Obrazy na stronie

| demanded vengeance; and the senate having erected, as usual in such cases, statues three feet high to their memory, ordered a fleet to be equipped, and troops raised, with expedition. But Teuta sent an embassy to Rome, assuring the senate that she had no hand in the murder of the ambassadors, and offering to deliver up to the republic those who had committed it. The Romans, being threatened with a war from the Gauls, were ready to accept this satisfaction; but the Illyrian fleet having gained some advantage over that of the Achaeans, and taken the island of Corcyra near Epirus, this success made Teuta believe herself invincible, and she disregarded her promise to the Romans; she even sent her fleet to seize on the island of Issa, which they had taken under their protection. Hereupon the consuls, P. Posthumius Albinus and Cn. Fulvius Centumalus, embarked for Illyricum : Fulvius having the command of the fieets, which consisted of 100 galleys; and Posthumius of the land forces, which amounted to 20,000 foot, besides a small body of horse. Fulvius appeared with his fleet before Corcyra, and was }. in possession both of the island and city by

emetrius of Pharos, governor for queen Teuta. Nor was this all ; Demetrius made the inhabitants of Apollonia drive out the Illyrian garrison, and admit into their city the Roman troops. The Andyaeans, Parthini, and Atintanes, soon after submitted to Posthumius, being induced by the persuasions of Demetrius to shake off the Illyrian yoke. The consul, being now in possession of most of the inland towns, returned to the coast, where, with the assistance of the fleet, he took many strong holds, among which was Nutria, a place of great strength, with a numerous garrison. The loss of the Romans was repaired by the capture of forty Illyrian vessels, which were returning home with booty. At length the Roman fleet appeared before Issa, which, by Teuta's order, was still closely besieged, notwithstanding her losses. However, upon the approach of the Roman fleet, the Illyrians dispersed; but the Pharians, who served among them, followed their countryman Demetrius, and joined the Romans, to whom the Issani submitted. Sp. Corvilius and Q. Fabius Maximus being again raised to the consulate, Posthumius was called from Illyricum, and refused a triumph for having been too prodigal of blood at the siege of Nutria. His colleague Fulvius was appointed to command the land forces as proconsul. one of her strong holds called Rhizon, and thence early in spring sent an embassy to Rome. The senate refused to treat with her; but granted the young king a peace upon condition: 1. That he should pay an annual tribute; 2. That he should surrender part of his dominions; 3. That he should never suffer above three of his ships of war at a time to sail beyond Lyfus. The places he yielded to the Romans by this treaty were the islands of Corcyra, Issa, and Pharos, the city of Dyrrhachium, and the country of the Atintanes. Soon after Teuta abdicated the regency, and Demetrius succeeded her. Before this war was ended, the Romans were alarmed by new motions of the Gauls, and the great pro

Hereupon Teuta retired to

gress which the Carthaginians made in Spain. At this time also the fears of the people were excited by a prophecy said to be taken out of the Sybilline books, that the Gauls and Greeks should one day be in possession of Rome. This prophecy, however, the senate found means to elude, by burying two Gauls and two Greeks alive, and then telling the multitude that the Gauls and Greeks were now in possession of Rome. The Romans now made vast preparations against the Gauls. Some say that the number of forces raised by their republic on this occasion amounted to no fewer than 800,000 men. Of this incredible multitude 248,000 foot, and 26,000 horse, were Romans or Carmpanians; yet the Gauls, with only 50,000 foot and 20,000 horse, forced a passage through Etruria, and took the road towards Rome. Here they at first defeated one Roman army; but, being soon after met by two others, they were utterly defeated, with the loss of more than 50,000 men. The Romans then entered their country, which they cruelly ravaged; but a plague breaking out obliged them to return home. This was followed by a new war, in which those Gauls who inhabited Insubria and Liguria were totally subdued, and their country reduced to a Roman province. These conquests were followed by that of Istria; Dimalum, a city of importance in Illyricum ; and Pharos, an island in the Adriatic Sea. The second Punic war for some time retarded the conquests of the Romans, and even threatened their state with entire destruction; but Hannibal being at last recalled from Italy, and entirely defeated at Zama, they made peace upon such advantageous terms as gave them an entire superiority over that republic, which they not long after entirely subverted. See CARTHAG e. The successful issue of the second Punic war had greatly increased the extent of the Roman empire. They were now masters of all Sicily, the Mediterranean Islands, and great part of Spain; and, through the dissensions of the Asiatic states with the king of Macedon, a pretence was now found for carrying their arms into these parts. The Gauls, however, continued their incursions, but now ceased to be formidable; while the kings of Macedon were first obliged to submit to a disadvantageous peace, and at last totally subdued. See MACEDoN. The reduction of Macedon was soon followed by that of all Greece, either under the name of allies or otherwise; while Antiochus the Great, to whom Hannibal fled for protection, by an unsuccessful war, first gave the Romans a footing in Asia. See SYRIA. The Spaniards and Gauls continued to be the most obstinate enemies. The former, particularly, were rather exterminated than reduced; and even this required the utmost care and vigilance of Scipio AEmilianus, the conqueror of Carthage, to execute. See SPAIN and NUMANTIA. Thus the Romans attained to a height of power superior to any other nation; but now a sedition broke out, which we may say was never terminated but with the overthrow of the republic. This had its origin from Tiberius Seinpronius Gracchus, descended from a family which, though plebeian, was as illustrious as any in the commonwealth. His father had been twice consul, was a great general, and had been honored with two triumphs. But he was still more renowned for his domestic virtues and probity than for his birth or valor. He married Cornelia, the daughter of the first Scipio Africanus, the pattern of her sex, and the prodigy of her age; and had by her several children, of whom three arrived to maturity of age, Tiberius Gracchus, Caius Gracchus, and a daughter, Sempronia, who was married to Scipio Africanus Junior, or IEmilianus. Tiberius, the eldest, was deemed the most accomplished youth in Rome, with respect to the qualities both of body and mind. He made his first campaigns under his brother-in-law, and distinguished himself by his courage and prudence. When he returned to Rome he applied himself to the study of eloquence; and at thirty years of age was accounted the best orator of his day. He married the daughter of Appius Claudius, who had been consul and censor, and was the chief author and negociator of that peace with the Numantines which the senate, with the utmost injustice, disannulled. He stood for the tribuneship of the people; which he no sooner obtained than he resolved to attack the nobility in the most tender parts. They had usurped lands unjustly, cultivated them by slaves, to the great detriment of the public; and had lived for about 250 years in an open defiance to the Licinian law, by which it was enacted that no citizen should possess more than 500 acres. This law Tib. Gracchus resolved to revive. As he first drew it up it was very mild; for it only enacted, that those who possessed more than 500 acres of land should part with the overplus; and that the full value of the said lands should be paid them out of the public treasury. The lands thus purchased by the public were to be divided among the poor citizens; and cultivated either by themselves or by freemen, who were upon the spot. He allowed every child to hold 250 acres. This law, even in so mild a shape, was strenuously opposed by the senate, and by one of his fellow tribunes Marcus Octavius Caecina. The consequence was, that he procured the deposition of the latter, and, irritated by opposition, he had influence nough to have the law revived as it was at first bassed, without abating any thing of its severity. here was no exception in favor of the children in families; or reimbursement promised to those who should part with the lands they possessed above 500 acres. The Licinian law being thus revived with one consent, both by the city and country tribes, Gracchus caused the people to appoint three commissioners, to hasten its execution. The commission was held by Gracchus, his father-in-law Appius Claudius, and his bro. ther, Caius Gracchus. These three spent the whole summer in travelling through the Italian provinces, to examine what lands were held by any person above 500 acres, in order to divide them among the poor citizens. On a strict enquiry they found that the lands taken from the rich would be enough to content all the poor citizens. But the following circumstance eased Gracchus of this difficulty. Attalus Philometer, king of Pergamus, having bequeathed his domi

nions and effects to the Romans, Gracchus immediately got a new law passed, enacting that this money should be divided among the poor citizens who could not have lands, and that the disposal of the revenues of Pergamus should not be in the senate, but in the comitia. By these steps Gracchus most effectually humbled the senate. In order to continue his power,he projected, and indeed almost effected, his re-election to the office of tribune; but the patricians, being determined to effect his fall, took advantage of a report that had been circulated of his intention of aspiring to sovereignty, and slew him in a tumult on the day of election. The death of Gracchus did not put an end to the tumult. Above 300 of the tribune's friends lost their lives also; and, their bodies were thrown with that of Gracchus, into the Tiber. Nay, the senate carried their revenge beyond the fatal day which had stained the capitol with Roman biood. They sought for all the friends of the late tribune, and without any form of law assassinated some, and forced others into banishment. These disturbances were for a short time interrupted by a revolt of the slaves in Sicily, occasioned by the cruelty of their masters; but, they being soon reduced, the contests about the Sempronian law, as it was called, again took place. Both parties were determined not to yield ; and therefore the most fatal effects ensued. The first thing of consequence was the death of Scipio Africanus the younger, who was privately strangled in his bed by some of the plebeian party, about 129 B.C. Caius Gracchus, brother to Tiberius, not only undertook the revival of the Sempronian law, but proposed a new one, granting the rights of Roman citizens to all the Italian allies, who could receive no share of the lands divided in consequence of the Sempronian law. The effects of this were much worse than the former; the flame spread through all Italy; and the nations who had made war with the republic in its infancy again commenced enemies more formidable than before. Fragellae, a city of the Volsci, revolted; but, being suddenly attacked, was obliged to submit, and was razed to the ground. Gracchus, however, still continued his attempts to humble the senate and the patricians: the ultimate consequence of which was, that a price was set on his head and that of Fulvius his confederate, no less than their weight in gold, to any one who should bring them to Opimius the chief of the patrician party. Thus the custom of proscription was begun by the patricians, of which they themselves soon had enough, and they certainly merited it. Gracchus and Fulvius were sacrificed, but the disorders of the republic were not so easily cured. The inroad of the Cimbri and Teutones put a stop to the civil discords for some time longer; but, they being defeated, nothing prevented the troubles from being revived with greater fury than before, except the war with the Sicilian slaves, which had again commenced with more dangerous circumstances than ever. But this being ended, about 99 B.C., no farther obstacle remained. Marius the conqueror of Jugurtha (see NUMIDIA) and the Cimbri undertook the cause of the plebeians against the senate and

patricians. Having associated himself with Apuleius and Glaucia, two factious men, they carried their proceedings to such a length that an open rebellion commenced, and Marius himself was obliged to act against his allies. Peace, however, was restored by the massacre of Apuleius and Glaucia, with a great number of their followers; upon which Marius left the city. While factious men thus endeavoured to tear the republic in pieces, the attempts of the well meaning to heal those divisions served only to involve the state in calamities still more grievous. The consuls observed that many individuals of the Italian allies lived at Rome, and falsely pretended to be Roman citizens. By means of them the plebeian party had acquired a great deal of power, as the votes of these pretended citizens were always at the service of the tribunes. The consuls, therefore, passed a law, commanding all those pretended citizens to return home. This was so much resented by the Italian states that a universal defection took place. A scheme was then formed by M. Livius Drusus, a tribune of the people, to reconcile all parties; but this only made matters worse, and procured his own assassination. His death seemed a signal for war. The Marsi, Peligni, Samnites, Campanians, and Lucanians, and all the provinces from the Liris to the Adriatic, revolted at once, and formed themselves into a republic in opposition to that of Rome. The haughty Romans were now made thoroughly sensible that they were not invincible; they were defeated in almost every engagement; and must soon have yielded, had they not fallen upon a method of dividing their enemies. A law was passed, enacting that all the nations in Italy, whose alliance with Rome was indisputable, should enjoy the right of Roman citizens. This drew off several nations from their alliance; and, Sylla taking upon him the command of the Roman armies, fortune soon declared in favor of the latter. Yet the success of Rome against the allies served only to bring greater miseries upon herself. Marius and Sylla became rivals; the former adhering to the people, and the latter to the patricians. Marius associated with one of the tribunes named Sulpitius, in conjunction with whom he raised such disturbances that Sylla was forced to retire from the city. Having thus driven off his rival, Marius got himself appointed general against Mithridates, king of Pontus. See Pontus. But the soldiers refused to obey any other than Sylla. A civil war ensued, in which Marius was driven out in his turn, and a price set upon his head and that of Sulpitius, and their adherents. Sulpitius was soon seized and killed; but Marius escaped. In the mean time, however, the cruelties of Sylla rendered him obnoxious both to the senate and people; and Cinna, a furious partisan of the Marian faction, being chosen consul, cited him to give an account of his conduct. Upon this Sylla set out for Asia; Marius was recalled from Africa, whither he had fled; and, immediately on his landing in Italy, was joined by a great number of shepherds, slaves, and men of desperate fortunes; so that he soon had a considerable army. Cinna, whom the senators had deposed and driven out of Rome, solicited and obtained a powerful army from the

allies; and being joined by Sertorius, a most able and experienced general, the two, in conjunction with Marius, advanced towards the capital; and, as their forces daily increased, a fourth army was formed under Papirius Carbo. The senate raised some forces to defend the city; but, these being vastly inferior in number and inclined to the contrary side, they were obliged to open their gates to the confederates. Marius entered at the head of a numerous guard, composed of slaves, whom he called his Bardiaeans, and whom he designed to employ in revenging himself on his enemies. The first order he gave these assassins was, to murder all who came to salute him and were not answered with the like civility. As every one was forward to pay his compliments to the new tyrant this order proved the destruction of vast numbers. At last, these Bardiaeans abandoned themselves to such excesses in every kind of vice, that Cinna and Sertorius ordered their troops to fall upon them; which, being instantly put in execution, they were all cut off to a man. By the destruction of his guards Marius was reduced to the necessity of taking a method of gratifying his revenge somewhat more tedious, though equally effectual. A conference, was held between the four chiefs, in which a resolution was taken to murder without mercy all the senators who had opposed the popular faction. A general slaughter commenced, which lasted five days, during which

the greatest part of the obnoxious senators were

cut off, their heads stuck upon poles over against the rostra, and their bodies dragged with hooks into the forum, where they were left to be devoured by dogs. Sylla's house was demolished, his goods confiscated, and he himself declared an enemy to his country; however his wife and children escaped. This massacre was not confined to the city of Rome. The soldiers were dispersed over the country in search of those who fled; and many gave up their friends who had fled to them for shelter. This slaughter being over, Cinna named himself and Marius consuls for the ensuing year; and these tyrants seemed resolved to begin the new year as they had ended the old one: but, while they were preparing to renew their cruelties, Sylla, having proved victorious in the east, sent a long letter to the senate, giving an account of his many victories, and his resolution of returning to Rome to revenge himself of his enemies. This letter occasioned a universal terror. Marius, dreading to enter the lists with such a renowned warrior, gave himself up to excessive drinking, and died. His son was associated with Cinna in the government, though not in the consulship, and proved a tyrant no less cruel than his father. }. senate declared Valerius Flaccus general of the forces in the east, and appointed him a considerable army; but the troops, all to a man, deserted him and joined Sylla. Soon after Cinna declared himself consul a third time, and took for his colleague Papirius Carbo; but the citizens, dreading the tyranny of these monsters, fled in crowds to Sylla, who was now in Greece. To him the senate sent deputies, begging that he would have compassion on his country, and not carry his resentment to such a length as to begin a civil war: but he replied that he was coming to Rome full of rage and revenge; and that all his enemies should perish, either by the sword or the axes of the executioners. Upon this several very numerous armies were formed against him; but were every where defeated, or, went over to the enemy." Pompey, afterwards styled the Great, embraced the party of Sylla. The Italian nations took some one side and some another. Cinna was killed in a tumult, and young Marius and Carbo succeeded him ; but the former, having ventured an engagement with Sylla, was by him defeated, and forced to fly to Præneste, where he was closely besieged. Thus was Rome reduced to the lowest degree of misery; when one Pontius Telesinus, a Samnite, projected the total ruin of the city. He had joined, or pretended to join, the generals of the Marian faction with an army of 40,000 men; and therefore marched towards Praeneste, as if he designed to relieve Marius. By this manoeuvre he drew Sylla and Pompey away from the capital; and then, decamping in the night, overreached these two generals, and by break of day was within ten furlongs of the Collatine gate. He now, declaring himself as much an enemy to Marius as to Sylla, told his troops that it was not his design to assist one Roman against another, but to destroy the whole race. ‘Let fire and sword,' said he, “destroy all; let no quarter be given; mankind can never be free as long as one Roman is left alive.' Never had this proud metropolis been in greater danger; nor ever had any city a more narrow escape. The Roman youth marched out to oppose him, but were driven back with great slaughter. Sylla himself was defeated, and forced to fly to his camp. Telesinus advanced with increased confidence; but, in the mean time, M. Crassus having defeated the other wing of his army, he attacked the body where Telesinus commanded, and by utting them to flight saved his country. Sylla aving now no enemy to fear, marched first to Atemnae, and thence to Rome. From the former city he carried 8000 prisoners to Rome, and caused them all to be massacred at once in the circus. His cruelty next fell upon the Prænestimes, 12,000 of whom were massacred without mercy. Young Marius had killed himself, to avoid falling into his hands. Soon after the inhabitants of Norba, a city of Campania, finding themselves unable to resist the forces of the tyrant, set fire to their houses, and all perished in the flames. The taking of these cities put an end to the civil war, but not to the cruelties of Sylla. Having assembled the people in the comitium, he told them that he was resolved not to spare a single person who had borne arms against him. This cruel resolution he put in execution with the most unrelenting vigor; and, having at last cut off all those whom he thought capable of opposing him, Sylla caused himself to be declared perpetual dictator This revolution happened about 80 B.C., and from this time we may date the loss of the Roman liberty. Sylla indeed resigned his power in two years; but the citizens of Rome, having once submitted, were ever after ready to submit to a master

Though individuals retained the same enthusiastic notions of liberty as before, yet the minds of the generality seem from this time to have inclined towards monarchy. New masters were indeed already prepared for the republic. Caesar and Pompey had eminently distinguished themselves by their martial exploits, and were already rivals. Sertorius, one of the generals of the Marian faction, and the only one of them possessed either of honor or probity, had retired into Spain, where he erected a republic independent of Rome. Pompey and Metellus, two of the best reputed generals in Rome, were sent against him; but, instead of conquering, they were on all occasions conquered by him. At last Sertorius was treacherously murdered ; and the traitors, who after his death usurped the command, being totally destitute of his abilities, were easily defeated by Pompey; and thus that general reaped an undeserved honor from concluding the war with success. The Spanish war was scarcely ended when a very dangerous one was excited by Spartacus, a Thracian gladiator. For some time

this rebel proved very successful: but at last

was defeated and killed by Crassus. The fugitives, however, rallied again, to the number of 5000; but, being defeated by Pompey, the latter took occasion to claim the glory due to Crassus. Being thus become extremely popular, he was chosen consul along with Crassus. Both generals were at the head of powerful armies, and a contest instantly began betwixt them. With difficulty they were in appearance reconciled, but began to oppose one another in a new way. Pompey courted the favor of the people, by reinstating the tribunes in their ancient power, which had been greatly abridged by Sylla. Crassus, though very covetous, entertained the populace with surprising profusion at 10,000 tables, and distributed corn among their families. He was the richest man at this time in Rome, his estate being valued at upwards of 7000 talents, i.e. £1,355,250 sterling. Pompey, however, still had the superiority; and was therefore proposed as a proper person for clearing the seas of pirates. He was to have an absolute authority for three years over all the seas within the pillars of Hercules, and over all the countries for 400 furlongs from the sea. He was empowered to raise as many soldiers and mariners as he thought proper; to take what sums of money he pleased out of the public treasury, without being accountable; and to choose out of the senate fifteen senators to be his lieutenants, and execute his orders when he himself could not be present. The sensible part of the people were against investing one man with so much power; but the unthinkins multitude rendered all opposition fruitless. This law being agreed to, Pompey executed his commission so much to the public satisfaction that on his return a new law was proposed, appointing him general of all the forces in Asia: and, as he was still to retain the sovereignty of the seas, he was now in fact made sovereign of all the Roman empire. Cicero and Caesar supported this law, the former aspiring at the consulate, and the latter pleased to see the Romans appointing themselves a master. Pompey, however, executed his commission with fidelity and success, completely conquering Pontus, Albania, Iberia, &c., which had been begun by Sylla and Lucullus. But, while Pompey was thus aggrandising himself, the republic was on the point of being subverted by a conspiracy formed by Lucius Sergius Catiline. He was descended from an illustrious family; but having ruined his estate, and rendered himself infamous by a series of detestable crimes, he associated with a number of others in similar circumstances. Their scheme was to murder the consuls with the greatest part of the senators, set fire to the city, and seize the government. This design miscarried twice; but was not dropped by the conspirators. At last it was discovered by a young knight, who had revealed the secret to his paramour. Catiline then openly took the field, and raised a considerable army: but was defeated and killed about 62 B.C. In the mean time Caesar continued to advance in popularity and in power. Soon after the defeat of Catiline he was created pontifex maximus; and after that was sent into Spain, where he subdued several nations that had never been subject to Rome. Mean time Pompey returned from the east, and was received with the highest honors; but he affected extraordinary modesty, and declined accepting a triumph. His aim was to assume a sovereign authority without seeming to desire it. He therefore renewed his intrigues, and spared no pains to increase his popularity. Caesar, on his return from Spain, found the sovereignty divided between Crassus and Pompey. No less ambitious than either, Caesar proposed that they should put an end to their differences, and take him for a partner. In short, he projected a triumvirate (Pompey, Crassus, and himself), in which should be lodged the whole power of the senate and people; and they bound themselves by mutual oaths to stand by each other, and suffer nothing to be undertaken or carried into execution without the unanimous consent of all the three. Thus was the liberty of the Romans a second time taken away; nor did they ever af. terwards recover it, though few perceived this, at the time, except Cato. The association of the triumvirs was for a long time kept secret; and nothing appeared to the people except the reconciliation of Pompey and Crassus, for which the state reckoned itself indebted to Caesar. The first consequence of the triumvirate was the consulship of Julius Caesar, obtained by the favor of Pompey and Crassus. Caesar set himself to engage the affections of the people; and this he did, by an agrarian law, so effectually, that he was in a manner idolised. This law was in itself very reasonable and just; nevertheless the senate, perceiving the design with which it was proposed, thought themselves bound to oppose it. But their opposition proved fruitless: the consul Bibulus, who showed himself most active in his endeavours against it, was driven out of the assembly with the greatest indignity; so that Caesar was reckoned sole consul. The next step taken by Caesar was to secure the knights, and for this purpose he abated a third of the rents which they annually said into the Vol. XVIII.

treasury; after which he governed Rome with an absolute sway during the time of his consulate. The reign of this triumvir; however, was ended by his expedition into Gaul, where his military exploits acquired him the highest reputation. Pompey and Crassus therefore became consuls, and governed as despotically as Cesar. On the expiration of their first consulate, the republic fell into a kind of anarchy. At last, however, this confusion was ended by raising Crassus and Pompey again to the consulate. This was no sooner done than a new partition of the empire was proposed. Crassus was to have Syria and all the eastern provinces, Pompey was to govern Africa and Spain, and Caesar to be continued in Gaul for five years. The law was passed by a great majority; upon which Crassus undertook an expedition against the Parthians, Caesar applied with great assiduity to the completing of the conquest of Gaul; and Pompey staid at Rome to govern the republic. The affairs of the Romans were now hastening to a crisis. Crassus, having oppressed all the provinces of the east, was totally defeated and killed by the Parthians; after which the two great rivals, Caesar and Pompey, were left alone. ... Matters, however, continued pretty quiet, till Gaul was reduced to a Roman pidvince. The question then was, whether Cicsar or Pompey should first resign the command of their armies, and return to the rank of private persons. As both parties saw that whoever first laid down his arms must of course submit to the other, both refused. As Caesar, however, had amassed immense riches in Gaul, he was now in a condition not only to maintain an army capable of vying with Pompey, but even to buy

, over the leading men in Rome to his interest.

One of the consuls, named Æmilius Paulus, cost

him no less than 1500 talents, or £310,625 ster- .

ling; but the other, named Marcellus, could not be gained at any price, Pompey had put at the head of the tribunes one Scribonius Curio, a young patrician of great abilities, but so exceedingly debauched and extravagant that he owed upwards of £4,500,000 of our money. Caesar, by enabling him to satisfy his creditors, and supplying him with money to pursue his debaucheries, secured him in his interest; and Curio, without seeming to be in it, did him the most essential service. He proposed that both gene. rals should be recalled; being assured that Pompey would never consent to part with his army, so that Caesar might make this a pretence for continuing in his province at the head of his troops: and thus, while both professed pacific intentions, both continued ready for the most obstinate and bloody war. Cicero took upon himself the office of mediator; but Pompey would hearken to no terms of accommodation. In the year 49 B.C. the senate passed a decree by which Pompey was invested with the command of the troops of the republic, Caesar divested of his office, and Lucius Domitius appointed to succeed him : the new governor being empowered to raise 4000 men to take possession of his province. War being thus resolved on, the senate and Pompey began to prepare for opposing Caesar. They ordered 30,000 K. soldiers 3 A

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