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will be a bright orange, like the acetate of iron. 1. Bath of yellow mordant; 2. Welding; 3. By exposure to heat and air this color generally Topical black. deepens, becoming gray, and at last a full black. Calicoes of two blocks.-—First example. First In this state it is permanent, and adheres power- olive and second olive on a white ground. 1. fully to the cloth.

Impression of the first olive mordant; 2. ImThese changes of color depend on the solution pression of the second olive mordant; 3. Weldof the tannate and gallate of iron in the disen- ing. gaged nitrous acid, and the dissipation of the Second example. Red and blue on a white acid from the cloth, when it is exposed to heat ground. .1. Impression of the red mordant ; and air. This solution of the tannate and gallate 2. Maddering; 3. Impression by the block of of iron is indeed an essential requisite to the topical blue. When the calico is to have several goodness of the chemical black. If the disen- colors, says M. Vitalis, for example, black, gaged acid is not sufficient to effect this, or if it several reds, several violets, &c., as many moris in a state of too great dilution, the color has dants must be given as there are different colors, but a feeble adherence to the cloth. It is not which must be inserted (rentrés) into the first presented in a state favorable to its union with plate (figure), called the plate of impression it, since the combination into which the iron has (printing block, planche d'impression). "The inentered is insoluble in water. It lies merely on sertion (rentrage) of the mordants is executed by the surface, but does not penetrate its fibres, and means of blocks (planches), which take the name gives way readily in the various operations to which of rentreures. These blocks are engraved with it is subjected. This chemical black, therefore, the same patterns as the printing blocks, but so isa solution of the tannate and gallate of iron in as that they apply the new mordants only to the Ditric acid.

places of the pattern reserved in the first blocks. Mordants for violets (from Vitalis). First It may be readily conceived how necessary it is violet.—Sixteen pints of iron liquor; eight pints for these blocks to have an exact correspondence of water ; four ounces of Roman vitriol (sul- with one another, otherwise the colors would not phate of copper). This mixture is to be thick- be comprised within the limits of their outlines. ened with powdered gum, in the proportion of a This fault is too often met with in common pound to the pint.

prints, on account of the rapidity with which Second violet.—Mix three parts of the pre- they are worked off, and the little care taken in ceding with one of water, and thicken as above. their fabrication. In order that every color may

Third violet.-Dilute two parts of the first occupy the place assigned to it in the drawn mordant with three of water.

pattern (le dessein enluminé), adjusting brass Coffee color.-Ten pints of iron liquor; two points (picots de rapports) are made use of, pints of the mordant of the first red; four pints which guide the printing on of the successive of water. Thicken with starch.

mordants, at precisely that place of the figure Puce, or carmelite color.—Three pints of where the color to be produced from each mormordant of the first red ; half pint of iron liquor. dant ought to fall

. Deep brown.--Two pints of red mordant; Third example. Yellow and black on a white half pint of iron liquor.

ground. 1. Impression of the yellow mordant, Martoon color (chestnut-brown).-Two pints welding ; 2. Impression of topical black. of violet mordant; one pint of red mordant ; Calicoes of three blocks.—Example. First olive, Eight ounces of green copperas, to be dissolved second olive, and yellow on a white ground. 1. in the mixed mordants.

Impression of the first olive mordant; 2. ImpresMordoré.–Eight pints of violet mordant; sion of the second olive mordant; 3. Impression twelve pints of red mordant.

of the yellow mordant; 4. Welding. Deep lilac.-One pint of violet mordant; one The third block (main) might also be performed pint of mordant for the second red.

by the impression of the topical yellow. Light lilac.-One pint of violet mordant ; Culicoes of four blocks.-Example. Black, red, three pints of mordant of the second red. violet, and yellow on white. 1. Impression of

Musk color.-One pint of red mordant; three the black mordant; 2. Impression of the red pints of black mordant.

mordant;. 3. Maddering ; 4. Impression of toIncarnate (fiesh) color ; color between cherry pical yellow, or of the yellow mordant, and and rose.-Ten pints of red mordant; one pint welding. of black mordant.

Calicoes of five blocks.-Example. Black, red, Olive color.-Welding on the mordant of the violet, yellow, and blue. 1. Impression of the first, second, or third violet.

black mordant;, 2. Impression of the red morRéséda color. --Welding on puce mordant. dant; 3. Impression of the violet mordant; 4.

We may now select from Vitalis some ex- Maddering, insertion of the blue, and afterwards amples of the mode of managing the different of the yellow. styles of calico printing. We shall place them Calicoes of sir blocks.—Example. First olive, in the order in which they occur under each second olive, black, first red, second red, and head. We may commence with

yellow on white ground. 1. Impression of the Calicoes of one block.--First example. Violet black mordant; 2. Impression of the first redon a white ground.

1. Impression of violet mordant; 3. Impression of the second red mormordant; 2. Dunging and washing ; 3. Mad- dant; 4. Maddering ; 5. Impression of the sedering; 4. Braoning and exposure on the grass cond olive mordant; 6. Impression of the yelfor a few days, to clear the grounds.

low mordant; 7. Welding. Second example. Black on a yellow ground. It is now very seldom, however, that the numVOL. XVIII.

H

ber of three blocks (courses) is exceeded, on The thickening is always made with pipe clay. account of the high price to which the labor To make a sky-blue on a dark blue.-1. Dye would necessarily raise the calico. The follow- the cloth of a sky-blue; 2. Apply the usual reing is an example of printing in fugitive colors: serve; 3. Pass the cloth through a strong blue violet, black, red, and yellow, on white ground. vat. Brighten in a bath, feebly acidulated with These four topical colors are successively applied, oil of vitriol (or muriatic acid), to carry off the in the order above mentioned.

particles of lime suspended in the vat.

Wash Calicoes with fast colors, after receiving the and dry. impressions, are dried, and washed from the Sky-blue, dark-blue, and white.-1. Apply the mordants, when they are ready for the maddering. reserve; 2. Dye sky-blue; 3. Apply the reserve

Goods printed by reserve are so called, be- anew; 4. Pass through a blue vat of sufficient cause the color does not strike the whole surface, strength. but only certain unprotected portions of it. The Deep blue, sky-blue, green, yellow, and while.reserve is composed of the reserve bath, and the 1. Print on the reserve; 2. Pass through a thickening.

weak vat, giving two or three dips; dry, brighten A reserve buth is thus formed : dissolve in a with very dilute sulphuric acid, wash, dry again; pint of water six ounces of sulphate of copper, 3. Print on once more the common reserve three ounces of verdigris, two ounces of alum, paste; 4. Dye in a stronger vat than the above, and four ounces of gum arabic.

till the blue be sufficiently deep; dry, brighten Another reserve bath may be noticed : dissolve as before, wash and dry; 5. Print on the red in two litres of water four ounces of Roman mordant, and dry; 6. Give the weld or quervitriol (sulphate of copper), and six ounces of citron. The inordant applied to the white spots, verdigris, to which add one pound of gum arabic; and to the pale blue (petit blanc), affords yellow and, when it is dissolved, pass through a fine and green. The white portions that have not sieve, or let it settle, and decant.

been touched with the mordant remain white, in To thicken the bath, knead a pound of pipe- like manner as the pale blue spaces, not covered clay, well ground and sifted, with three or four by this mordant, furnish the pale blue. Reserves ounces of water : with this thick dough carefully are also applied to silks. For example, on the mix the reserve bath, and triturate well before handkerchiefs called foulards, the reserve is making use of it. The reserve is printed on styled waxing. A mixture of tallow and resin is the goods like the mordants. Twenty-four hours melted, and applied to the silk with the block ; after the impression the goods are to be passed this reserve being given, the silk is dipped in the through the dyeing vat. This style is much used blue val. The reserved portions, being defended in blue dipping:

from the action of the indigo, remain white, The theory of the reserve is very simple. The while the rest of the surface takes a fast blue. oxide of copper, which forms the basis of the Sky-blue, red, and white.-1. Apply the usual reserve, restores to the indigo the oxygen which reserve; 2. Apply the red mordant, thickened it had been deprived of by the sulphate of iron. with pipe-clay, and dry; pass through a weak The reoxygenated indigo loses its solubility, and blue vat, to obtain sky-blue; wash at the river, consequently cannot fix on the stuff. Since the madder, wash, and spread out on the grass to reserve, intended to nullify the action of the clear the white. indigo essentially, acts merely by the oxide of Printing with discharges (par rongeant) on a copper which it contains, it follows that the mordant. This process serves to form mourning proportions of this oxide are not indifferent, and garments, composed of a white figure on a black that the measure will not perfectly accomplish ground. The piece of goods is first passed its end, unless the dose of oxide of copper, through the black mordant by means of the padwhich the sulphate, &c., can furnish, be adequate ding or blotching machine. When this mordant to neutralize the action of the indigo. A similar is very dry (by passing, for example, over steam result would ensue, if the reserve be not suitably cylinders), the white discharge is applied, prethickened. Some object to the introduction of pared with nitric, oxalic, tartaric, or citric acid, alum.

or bisulphate of potash, thickened with roasted The proportions of the cupreous salts ought, starch (British gum). It is dried, washed, and however, to be as little as can effect the pur- maddered. On quitting the madder bath, the pose; if their quantity be too great, their opera- goods must be well washed, and exposed on the tion would be extended to the indigo diffused grass till the whites be very clear. through the bath. Sometimes the sulphate of The portions of the cloth where the mordant copper is made to predominate, and sometimes has not been acted on by the discharge will take the acetate.

a black of a greater or less depth from the madThe following recipes for reserves are given by der, while, on those places where the discharge M. Vitalis :

has been applied, the mordant will be removed, 1. Sulphate of copper

20 pounds and the madder color will not combine with the Acetate of copper

stuff. Exposure on the grass will carry off the Gum.

. 16

loose madder. In like manner, by this process, Alum

5

white figures may readily be obtained on a Water

32 litres

ground of red, carmelite, violet, puce, &c.; since 2. Sulphate of copper

16 pounds it will be necessary merely to pass through the Acetate

24

mordant of one of these colors, then to apply the Alum

4

white discharge, and finally to madder. To have Gum

15 lb. 8 oz. white figures on an olive ground, weld or querWater

8 litres. citron must be used instead of madder.

12

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same manner.

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Printing with a discharge on color (dyed of Turkey. berries, or Brasil wood, be added, we Goods ).-Suppose that the calico has been dyed shall obtain, in the first case, a richer yellow, in a logwood bath, mixed with iron liquor, the and, in the second, an orange yellow. cloth will take a black color. If, after dyeing, The name of lapis lazuli is given to calicoes, it be impressed with a solution of tin, properly which, after having been printed with reserve thickened, the ferruginous portions of the cloth discharges, and different mordants, are passed in touched with the discharge will be removed, and succession, first through the blue vat, and then they will pass from a deep black to a very bril- through a madder bath. If a yellow or a green liant crimson.

be wanted, there is given, in the sequel of the By subjecting to the same treatment calicoes madder washing, a yellow mordant, and the dyed of different colors and shades, determined goods are turned through a bath of weld or querby the different degrees of oxidizement of the citron. iron, a multitude of varieties will be produced, Suppose that we are to print on cloth a pattern either in the colors or in their shades.

into which there enter white, red, black, blue, By a similar operation, we may make figures green, and yellow. The goods being previously of a beautiful green on goods, by dyeing them thoroughly whitened, we proceed as follow :first of a pale blue in the indigo vat, passing 1. Apply the reserve discharge. 2. Print on them then through a bath of sumach and sulphate the red mordant, thickened with pipe-clay. 3. of iron, and finishing in a bath of quercitron Print on the black mordant, thickened in the with alum.

4. Pass the goods through a Here the green color produced by the indigo strong vat in forty-eight hours at farthest after and the quercitron remains masked, as well as the printing has been given. The dipping ought the other colors, by the oxide of iron in the sul- to be for six minutes at most at two times : bephate, till the solution of tin be applied, which tween each dip, the goods must be aired for five causes the other colors to disappear, and gives to minutes. They are then carried to the river, those that remain a lustre which they would allowed to steep in it for an hour, and washed. not otherwise have had ; because the solution of 5. They are dunged. 6. Passed through bran. tin renders the quercitron yellow more vivid, 7. Maddered. 8. Beetled very carefully and and because from this vivid yellow, associated dried. 9. The red mordant is applied, which with the blue, results a more brilliant green. serves also as a yellow mordant. The pieces are

A figure of aurora color on an olive ground now to be well cleaned. 10. They are passed may be made, by passing the cloth first through through the quercitron bath, after which they are a bath of sumach and sulphate of iron, then washed and finally dried. It may

be

proper washing in an alkaline decoction of fustet, and add that the reserve discharge is prepared by printing on at last the solution of tin.

melting together hog's-lard and resin (arcanson), Let us give for an example the mode of making and, when the mixture is cool, diluting it with yellow figures on olive. The problem is reduced oil of turpentine; adding afterwards binarsediate to find a discharge, which, in destroying the of potash, and a little corrosive sublimate in color communicated by iron, can at the same powder. The whole, being well blended, or time change the color to yellow. This discharge ground together, is to be then printed on. is the thickened solution of tin. To the solution The lapis pattern may be put on a blue of salt of tin (muriate) a little muriatic acid is ground, a red, green, puce, &c.; whence result added. This is thickened with starch previously a great many varieties. The pattern was origiboiled, in a very thick and cold state, observing nally called lapis, from its resemblance to lapis to pour in the solution in small portions, in lazuli. A slight reflection on the above process. order to ensure the thorough union of the ingre- will show us how the different colors are prodients. As soon as the piece has been impressed duced. with this discharge, it is carried to the river to The blue is the immediate effect of the blue be washed, and to prevent the discharge from vat; the red and black are developed by the acting too long on the color. If the pattern re-maddering on the respective mordants of these quired black, it would be necessary to apply it colors. The combination of blue with yellow before the yellow discharge.

on the yellow mordant gives green. The yellow Calico printing by the combined methods of dis- results from the coloring matter of the quercitron charges on the mordant and on the dye.--First ex- bark fixed by the red mordant, which is, at the ample. Olive, yellow, and white. 1. Pass through same time, the mordant for yellow. Finally, the the olive mordant. 2. Print on the white dis- white is occasioned by the white discharge of the charge; wash and dry. 3. Weld. 4. Print on reserve discharge. the yellow discharge.

The calico printer should be well acquainted Second example.-Bright red, and dull red; with the nature of topical colors, or colors of white, yellow, and black, on an olive ground. application,' as they are sometimes called. The 1. Print on the red mordant. 2. Madder. 3. following are from Vitalis :Pass through the olive mordant. 4. Print on Topical or pencil blue.-Boil in sixty pints of the white discharge. 5. Weld. 6. Print on the water, for half an hour, fifteen pounds of potash, yellow discharge and the topical black, and wash. and six pounds of quicklime, in order to render

The colors by discharges, though bright, are the potash caustic. Then add six pounds of orë not so fast as those given by the dye-baths. If, piment (sulphuret of arsenic) reduced to fine instead of applying the yellow discharge, power, and continue the boiling for a quarter of thickened as usual with starch, one-th

an hour, taking care to stir. continually with a starch be employed, and a coloring of decoction rod. When the boiler is a little cooled, pour into

more

it from six to eight pounds of indigo well ground Rust yellow. This is made with acetate of at the mill, and stir again till the indigo be well iron, or the black cask. is thickened with dissolved, which is discovered by a drop of the gum for the light yellows, and with starch for the liquor, when placed on a bit of glass, appearing deeper shades. Rust yellow, when applied on yellow. The bath, while still hot, is to be thick- blue, gives a deep green, which serves for the ened with a pound of gum for every pot (two stems of certain flowers. litres) of liquor, or with eight ounces of starch. Topical green. This preparation is formed by This operation must be carefully preserved from a mixture of topical blue and yellow, in which contact of air, and only employed when its color the yellow predominates considerably. The is yellow, or at least yellowish-green. If it be- mixture must be made by little and little with the come blue, the liquor is to be treated anew with utmost care, so as to hit the wished-for shade. some pounds of caustic potash and orpiment. Topical aurora.-A sufficient quantity of alum

This blue application, says M. Vitalis, much in solution must be added to the anotto bath ; used formerly, is seldom employed at the pre- and the mixture is to be thickened with gum. sent day. Another blue, of less permanence, Topical black.–To twelve pirits of the black but more brilliant, is now preferred." It is made cask, or of pyrolignate of iron, at 4° Baumé (for with Prussian blue, in the following manner : salts), add four ounces of Roman vitriol disInto an earthen pot, four ounces of finely ground solved in water, and a sufficient quantity of deand sifted Prussian blue are to be put. Over coction of galls to form a good black. Thicken this must be slowly poured, stirring all the while with three pounds and a half of starch, which is sufficient muriatic acid, to bring it to the con to be gradually worked up with a portion of the sistence of syrup. The mixture is to be stirred liquor. Boil, withdraw from the fire, and keep every hour for a day, and afterwards thickened stirring, till the liquor be cool; it must then be with from four to eight pots (of two litres each) passed through a searce or a linen cloth. of gum-water, according to the shade wanted. Another topical black.-- In twenty-four pints

Topical red.-A pound of Brasil wood is to of water, boil two pounds of logwood, two pounds be boiled in four litres of water for two hours; of sumach, and eight ounces of galls, till the lithe decoction is then to be decanted and boiled quor be reduced to half its rolume. Add then a down to two litres. As much red mordant must pint of the black cask (or pyrolignate of iron); now be added as is necessary to form a fine red; boil away six pints; take off the clear bath, disand it is to be finally thickened with eight ounces solve in it two ounces of Roman vitriol, and one of starch. The color will be more beautiful the ounce of sal-ammoniac; after which thicken older the decoction of Brasil wood is.

with starch, and pass through a searce before Instead of Brasië wood, wood of Japan, Saint making use of the composition. Martha, or Nicaragua (peach wood), may be used, Topical violet and lilac.-In thirty pints of provided their color has been refined from the water boil six pounds of logwood, ground or in dun which they contain, by the usual process chips, till ten pints be evaporated; decant the with milk.

clear, and dissolve in it one ounce of alum for Topical yellow.This is prepared by boiling every pint of liquor. The deep violets are four pounds of Turkey or Avignon berries in thickened with starch, and the light violets with twenty-four litres of water, which is boiled down gum, which is to be dissolved in the cold. This to one-half. The clear liquor is drawn off, and color changes readily, for which reason it should a pound and a half of alum is dissolved in be prepared only as wanted; and be immediately it. For the light yellows, it is thickened with put to use. gum; for the deep, with starch.

This topical In the manufacture of printed calicoes, colors yellow does not resist soap. The following is are obtained from madder, which result from the equally fast and agreeable :

mixture of red and black. For mordants, mixIn eight pints of water, boil four pounds of tures in different proportions, of acetate of iron quercitron bark in powder, down to one-half of and acetate of alumina, are employed. the bulk. Pass through the searce, thicken with By printing on a mordant, composed of equal three pounds of gum, and mix in gradually, suf- parts of oxidised acetate of iron (black bouillon) ficiency of solution of tin to render the color of a and acetate of alumina, both concentrated, á brilliant yellow. This yellow resists vegetable deep mordoré is obtained with madder. One acids and soap very well. When placed on a part of acetate of iron, and two of acetate of blue ground, it forms a fine green ; and it may alumina, afford a less sombre mordoré, inclining be applied by the plate or the pencil.

towards puce-colored. On augmenting the The best solution of tin which can be em- quantity of acetate of alumina, the shade apployed for this topical yellow is that made with proaches more and more to red; and, on introa mixture of three ounces of muriatic acid, four ducing, at last, only one-twelfth of acetate of ounces of nitric, and four ounces of pure water. iron, an amaranth color is obtained. If, on the Two ounces of grain tin are to be dissolved bit contrary, the proportion of acetate of iron be inby bit in this liquor. When the solution is com- creased, browns are produced. pleted, half an ounce of sugar of lead is to be This color is that which requires most madder. added. The mixture must then be well stirred; It may be boiled longer than for the reds, but left to settle, and decanted. Half an ounce of not so long as for the violets, because, as the the clear solution is to be taken for every pint of portion of the coloring matter which is combined the yellow bath. On mixing with the yellow with the alumina does not stand a prolonged bath a little of the annotto bath, we have orange ebullition so well as that which has the oxide of yellows.

iron for a mordant, the shade is degraded, and

there is obtained only a poor and unequal color, it be required deeper, the decoction must be instead of a substantial and well raised' one. made stronger, and used in the proportion of Great care should also be taken to put into the three or four to one of the solution of tin. Nibath a sufficient quantity of madder, so as to sa caragua or peach wood, though not so rich in turate all the mordant; otherwise a uniform coloring matter as Brasil, yields a color, howcolor can never be obtained, for the bath becomes ever, which is, if possible, more delicate and exhausted, and some parts of the cloth would be beautiful. saturated before other parts had been able to as A process in calico printing, of peculiar sume the proper shade. For conducting the elegance, with an alkaline solution of alumina, operation properly, and for completely saturating was invented by James Thomson, esq., of the mordant, the maddering should be given at Primrose Hill, near Clithero. Its effect was to two times. The bath is scarcely suffered to boil produce a fast green, by the mixture of a yellow the first time, and, from the hue that the cloth has mordant with the common solution of indigo in taken, the quantity of madder to be employed at caustic potash, through the intervention of orpithe second maddering may be determined. ment. This, as is obvious, could not be done When the cloth is to have, besides the mordoré, with any acid solution of alumina. Mr. Thomfainter colors, they should not be printed on till son first formed a solution of that earth in after the first maddering, because the heat of the potash, mixed this with the solution of indigo, bath in the double maddering would degrade and applied the mixture, properly thickened, to them. The mordorés have a more agreeable the cloth. But as, in the ordinary dunging bue, when, previous to maddering, they have operation, the alkali would naturally wash away been dyed with nearly half the quantity of weld with it the greater part of the alumina, the or quercitron which would have been used had goods before being dunged were passed through they been dyed with these substances alone. a solution of sal ammoniac. It is easy to perThe mordants for mordoré and puce afford, with ceive the rationale of what takes place. The both these substances, the shades of olive, bronze, potash on the cloth combines with the muriatic terre d'Egypte, &c. In this case, it is sufficient acid of the sal ammonia, and, as the two subfor restoring the white, to pass through bran on stances set free (the alumina and ammonia) have their quitting the boiler, and to expose them for no tendency to combine, the former remains about eight days on the grass, lifting them once precipitated on the cloth at its points of applicain this interval in order to wash and beetle them. tion. It obtained currently, but very improThe color has more lustre when, before drying perly, the name of Warwick's green, because the cloth, we pass it through water acidulated so Dr. Warwick made and sold the solution of slightly with sulphuric acid as to be hardly per- aluminated potash to the printers. ceptible to the taste.

Acetate of alumina is now most frequently The following example of a spirit red directly made for the calico printers, by dissolving alum applied in calico printing is valuable :-Prepare in a solution of crude acetate of lime (pyroligan aqua regia, by dissolving two ounces of sal nite); a gallon of the acetate, of specific gravity ammoniae in one pound of nitrous acid, specific 1.050, or 1.060, being used with two pounds gravity 1.25. To this add two ounces of fine and three quarters of alum. A sulphate of lime grain tin; decant it carefully off the sediment, is formed, which precipitates, while an acetate of and dilute it with one-fourth its weight of pure alumina mixed with some alum floats above. or distilled water.

The specific gravity of this liquid is usually To one gallon of water add one pound of about 1.080. The acetate of alumina employed cochineal, ground as fine as flour; boil half an as a mordant for chintzes is still commonly hour; then add two ounces of finely pulverised made by the mutual decomposition of alum and gum dragon (tragacanth), and two ounces of acetate of lead. Fifteen parts of alum are cream of tartar; and stir the whole till it is equivalent to about ewenty-four of acetate. dissolved. When the liquor is cool, add one The maddering of printed goods requires measure of the preceding solution of tin to two pains and precautions, which long practice alone of the cochineal liquor, and incorporate well hy can teach. The causes which make their effects stirring. Apply this with the pencil or block; to vary are too numerous for us to point them sufier it to remain on the cloth six or eight hours; all out here. The quantity of madder employed, then rinse off in spring water. This color will the duration of the maddering, the manner of be a bright and beautiful scarlet.

managing the fire, are, along with the dunging, Boil twelve pounds of Brasil chips during an the circumstances which have most influence; hour, in as much water as will cover them. and they cannot be subjected to any rule, beDraw off the decoction, pour on fresh water, and cause they must differ more or less in almost boil as before. Add the two liquors together, every process. and evaporate slowly down to one gallon. To It is plain that all these operations have for the decoction, while warm, add four ounces of their objects, 1st, to remove the mordant uncomsal ammoniac, and as much gum dragon or bined with the cloth; 2dly, to fix the coloring Senegal as will thicken it for the work required. matter ; 3dly, to carry off, by the action of the When cool, add one of the solutions of tin above air and bran, the dun coloring matter which is described to four, six, or eight, of the Brasil mixed with the madder, as well as the color liquor, according to the color wanted. Suffer it which covers the parts of the cloth not impregto remain for eighteen or twenty hours on the nated with mordant. cloth; then rinse off in spring water as before. The cloths intended for printing ought to be The color will be a pale and delicate pink. If very carefully bleached. The more perfect the

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