« PoprzedniaDalej »
No. 1.-Vol. IX.]
PLATE I. A Hereford Bull, bred by John Price, Esq., of Poole House, Upton-upon-Severn, Worcestershire, for which a Prize of £20 was awarded at the Meeting of the Royal Agricultural Society at Bristol, July, 1842.
GARRETT'S DRILL FOR GENERAL PURPOSES. The manufacturers of this implement, whose thereby sown in very unequal proportions. To restudy it lias been to render it as perfect and as medy this, the small hcavy secds, such as clover, useful as possible, lave lately maile several im- trefoil, &c., are delivered from cups, while the portant improvements, which more especially re lighter grass seeds, such as rye-grass, &c., are by fer to its manuring and seed-sowing purposes, and thie same operation brushed out of a separate apartthey now confidently present it as an implement ment of the box, down the same conductors with combining the utmost cconomy with complete ef the other sced. This easy and simple method, ficiency. The gencral utility of this implement whereby the required qnantities of each sced arc is to perform, in one process, manuring, corn nicely mixed, and evenly sown all over the land, and grass-seeding, which is accomplished in the descrves particular attention, and is regulated by followiug manner :-Corn and inanure may be merely turning the screw at the end of the box for deposited together down the same conductors, rye grass, and changing wheels on the cup barrel for or through separate coulters, rakes being pro- clover, &c. vided to cover the manure with mould, upon To accomodate the drill to suit any kinds of which the seed is deposited. The sced engine land, however hilly, an improved and simple appaaccompanying this drill is adapted to sow at ratus is provided; so that, though the deposit of the same time with spring corn and manure, the sced in going up or down hill be ever so irreor may be used as a separate implement for grass gular (which is always the case to some extent), sceds broadcast, or turnips and mangold wurtzel in the man in attendance, without stopping the drill rows, either with or without manure.
or altering the course of the horscs, is enabled, by The patentees would call the particular atten merely pressing down one handle and raising antion of agriculturists to the following impor- other, to alter thic gear of the wheels, and put on a tant additi in the construction of their improved slower or faster speed as may be required. This is drill, viz., a double action stirrer is introduced cffected by a wlicel on each end of the delivering into the manure department, having a perpendicu barrel, one of larger dimensions than the other; so lar and also a revolving movement, by means of that, if the drill is getting on a certain quantity which the manure (which, in the drills hitherto in when going up hill, by altering the gear when gouse, has frequently clogged and hung back in the ing down, the quantity deposited is rendered premanure-box, so much so as to require the atten cisely the same; whereas, if thc barrel alway's dance of a man to prevent it) is, in this, constantly worked from one-sized wheel, whether going up or disturbed and presscd forward into the departments down hill, the quantities of secd delivered would be for the depositing barre), and causing an equal dis found very irregular: this is of infinite importance tribution, in exact quantities, of the most difficult, to hilly land farmers, and should claim their particoarse, or badly prepared manures.
cular attention. In the working of the sced-sowing engine as before The manufacturers of this drill baving lately constructed, the difficulty which has hitherto pre taken out a patent for a horse-hoe,” would vensented itself of mixing together the heavier with the ture a few remarks on these two implements, which lighter seeds, the heavier have by the motion of the are so closely connected as to render the effectiveengine been shaken to the bottom of the box, being ness of one dependent on the efficiency of the other, OLD SERIES.]
[No. 1.-VOL. XX,
It must be well known that the rows, to be properly bability that, before long, much of the remaining horse-hoed, should be as nearly parallel as pos- protection will be taken away, and they will have sible; and not only this, but that they should be to contend in the home markets in the sale of their the same distance apart, one from the other: and corn and cattle-with the produce of countries to effect this, the coulter should be set only a little where taxes and parish-rates are comparatively out of the straight line, to prevent the alterations unknown, and labour is obtained at half the cost of or movements of the horse affecting the position of that paid by the English farmers. the rows; but, as it is found indispensable to set This being their situation, the question of what the coulters one before the other, or fore and aft can be done to meet these changes most forcibly alternately, in order to allow large clods and stones speaks to both farmers and their landlords. And it to pass between them, it should be borne in mind is with a view to aid them in this inquiry, that I that the carrying out this plan, to any great ex intend to recall to their notice many of the improvetent, is extremely detrimental to the working of the ments in the practice of farming which have of hoe, inasmuch as the further the hind drill-coulter late years been effected, and are still in progress is from the fore one, the more irregular will the for the saving of expense and for the increase of rows be deposited. This is found principally the fertility of the soil, thereby hoping to excite atten. case on side-hills, when the horse, not working tion to those points by which greater economy and parallel with the drill wheels, causes the coulter larger returns may be gained; for only by these furthest off the centre of the lever-joint to form a means can they now expect to carry on the successgreater curve than the nearer one, thereby render- ful cultivation of their farms. ing two rows close together, and two at a greater The farmers produce nearly all they take to mardistance, all the drill through. One would natu ket by an expenditure in rent, rates, tithe, and rally think, that the farther one coulter was behind principally in wages ; and from a surplus in their the other, the better it would be for the working of sales over their expenses, they depend for the profit the drill; but this only tends to prove how cautious which their skill, labour, and capital, entitle them we should be at catching at alterations which ap to realize. It is, therefore, evident that the value pear to be improvements, but, upon trial, are found of all they produce, having been reduced below their both injurious and deficient, and a source of disap cost, they can in future expect to obtain the same pointment to the purchaser.
surplus only by lessening their expenditure, or by In addition to the above improvements, the ma increasing the quantity of their returns without chinery for dropping manure and sced at intervals, equally increasing their outlay. for the turnip root crop, may also be added to this, The economy which has always been practised by making it perfectly complete for every purpose.
farmers with their servants, leaves no room to expect any reduction in their labour; and their expenditure in rent, tithe, and rates, I consider beyond their control.*
But much has already been done to lessen the ON THE RESOURCES WHICH
cost of production, first by the better implements and
machinery, which of late years have greatly reFARMERS POSSESS FOR duced the cattle labour of the farm, and produced MEETING THE REDUCED
other savings of considerable importance. By noPRICES OF THEIR PRODUCE. better estimation of the resources thus still open to
ticing these more particularly, I hope to create
the cultivator; and, I next intend to show, that by BY HEWITT DAVIS,
modern improvements of the soil and the introducAND LAND-AGENT, SPRING PARK,
tion of artificial manures, and by the rearing and
fattening of live stock, as well as by more scientific NEAR CROYDON.
cultivation and cropping, the produce of land has [Communicated by C. W. Johnson, Esq., F.R.S.] been greatly increased; for farmers have this ad
vantage over manufacturers, although both alike "I would have farmers look to the means which modern science affords them for lessening their expenses and increas
* I do not include the rates, tithe, or rent, as ing their returns."
within the scope of reduction ; for the two former In entering upon a theme so important, in a na charges neither landlord nor tenant can lessen, and in tional point of view, as that of the present work, the latter I see little or no ground. I think the I throw aside all political observations; I profess to outcry against bigb rents is made without considebring only practical remedies as palliatives for ration either as to the fair allowance or value that violent transitions in prices. I have no theoretical should be paid for land, and still less of how small projects to offer for the removal of acknowledged is the share which rent forms in the cost of raising disarrangements.
produce. The rent wbich the arable land of all EngThe sudden alteration, which has been made land now pays, averages probably less than 25s. an in the corn laws, and the introduction at a low acre; and at this price is included the farmer's duty of forcign producc, may well create alarm dwelling, stables, barns, cattle-sheds, fences, and in the minds of all who have capital engaged other creations necessary for its cultivation. And in the ownership or occupation of land. For by to estimate the net rent ibat land bears, the interest these means, and in a few months, the value of all on the cost of all ihese, with an allowance for their that land produces has been reduced at least a fifth; maintenance, must be deducted from the payment. and there is still the prospect of a greater reduction. And then, let me ask, how much of what remains The farmers have not only lost a fifth of their capi can fairly be taken away, so as to usefully reduce the tal, but they are continuing to cultivate their farms cost per quarter of the growth of corn? Were the at the expenses which high prices have created, and landlords to give up one-half, the saying would to realize upon their produce at the low prices which amount to less than 2s. per qr. on the cost of growing these alterations have produced ; and with the pro corni.
principally depend on the employment of labourers dicted as certain ruin to the landed interest, and for their returns. That whilst the latter only by abandonment to waste of the arable land of Britain, lessening their expenditure can be enabled to sell at and yet the last seven years so far from proving reduced prices ; so the former, by increasing the ruinous have shown the farmers prosperous, and quantity of their returns may diminish the cost of the value of land steadily increasing. These are their produce. And I am particularly desirous of results which the better knowledge of this imattracting attention to this fact, as here there is proving age have already produced; and yet, great room for improvement, productive of profit to the as they have proved, the improvements by which cultivator and of advantage to the country, and to they have been effected are only partially inan extent which increase of knowledge only makes troduced, and the generality of farmers are still more difficult to estimate.
comparatively but little acquainted with the ecoIn order to encourage farmers by these modes to nomy which improved machinery, better impleseek to meet the times, I will begin by reminding ments, finer stock, and proper homesteads and them, from the results which have taken place, how yards produce, or with the increase of fertility open much the improvements on which their present to them by subsoil and trench ploughing, mixture practice is based must have done for them of of soils, perfect drainage, and the application of arlate years to lessen the cost of all they raise; for tificial manures; and it is to awaken greater attenuntil within the last two centuries, the practice tion in these matters that I am about to allude to of agriculture may be said to have made little pro them more in detail, gress in England; and, as compared with that of Among the machines and implements used by the present day, was barbarous in the extreme. farmers, first in importance comes the plough; perWithin this period, we are indebted for the field haps no improvement has been effected of more cultivation of turnips, mangold-wurzel, clover, the consequence to them than that which has been with artificial grasses, potatoes, and the better varieties rapid progress of late years made in this implement. of corn. No proper rotation of cropping was for- Strange to say, thousands of years rolled on, and merly understood; and only the richest soils were no important change in construction was made; cultivated. Corn crop followed corn crop, until the plough only three centuries back was little more complete exhaustion threw for a period the land out than a rude wooden scratcher of the earth, built of production; and only by one or two or more by the ploughman, and of shape and make so imyears' fallow was any renovation attempted. At the perfect that the agriculturist of the present day is same time, fewer animals were kept, and for winter at a loss to understand how a furrow of sufficient food the bulk of the population depended on salted depth was formed, or the soil sufficiently broken provisions.
up to admit of due preparation for the sowing of Whereas, now there is abundant proof, that by any seed.* And it is to the saving of horse labour the better rotation of cropping, growth of root and the better tillage which the iron ploughs crops and artificial grasses, cleaner farming, and of the present day have effected, that in my opinion by the manure from the winter feeding of stock, farmers are largely indebted for the ability they introduced in the last two centuries, the average have shown to raise corn so much cheaper than yield of the corn per acre is increased 50 per formerly. Still the difference of draft between cent. ; at the same time, the amount of cattle raised many of the ploughs in common use and the most kept on the farms is proportionably larger. And, improved, is such as is highly necessary should be moreover, a poorer class of soils, formerly of no better understood; there are 60 or 70 varieties value, have been brought into profitable cultivation, of form and construction in use, whilst the difference and made to yield returns superior to what were of soil makes but four or five necessary, and the produced from the richest lands.
experiments of Mr, Pusey, so ably and clearly deIt is also a fact, clearly proved by the market re tailed in part 3, vol. 1, of the Journal of the Royal turns, that not only have the number of animals Agricultural Society, prove that a difference of 5 to thus increased, but that the oxen and sheep with 50 per cent, exists in the draught of ploughs of difwhich Smithfield is now supplied, average nearly ferent make, but used for the same purpose and on a double the weight per animal of those brought there similar soil. This comparison of the forces necessary a century back, and that by their quicker maturity, to draw the plough, at once shows that the farmer they are sent to market at a much earlier age; at using the lightest, tills his land wilh a saving of onethe same time the census returns of Britain have third labour over the employer of the heaviest of shown to us that during the last century the popula
the ploughs. tion has more than doubled, and, consequently, a
The next machine or implement in importance is proportionate increase of ail food has become ne the waggon or cart, and which also requires the cessary, and been supplied : and in estimating the increased consumption by the numerical increase in * Such may be said to be the plough of the prethe population, we are far from duly appreciating sent day, in general use in Asia and Africa, and the advance which has taken place in the agriculture nearly all over the world, parts of Europe and Ameof this country; for whilst famine may be said to rica only excepted. " It is not necessary,” says an have formerly periodically visited us, it has of late excellent author on agricultural mechanics, “ to do years been comparatively unknown, and at the same more than slightly advert to the various notices time there has progressed a general change of con which are to be found in the early bistories and picsumption by the labourer from the poorer to the tures of this invaluable implement; for, in fact, for better class of provisions.
ages the plough was little more than a rude clumsy Again, it is scarcely more than a quarter of a cen
instrument, which served only to tear up the surtury that a protecting duty to maintain the corn
face of the land sufficiently deep for the seeds to be averages 30 per cent. above what have been the buried. It was not brought to any thing like a perprices of the last 14 years, was in Parliament ad
fect tool for the purposes required till the close mitted to be necessary; and at that time a decline
the seventeenth century."-J. A. Ransome on the to the prices of late years would have been pre- Implements of Agriculture, p. 13.
consideration of the fariner. I am not going into be once experienced to be for ever highly appretlıc question so often argued as to which is best- ciatel; and the Essex, Hertfordshire, and Suffolk the waggon or one-horse cart; I confess, in spite of farmers on their clay soils are sowing barley in all I have seen or read, I adhere for marketing and January and February, whilst the southern aud barvesting to the waggon-but of the economy of western counties on their light soils, are leaving well-made waggons or carts there should not be a theirs to April and May. They are still unacquainted question. The treatise on draught at the end of the with the better quality and larger yield to be ob. volume“ On the Horse," published by the Society tained by carly sowing. for the Diffusion of useful Knowledge, at once made Drills come next, of the modern inventerl impleclear to me the folly of broad cone-wheels and large ments for my notice. By means of machine sowing axles; and the error of harnessing the fore horses the saving of seed effected is an important ecoto the ends of the shafts, that is to say, I saw that nomy very deserving of consideration, and, as I much more power than should be necessary was have shown in my work on “ The Injury and Waste the consequence of my having the wheels of my of Corn from too thickly Sowing,” is as yet far waggons and carts made unnecessarily wide and from being sufficiently attended to.* Also by dished, and turning on large wooden arms; and I using the drill the sowing of the seed is more therefore had the wooden arm changed for steel, and even and altogether better effected, and the horse the wheels made nearly upright, and the old piece and hand-hoe are made available; the use of tire changed for the loop, and their breadth lessened these remove farther off, if not entirely do away to four inches; and by ineans of a chain from the with the necessity for fallowing, and the growing traces direct to the body of the waggon, I relieved crop is largely benefited by the destruction of the the shaft-horse from the pressure on his back, weeds and by the moving of the soil in the rows. An which was the consequencc previously of letting the experiment detailed by Sir John Sinclair, in his fore-horses draw from the end of the shafts. By “ Code of Agriculture, proves that the part of a these alterations the draft has been much lightened, crop of wheat so cleaned was increased sevenand I shall best prove the advantage therefrom by bushels per acre simply by the hoc. In a word, the relating what occurred to me only last month. introduction of the drill has been considered by
Prior to the alterations I occasionally had to the most distinguished agriculturists as the mosi fetch oats for my consumption from London, important of all modern improvements. By means having in those times to keep more liorses, whilst of the manure-drill and dry-powdered manures, my growth of oats was much smaller, and I pur bill districts, and poor soils have been made profitchased 20 qrs. at a time, and for this quantity a able to a great extent; and many situations are waggon with four horses was always sent, but not thus cultivated which were previously inaccessible without a complaint from the carter, who used to to the dung-cart, or were unprovided with yardconsider the load as too heavy. The low price of
A provision of winter food is grown, thus oats this autumn induced me to purchasc a two enabling the cultivators of such situations to largely horse carriage for general feeding, and not knowing increase their live stock, as well as their returns of how many two horses would now bring, I got an corn. It is impossible to foresee the extent to which order for what my carter should find he could take, the fertility of this country may hereafter be brought, and much to my surprise he brought me home by a better appreciation of those home manures, twenty quarters, weighing 38 lbs. per bushcl, thus which we (at present far behind the practice of the showing to me that had effected a saving of one Chinese, or our continental neighbours), allow to be half in draft.*
wasted ; or worse, to escape into the rivers to their I particularly wish to draw attention to the next pollution and the contamination of the surroundimplements which I am about to notice for their ing air ; and perhaps no fact connected with the use is not general, and their value is far too little improveinent of agriculture is inore startling than known-viz., the grabber, horsc-hoc, scarifier, that, at the present day, when the value of artificial skim, and Finlayson's harrow; these are of modern manures is so much appreciated that the dung of invention, and used for the quicker and cheaper wild lowl is being fetched 5,000 miles, and sold at tillage and better clearing of the ground of weeds; 141. and 151. per ton, the drainage of all our large with four borscs cight acres may be gone over in a towns should be entirely lost. day, by their means the time and labour necessary By a careful calculation of the flow into the in fallowing for cleaning and making a turnip season Thames, from the principal scwers of London, it is reduced ; at the same time they are far more ef has been shown that more than a million of tons of fectual in pulverizing the land, and bringing to tlıc the most powerful manure, are thus wasted annu. surface couch, docks, thistles, and all root-woods, ally ; whilst by a simple contrivance, partly copied than is possible with the plough and common harrow jointly, and by their use the farmer of clay land
districts is general and much valued, there are many may get in bis spring corn in January, February,
parts of England where these implements are unand March, on the fine till produced by frost on a
known. winter ploughing, and without any horse stepping
* In this work I bave shown that the yearly savout of the furrows.t An advantage that has but to ing would amount to more than what bas been tbe
annual average of the importations of the last fourOn one occasion, owing to an accident to one teen years, and that the farmers, by the mere saving of the horses, I had upwards of four and a balf tons, of seed, would be benefited one-half of their rent; net weight, of bark drawn to London by tbree and yet this is a minor consideration to the injury horses, ihe distance being thirteen miles.
the crop sustains from too much seed ; for, if two + The saving of labour wbich they effect, and the plants be produced (and I show that at least three assistance they give for cleaning all soils, and the for one at barvest are produced) where one only can earlier, cheaper, and better tillage of stiff soils, bave exist, ibe struggle tbat ensues in spring and sumled to the invention of five or six varieties of these mer must be fatal to one, and so injurious to the implements; a pretty good proof of the value wbich other, as to produce only a stunted ear in place of a is attached to them; but still, wbilst their use in some full bold one,
from the process on the continent, I showed some
ON CORN-RENTS AND LEASES. years back, in my efforts as managing director of the Thames Improvement Company, that the whole
TO THE EDITOR OF THE FARMER'S MAGAZINE. of this, at a trifling charge, might be intercepted, and without any annoyance; and, to the great
SIR, --I subunit to you the following observations improvement of the river and advantage to the
on corn-rents and leases, which are at your seratmosphere, rendered profitably available for agri- vice if you think them worth a place in your pubcultural purposes, to the increase of our supply lication. of corn and to the diminution of the expense of
The rent of land was, in the earlier periods of its growing it.* (To be continued.)
being let to tenants, paid in kind. The precious
metals were then scarce, and paper-money never *“By carefully conducted experimeuts, and thought of. That portion of the rent due to the very accurate ganging,” observes Cuthbeit John church is yet paid in kind, where the Tithe Comson, in his valuable work on the Fertilizers,” p. mutation Act has not been put in force. Why the 223, “ it bas been ascertained that the principal rent due to the church should continue to be paid London sewers convey daily into the Thanes in kind, so long after the rent due to the owner of 115,608 tons of mixed drainage, consisting on an
the soil had been converted into a money payaverage composition of one part of solid or mecha ment, has always appeared very surprising to me. nically suspended matters, and twenty-fire parts The Tithe Act has converted the tithe into a absolutely fluid. But if we only allow one part in money payment on the principle of a corn-rent. thirty of this immense mass to be composed of This principle has been acted upon in some parts solid substances, tben we have the large quantity of Britain in fixing the rent to the landowners, of more than 3,800 tons of solid manure daily and has been found to work better than a certain wasted in the river, from London alone! What fised sum ; but still, by experience, this mode of might not the farmers of England effect if this mass paying the landowner for the use of his land is of fertilizing matter was preserved at a reasonable found to have a few evils in it, and which are rate for their use? Fifteen tons of this solid ma against the interest of the tenant. nure-nay, ten tons, would render jo some degree
When rent was paid in kindl, a certain portion of fertile an acre of the poorest cultivated, or even
the produce of a farm was claimed by the owner. cominon or beath land. But allow, for the sake of
This, to an improving tenant, was very unjust, as accuracy, that twenty tons were required, even then
the owner of the soil took his portion of the in3,800 tons © 20 give a daily allowance of manure
crease of the produce, without being at any porsufficient for 190 acres of land ; and if we give tion of the extra expense of raising it. This was 300 days on vbich (bis manure was collected, that
one of the principal evils of taking tithe in kind. would afford au annual supply for 57,000 acres ! Can I put this in a stronger light? Is it not
Long leases, say from 14 to 21 years, are absolamentable that tbe fertilizing matter for such a
lutely necessary to insure good cultivation, exbreadth of land should be annually lost to the
cept landowners will improve their estates at their
own expense. country? And in this calulation 1 allow notbing for the absolutely fluid portion of the drainage-I
A certain fixed sum as rent, for a lease of even am now speaking of its mechanically diffused mat 14 years, is often found to be very unfair for one ters; added to which the farmer will readily allow of the contracting partics.
If the price of prothat when once these 57,000 acres are fertilized and duco rises, then the landowner gets less than his rendered productive, that some time elapses before due ; if it falls, he gets more than his due: and even the most naturally barren soils require again very often the tenant is ruined and the farın much replenishing with any other manure than that which Goteriorated. Therefore to find a mode of fixing a their own crops supply, by the assistance of the rent for a lease of 21 years, so as to do justice to live stock of the farm ; so that, in fact, in each and both landlord and tenant, is the great desideratum. every year 57,000 acres of land might be recovered
A corn-rent, on the principle of taking the from the waste and brought into cultivation by the
average price of corn every year in fixing the solid manure of the London drainage alone.”
rent of that year, though safer than a fixed sum, Having alluded 10 a company wbich is no longer in
is against the tenant in bad seasons; as he has a existence, I may be excused it I udd, that no object higher rent to pay, and makes less of his produce, could bave been more patriotic and deserving the
except his farm be very favourably situated in confidence of Englishmen than that entertained by point of soil and climate. the Thames Improvement Company of 1838; and
A coro-rent, on the principle of the Tithe Comyet, alas! from the petty jealousies of one party in
mutation Act, is open to the same objection, aloffice, and the fear of interference by another, this grand national undertaking was lost ; and the in- though the extremes will not be so great, on ac. babitants of London still use the water of the Thames,
count of taking the average prices for the seven and with it all the outpourings of the metropolitan preceding years in fixing the rent for the year. I
consider this the best principle of the two, alsewers, and the manures from the consumption of
though by it sometimes the rent will be more than the richest produce of the globe are carried into the
in the preceding year, and the price of corn less, sea.
as was the case with the tithe rent-charge thé BROMYARD.-AGRICULTURAL Society.-On two last years; but then in other cases it will be Monday week a public meeting of landed proprietors the reverse, as the tithe rent was in 1838, 1839, and occupiers was holden at the Falcon llotel, for the and 1840. porpose of establishing an Agricultural Society for that
To remedy the evils of a corn-rent by taking immediale district. Jobn Barneby, Esq., M.P., having
the average price of corn for one year or more, been requested to take the chair, resolutions were
some landowners have adopted the principle of passed, and a committee appointed 10 prepare rules and adopt such measures as may give effect to future pro.
having balf the rent a fixed sum during the leases ceedings.
and the other half a corn-rent. I call this no re