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das susceperint; nam in re ipsis notissima saepius fit ut magis percurrantur quam recenseantur typis impressa et ut id mente suppleatur quod reapse defuerit vel aliter fuerit quam esset in chirographo scriptum. Ego vero nulla huius rei pertitia instructus, nullo adiutore, periculis typorum nondum cognitis, imparatus, incautus, alacer ad opus accessi fallacissimum et valde festinanter id transegi. Mihi igitur soli quotquot errata censuram fefellerunt tribuenda esse fateor; immo vero, tantum abest ut habeam quicum culpam rei communicem ut illi feminae quae typis meis componendis praecipue operam dedit aliquot correctiunculas debuerim.***Haec omnia dum considero, duo habeo quae praedicem: aliam editionem quam maturrime comparandam et maxima me admiratione affici eorum editorum qui uberrima rerum typographicarum copia optime usi sunt; quorum me ut ratio consiliaque admiratorem dudum habent ita admirabilis atque prope divina in rebus exsequendis vigilantia etiam imitatorem habitura est."

Porro pro oblata rei opportunitate dictiones meas et exempla retractavi atque amplivai et in praefatiunculis plurimis denotavi quicquid praecipue ex usu sociis fore existimabam. Exiguitas vero spati huic editioni concessi prohibuit ne amplius duodecim paginas sententiis orationibusque separatim a pensis tribuerem. Hae lectiones, postquam grammaticae doctrinae et etymologiae et vocabulis satis factum est, suo quaeque loco, prout exigit ratio ordoque rerum, suscipi debent: primo aspectu, ut aiunt, perlegendae atque clare exponendae sunt, deinde repetendae novisque confirmandae exemplis, tum per cetera deinceps pensa, praemonstrante magistro, vel meditato vel ex tempore imitandae. Namque latina latine constanter et copiose pro virili parte tractare debemus. Quod si quis magister ex hac quae nunc provenit editione suam disciplinam latinam administrare volet, erit is ante omnia admonendus has quas dedi voces subsidiarias, dictiones selectiores, exemplaque etymologica speciminis tantum gratia adiecta esse neque sufficere primo anno latino nisi magistri ope in immensum amplientur; immo vero, omitti a me de industria sescentas res quae et in aliis libris elementariis reperiuntur et sunt discentibus pernecessariae scitu, eo scilicet consilio ne quid spati occupent quod difficilioribus obscurioribusve rebus praestari oportuerit. Nec sane infitias ibo quin fieri possit ut haec ipsa quam subministravi materia alienis consiliis parum apte respondeat. Quare magister pro sua prudentia omnia ad arbitrium corriget, mutabit, supplebit.

Una enim solaque ad commodam sermonis latini notitiam via per exempla exercitationesque creberrimas ducere credenda est; at haec pars, sicut demonstravi, nondum est a me elaborata sed magistri curae necessario relinquitur. Hoc libello eas dedi regulas grammaticas, ea praecepta etymologica, eas observationes et cautiones, eum denique vocabulorum et phrasium delectum, unde, tanquam a claris notisque principiis, ad ampliorem in studiis latinis facultatem tirones aequo progressu, duce magistro, perducantur.

Scribebam in aedibus Tribuni Wagonerensis
Die XIX Mai, MCMXXII.

First Latin Task (Lesson)

Acade'mica Pronuntiatio

Praefatiuncula: in any new language we require to know first of all its alphabet, sounds and accents. These we get chiefly from the teacher. The references are to Allen and Greenough (New Latin Grammar, 1903.)

(1) Latin alphabet (latinum alphabe'tum). Vide A. & G. Sec 1. No W in Latin (non est W lit'tera in latina lingua); still we find W in some modern names, as, Wallia (Wales), Wormatia (Worms)

I and J anciently written alike, I; most editors today use I for J U and V anciently written V; most editors today use different characters.

General rule for writing school exercises: write as in English, except that proper adjectives are not always written with an initial capital.

(2) Sounds of the letters (soni littera'rum), Vide AG Sec. 8.

a) six vowels in Latin (sex voca'les in latina lingua): AEIO U Y. In Latin "Y" is called “Greek U" (U graeca).

b) three chief diphthongs (tres praecipuae diphthongi): AE OE AU c) seven notable consonants (septem notabilio'res consonantes v con'sonae): C. G. J. T. R. S. V.

C and G are hard (durae litterae): exempla sunt Cicero, gemma Consonental I (J) sounds like "y" in "yes"; exemplum est (laco bus.. James.)

T in ancient Latin never had the "sh" sound, though this sound is disagreeably common in most European pronunciations (T littera non si bilat, does not hiss, whistle).

R is strong and is called the "dog letter"

(cani'na littera;

CANIS, dog).

S is sharp like SS and V is like the English W; but many modern scholars ignore these points in using Latin for common purposes. (3) Syllables in Latin (syl'labae in latina lingua)

a) every vowel or diphthong makes a syllable; there are no silent letters. (nulla latina littera tacet, no Latin letter keeps quiet.) b) syllables named: final, or, last (ul'tima); penult (paenultima, almost last, like "paeninsula, almost island); antepenult (antepaenultima v. tertia ab extre'ma).

(4) N. B. (nota bene, note well): no Latin for "the" "an,' or "a" (non est arti'culus in latina lingua). Omit them in translating into Latin and add them, as sense seems to require, in translating from Latin. VOCABULA ET PHRASES

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UBI EST PATER? where is father?

IN TONSTRINA--IN FA'BRICA in the barber-shop, in the factory UBI SUNT PATER ET MATER? where are father and mother? DOMI IN CULI'NA--IN AREA at-home in the kitchen, in the yard. FRATER ET SOROR brother and sister

NON EST IN BIBLIOTHE'CA--NON SUNT is not in the library,

are not

VIVAT SCHOLA SUPERIOR DENVERENSIS! live (long-live) the Denver High School!

FLOREAT ACADEMIA flourish the Academy!

Quinque Genera'les Observatio'nes Praefatiuncula: five differences between Latin and English . (1). Parts of speech

a) in an glica lingua: ten parts of speech

b) in latina lingua: octo partes oratio'nis; for there is no article. and the term "noun" (nomen) applies to both substantives (substanti'va no'mina) and adjectives (adiectiva nomina).

(2) Subject and Object

a)in anglica lingua; Nominative Case and Objective spelled alike except some pronouns, as, "he" and "him":

b)in latina lingua: Nominativus casus and Accusativus spelled differently except neuters and two sets of plurals in Pensa 4 and 5 (3) Adjectives

a) anglica adjectiva: same spelling for all uses; thus, "good" has only one form.

b) latina adjectiva: many forms; thus, "bonus" (good) has twelve forms or spelling, no two used the same way, but quite easy to learn to apply.

c) Latin adjectives have gender, number and case-genus et numerus et casus ad latina adjectiva per'tinent-belong to). (4) Names of things (nomina rerum)

a) in anglica lingua: a thing is "it," except that we speak poetically of a ship as "she."

b) in latina lingua: some names of things are masculine, some feminine and some neuter (latina nomina rerum partim masculina, partim feminina, partim neutra) Exempla sunt 'SOL' (m), et "LUNA" (f), sun and moon.

c) There is some system, however, in all this and usually we know at a glance the gender of any word; generally speaking, the termination shows the gender (terminatio decla rat genus); thus, CA'LAMUS (pen) is masculine, like "Marcus;" CHARTA (paper) is feminine, like "Emma" and ATRAMENTUM (black-ink) is neuter, like pensum."

(5) The Latin order of words is all on the emphasis (latinus ordo verborum est totus in em'phasi)

a) adjectives before and after nouns (ante substantiva, post substantiva.)

b) Verbs usually hold the last place in the sentence (latina verba ultimum locum in sententia tenent.). But this does not apply always to EST, SUNT etc.

V. P.

PRAECEPTOR ET PRAECEPTRIX teacher, note tor and trix TIRO IN LATINA DISCIPLINA beginner in Latin course-of-study ADEST HODIE-ADSUNT is here today (are here.)AD, at, to. toward.

LONGE ABEST-ABSUNT is far away (are-away). AB, from.
QUID EST HOC VERBUM (2) what is this word, (verb)?
MAS'CULUM NOMEN-FEMININUM-NEUTRUM
line name (noun), feminine, neuter.

(2) mascu

BENE DICTUM BONE VIR (2) well said (told), good man (sir) MALE FACTUM (2) badly made, dane (pensum, experimentum).

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Vocativus Casus

Praefatiuncula: when a person is directly addressed, the name together with its modifying adjectives is said to be in the Vocative case. VOCAT, calls. Example: MICA, MICA, PARVA STELLA, twinkle, twinkle, little star.

...(1) Non est Vocativus casus in anglica lingua, Still, we find in some hymns the Latin Vocative IESU; as, O Jesu, Thou art standing (2) Vocativus casus in latina lingua: proper nouns in AS, US, IUS have a distinct Vocative form.

a) AS becomes A; as, Thomas, Thoma, (AS terminatio transit in A litteram, passes-over into A).

b) US becomes short E; as, Marcus, Marce.. (US terminatio .transit in E breve.

c) IUS becomes long I; the penult acute or accented; as, Vergillus Vergili (IUS terminatio transit in I longum, acu'ta paenultima) d) Other nouns do not change; as, Alexander, David, Maria, (Ce'tera nomina non mutantur)

(3) Proper names (propria nomina-own names)

a) Family names (gentilicia nomina) in modern Latin keep their national spelling and pronunciation. GENS. family, race, tribe. b) First names (praenomina) are in Latin, if possible. They may be Latin by origin, origine latina, as Marcus; or received by usage, usu recepta; as Ca'rolus; or made by analogy, ex analogia facta, as Eorlus, Earl.

to

„A (4) Etymologia. (This is an English lesson but applies also Latin). IN, written also IL, IM, IR, has two meanings and is really two prefixes spelled alike.

a) negative or privative, meaning NOT. (PRIVAT, deprives)
Examples are indistinct, illegal, impossible, irreverent.
b) mere preposition, mera praepositio: in, into etc, Examples
are import, induce, illative, irrigate, that is, lead water into
-a-place.

V. P.

'SILENTIUM, TIRO'NES silence, beginners, Freshmen, etc. SCHOLA HABE'TUR-DIMISSA EST school is-a-holding, is dismissed.

TINTINNA'BULUM SONAT the bell sounds, rings.

ADSUM, DOMINE-AD'SUMUS I-am-present, sir; we-are-present PRATUM CANI'NUM Dog Meadow, Prairie du Chien. PRATOCANENSIS, m. f. belonging to Prairie du Chien.

NOVUM EBORA'CUM, New York. Sometimes NEOEBORACUM NEOEBORACENSIS, plur. NEOEBORACENSES. 'N. B. the plural may be used to mean the people of New York. These forms are only masculine and femine.

(salutationes)

MULTUM SALVE, EMMA MATER TERA, much be-safe, good day, Aunt Emma.

BENE VALE, pl. VALE'TE, well (horoughly) be strong (good bye)

AVE IMPERATOR, all-hail Commander-inChief. Emperor.

SANUS ET SALVUS, sound and safe.

Tria Genera

Praefatiuncula: tria ge'nera in latina grammatica sunt: masculinum genus et femininum et neutrum. GENUS, sort, kind. HUMA'NUM GENUS, human race.

I) Flexus--Singulariter

pluraliter

HIC HAEC HOC, this HI HAE HAEC, these BONUS BONA BONUM, good BONI BONAE 2) Duae observationes

BONA.

a) The feminine singular and the neuter plural chance to be
spelled alike; but this is only an accident, and the sentence as a
whole will show which form is intended. (contexta oratio sen-
sum declarat)

We must not use a Nominative for an Accusative; however,
we know that neuters have Nominative and Accusative alike.
3) Adverbs from adjectives, adverbia de adiectivis

a) anglica adverbia: end in LY; as, clearly and distinctly.
b)latina adverbia: exeunt in E longum, go-out into long E; ex-
empla, CLARE ET DISTINCTE. But BENE & MALE have

short E, as seen in poetry (in poe'si latina).

4) Neuter plurals end in A except four, of which HAEC is one (Neutra pluralia A littera terminantur)

5) Neuter forms often to be rendered "things," "object," "circumstances etc. Example. Hoc est bonum, this is a good thing; this-thing is a-good one. This is using the adjective in a noun sense, in substantivo sensu.

6) Observatio etymologica: ION, TION, SION. English words so ending can be turned into Latin, if they came from Latin, by dropping N and are nearly all feminine. The plural adds ES to the English and is both Nom. and Acc. Exempla sunt: oratio, orationes, multiplicatio et divisio, operationes arithmeticae, aequatio algebraica, absurda et ridi'cula opinio, aviatio transatlantica, clara et lucida interpretatio, indistincta et confusa pronuntiatio etc.

V. P.

DA MIHI EXEMPLUM-DATE MIHI give to me an example,

instance

SI PLACET, SI COM MODUM EST if it is pleasing, if it is convenient

PLANE ET PERSPICUE SCRIPTUM plainly and perspicuously

written

PURA ET LATINA ORATIO pure, Latin speech. Note the ET RECITA NOBIS HOC CARMEN-HOC SCRIPTUM, read aloud to us this poem, this writing.

EXPLICA HOC PRAECEPTUM, unfold, explain this rule. MONSTRA MIHI MENDA ET VITIA, point-out to-me the mistakes and defects.

TENTA (TEMPTA) DIVINARE EX ANGLICO, try to-guess from the-English.

answer this, in-reference-to

RESPONDE AD HOC, CA'ROLE,

this Charles

HOC EST RECTE RESPONSUM, this is rightly said-in-answer.
NUNC ITERUM, now again, a-second-time.
OMNES UNA, all together.

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