. 9.the founder of the twenty-second dy Isaiah, xxxvi. 1., xxxvii. 9), about nasty, towards the end of the reign of B.c. 710. Fifthly, The invasion of Solomon, (1 Kings, xi. 40., xii. 2. the Babylonian empire by Pharaoh 2 Chron. x. 2), who died B.C. 975. Necho, fifth king of the twenty-sixth Secondly, the invasion of Judea by dynasty of Saites, and the death of Shishak in the fifth year of Rehoboam, Josiah, King of Judah,(2 Kings, xxiii. King of Judah, (1 Kings, xiv. 25, 26. 29, seq.-2 Chron. xxxv. 20, et seq. -2 Chron. xii. 2, 3, 4), B.c. 971. -Jerem. xlvi. 2), B.C. 607–604. Thirdly, the alliance of Hosea, King Sixthly, The alliance of Zedekiah, the of Israel, with So or Sevechus, the last king of Judah, with Pharaoh second king of the twenty-fifth or Hophra, (Jerem. xxxvii. 5, &e.), VaEthiopian dynasty, three or four years phres or Apries, seventh king of the before the captivity of the ten tribes, same dynasty, against the Babylonians, (2 Kings, xvii. 4, 5, 6., xviii. 9. 10), about B.C. 591. Seventhly, The conabout B.C. 722. The invasion of quest of Hophra by the Babylonians, Judea by Zerah the Ethiopian, in the and the captivity of Egypt in or soon fifteenth of Asa, King of Judah, (2 after the twenty-seventh year of NeChron. xiv. 9., xv. 10), B.c. 941, buchadnezzar, King of Babylon,(Ezek. preceded this ; but the name Zerah xxix. 27, to xxxii. 32.-Jerem. xliv. being evidently the general title Se-ra, 30, &c.), B.c. 578.t Eighthly, the son of the sun,” which is as common conquest of Egypt by the Persians,
Whether this king was an Ethiop or a Saite, is uncertain. He is called an Ethiop by Eusebius, who, nevertheless, refers him to the XXVI. or Saite dynasty.
† The twenty-seventh year mentioned by Ezekiel, xxix. 17, has been usually referred by chronologers to the captivity of King Jeconiah, from which the prophet in general takes his dates. This brings the conquest of Egypt by Nebuchadnezzar, which is there announced as about to commence, to B.c. 570, the first year of Amasis, or later ; and Newton, according from thence computes the forty years' captivity of Egypt (Ezek. xxix. 13), and supposes them to end with the death of Cyrus, B.c. 529. The respite of Egypt, until the final conquest by Cambyses, B.c. 525, would, according to this view, be four years only, which is very improbable.
Cyrus, although a conqueror, was, equally with Alexander, considered as a deliverer by the Jews and Egyptians—the first from the Babylonian tyranny, and the latter from that of the Persians.
We have, therefore, no question but that the forty years' captivity of Egypt, like
and setting up of the twenty-seventh mathematically determined by ec lipse or Persian dynasty, in the last year of and the evidence of contemporary Amasis, ninth king of the twenty writers, so as not to admit of a second sixth dynasty, when his son Psamme- statement. tichus, or Psammenitus, reigned six We shall now repeat our table, months, in the fifth of Cambyses, king inserting the reigns of the leading of Persia, (Manetho, et al.), B.c. 525. dynasties which are connected with
All these dates are so well deter- synchronous history, viz. of the twentymined as to admit of no difference of second, twenty-fifth, twenty-sixth, opinion sufficient to affect the chro- twenty-seventh, and thirty-first ; and nology of the series of dynasties, while adding the Saite and Persian reigns the subsequent dates in the times of from Herodotus and the Greek astrothe Persian empire, are known to be
8 0 B.C.
MANETHO. B.C. Dynasty.
Yrs. 1115 XXI. Tanites 7 reigns
130 0 985 XXII. Bubast. I Sesonchis
23 O result of the Tablets. 962 2 Osorthon
15 0 947
3, 4, 5, omitted 25 0 922 6 Taclothis
15 O result of the Tablets. 907
7, 8, 9, omitted 42 0 865 XXIII. Tanites 4 reigns
89 0 776 XXIV. Saites 1 Bochchoris
44 0 732 XXV. Ethiops 1 Sabacon
8 0 724 2 Sebichus
14 0 710 3 Tarcus
22 O result of Tablets and chronology. 688 Ethiop or Saite (Ammeses)
12 0 676 XXVI. Saites 1 Stephinates
7 0 669 2 Nechepsos
HERODOTUS. 663 3 Nechao I.
Yrs. m. 655
4 Psammeticus 45 0671 1 Psammetichus 54 0 610 5 Nechao II.* 9 0 617 2 Necos
16 0 601 6 Psammuthis 6 0 601 3 Psammis
6 0 595 7 Vaphris 19 0 595 4 Apries
25 0 576
6 0 570 8 Amosis 44 0 570 5 Amasis
44 0 526 9 Psammecherites 0 6 526 6 Psammenitus 0 6
HIPPARCH. and PTOLEMY. 525 XXVII. Persians 1 Cambyses
3 0 525 1 Cambyses
4 0 522
07 521 2 Darius Hystasp. 36 0 521 2 Darius I.
36 0 486 3 Xerxes I. 21 0 486 3 Xerxes
21 465 4 Artabanus
0 7 464 5 Artax. Longim. 40 0 465 4 Artax. I.
41 0 424 6 Xerxes II.
0 2 424 7 Sogdianus
0 7 424
8 Darius Nothus 19 0 424 5 Darius II. 19 0 405 XXVIII, Saites 1 Amyrteuus
6 0 405 6 Artax. II. 46 0 399 XXIX. Mendes 4 Reigns
20 4 379 XXX. Sebben 3 Reigns
38 0 360 (accession of Ochus resulting from Manetho ) 359 7 Ochus
20 341 XXXI. Persians 1 Artax. Ochus
2 0 339 2 Arses 3 0 338 8 Arostes
2 0 336 3 Darius Codom. 4 0 336 9 Darius III.
4 0 332 Macedonians Alexander
the seventy years' captivity of Judah, terminated about the accession of Cyrus to the throne of Babylon, and we would refer both to the same date, B.c. 536, when the decree of Cyrus was issued ; and the rather, because the forty years had particular
• The reign of Nechao II. according to Syncellus ; which is confirmed by a hieroglyphic stete, produced by Rosellini from the Florentine Museum, by which it appears that the period from the IIId. of Nechao to the XXX yth. of Amasis was 71 years.