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utmost extremities rather than enact them. However, finding this resistance only increase the public commotions, they at last consented to pass the law concerning intermarriages. But the people were thus appeased only for a short time; returning to their old custom of refusing to enlist upon the approach of an enemy, the consuls were forced to hold a private conference with the chief of the senate; where, after many debates, Claudius proposed to create six or eight governors in the room of consuls, whereof onehalf at least should be patricians. This project was eagerly embraced by the people; yet, though many of the plebeians stood, the choice wholly fell upon the patrician candidates. These new magistrates were called military tribunes; they were at first but three, afterwards four, and at length six. They had the power and ensigns of consuls; yet, that power being divided among a number, each singly was of less authority. The first that were chosen only continued in office about three months, the augurs having found something amiss in the ceremonies of their election. Consuls once more, therefore, came into office; and, to lighten the weight of business which they were obliged to sustain, a new office was erected, namely, that of censors, to be chosen every fifth year. Their business was to take an estimate of the number and estates of the people, and to distribute them into their proper classes; to enquire into their lives and manners; to degrade senators for misconduct: to dismount knights; and to displace plebeians from their tribes into inferior ones, in case of misdemeanor. The two first censors were Papirius and Sempronius, both patricians; and from this order they continued to be elected for nearly 100 years. This new creation served to restore peace for some time; and the triumph gained over the Volscians by Geganius the consul added to the universal satisfaction. But some time after, a famine pressing hard upon the poor, the usual complaints against the rich were renewed; and these, as before, proving ineffectual, produced new seditions. The consuls were accused of neglect in not having laid in proper quantities of corn; they, however, disregarded the murmurs of the populace, content with exerting all their care in attempts to supply the pressing necessity: and appear to have done all that could be expected from active magistrates. Yet Spurius Maelius, a rich knight, who had bought up all the corn of Tuscany, outshone

them in liberality. This demagogue, hoping to.

become powerful by the contention in the state, distributed corn in great quantities among the poor, till his house became the asylum of all such as wished to exchange a life of labor for one of lazy dependence. When he had thus gained a sufficient number of partizans, he procured large quantities of arms to be brought into his house, and formed a conspiracy, by which he was to obtain supreme command, while some of the tribunes, whom he had corrupted, were to act under him. Minucius discovered the plot, and, informing the senate, they resolved to create a dictator, who should quell the conspiracy, without appealing to the people. Cincinnatus, now eighty years old, was chosen, once more to

rescue his country from impending danger. He began by summoning Maelius; who refused to obey. He next sent Ahala, the master of his horse, to compel his appearance; who, meeting him in the forum, and pressing him to follow to the dictator's tribunal, upon his refusal Ahala killed him on the spot. The dictator applauding his officer, now commanded the conspirator's goods to be sold, his house to be demolished, and his stores to be distributed among the people. But the tribunes were enraged at the death of Maelius; and, to punish the senate, at the next election, instead of consuls, insisted upon restoring their military tribunes. With this the senate were obliged to comply. The next year, however, the government returned to its ancient channel, and consuls were chosen. The Vetentes had at this period long been the rivals of Rome, and had ever taken the opportunity of its internal distresses to ravage its territories; they had even threatened its ambassadors sent to complain of these injuries with outrage. In war they had been extremely formidable, and had cut off almost all the Fabian family; who, to the number of 306 persons, had voluntarily undertaken to defend the frontiers against them. It was therefore determined that the city of Veii should be demolished; and the Roman army set down before it, prepared for a protracted resistance. The strength of the place may be inferred from the continuance of the siege, which lasted ten years. Various was the success, and many were the commanders: the besiegers' works were often destroyed, and many of their men cut off, until the undertaking seemed to threaten depopulation to Rome itself; so that a law was made for all the bachelors to marry the widows of the soldiers who were slain. To carry on this siege with greater vigor Furius Camillus was created dictator. Upon his appointment numbers of the people flocked to his standard, confident of success, and he at once prepared to mine the works of the enemy. Certain of the result, he sent to the senate, desiring that all who chose to share in the plunder of Veii should immediately repair to the army: and, entering the breech at the head of his men, the city was instantly filled with his legions. Thus, like a second Troy, was the city of Veii taken, after a ten years' siege, and with its spoils enriched the conquerors; while Camillus himself was decreed a triumph after the manner of the kings of Rome, having his chariot drawn by four milk-white horses. His usual good fortune attended Camillus in a new expedition against the Falisci; he routed their army, and besieged their capital Falerii, which threatened a long and vigorous resistance. Here a schoolmaster, who had the care of the children belonging to the principal men of the city, having decoyed them into the Roman camp, offered to put them into the hands of Camillus, as the surest means of inducing the citizens to surrender. But the general, struck with the treachery of a wretch whose duty it was to protect innocence, and not to betray it, immediately ordered him to be stripped, his hands tied behind him, and in that ignominious manner to be whipped into the town by his pupils. This generous behaviour in Camillus effected more than his arms:

the magistrates immediately submitted to the senate, leaving to Camillus the conditions of their surrender; who only fined them in a sum of money, and received them under the protection and the alliance of Rome. The tribunes at home still, however, were full of accusations against Camillus. To their other charges they added that of his having concealed a part of the plunder of Veii, particularly two brazen gates, for his own use; and appointed a day on which he was to appear before the people. Camillus, finding the multitude exasperated, and detesting their ingratitude, resolved not to wait the ignominy of this trial; but, embracing his wife and children, prepared to depart from Rome. He had passed one of the gates when, turning his face to the capitol, and lifting up his hands to heaven, he entreated all the gods that his countrymen might one day be sensible of their injustice. He then passed forward to Ardea, where he afterwards learned that he had been fined 1500 asses. The Romans indeed soon had reason to repent their persecution of this general; for now a more formidable enemy than ever they had encountered threatened the republic: an inundation of Gauls, under their leader Brennus. One Coeditius pretended to have heard a miraculous voice, saying, “Go to the magistrates, and tell them that the Gauls draw near.’ His warning was despised; but, when the event showed the truth of his prediction, Camillus erected a temple to the unknown Deity, and the Romans invented for him the name of Aius Locutius. \lessengers arrived repeatedly with the news of the devastations of the enemy; but the Romans behaved as if an invasion had been impossible. At last envoys arrived at Rome, imploring assistance against an army of Gauls, which now besieged Clusium. Here Arunx, one of the chief citizens, having been guardian to a young noble, and having educated him in his own house, he fell in love with his guardian's wife; and, upon the first discovery of the intrigue, conveyed her away. Arunx endeavoured to obtain reparation for the injury; but the magistrates were bribed, and the injured guardian, to espouse the cause of this lover, applied to the Galli Senones to engage in this quarrel, acquainting them with the great plenty of Italy. Upon this the Senones resolved to follow him ; and, a numerous army being formed, they passed the Alps, under the conduct of their Etrurian guide, and, leaving the Celta unmolested in Italy, fell upon Umbria, and possessed themselves of all the country from Ravenna to Picenum. They were about six years in settling themselves in their new acquisitions: at length Arunx brought the Senones before Clusium, his wife and her lover having shut themselves up in that city. The senate, therefore, sent an embassy of three young patricians of the Fabian family to bring about an accommodation: but these ambassadors, forgetting their character, put themselves at the head of the besieged in a sally, in which Q. Fabius, their chief, slew with his own hand one of the principal officers of the Gauls. Hereupon Brennus, calling the gods to witness the perfidiousness of the Romans, and immediately raising the siege, marched leisurely to Rome,

having sent a herald before him to demand that those ambassadors, who had so manifestly violated the law of nations, should be delivered up to him. The senate was now greatly perplexed between their regard for the law of nations and their affection for the Fabii. The wisest of them thought the demand of the Gauls to be but just: however, as it concerned persons of great consequence and popularity, the conscript fathers referred the affair to the people; who by their curiae were so far from condemning the three brothers, that, at the next election of military tribunes, they were chosen the first. Brennus, looking upon this promotion of the Fabii as a high affront, hastened his march to Rome. The six military tribunes, Q. Fabius, Caso Fabius, Caius Fabius, Q. Sulpitius, Q. Servilius, and Sextus Cornelius, marched out to meet him at the head of 40,000 men, but without either sacrificing to the gods or consulting the auspices: ceremonies essential among a people that drew their courage and confidence from these signs. The Gauls were 70,000 strong. The two armies met near the river Allia, about sixty furlongs from Rome; when the Romans extended their wings so far as to make their centre very thin. Their best troops, to the number of 24,000 men, they posted between the river and the adjoining hills; the rest on the hills. At first the Gauls attacked the latter, who being soon put into confusion, the forces in the plain were struck with such terror that they fled without drawing a sword: and most of the soldiers, instead of returning to Rome, ran off to Veii: some were drowned as they endeavoured to swim across the Tiber; many fell in the pursuit by the sword of the conquerors: and some got to Rome, which they filled with terror and consternation. The day after the battle, Brennus marched his troops into the neighbourhood of the capital, and encamped on the banks of the Anio. Here his scouts brought him word that the gates of the city were open, and not a Roman to be seen on the ramparts. He advanced slowly, however, fearing an ambuscade, which gave the Romans an opportunity to throw into the capitol all . the men who were fit to bear arms, with abundant provisions. They had not sufficient forces to defend the city: the old men, women, and children, therefore, fled to the neighbouring towns. At length Brennus, having spent three days in taking various precautions, entered it the fourth day after the battle. The gates he found open, the walls without defence, and the houses without inhabitants. Rome appeared like a mere desert; but he could not believe, either that all the Romans were lodged in the capitol, or that so numerous a people should abandon the place of their nativity. On the other hand, he could no where see any armed men but on the walls of the citadel. Having first secured all the avenues to the capitol with bodies or guards, he at last gave the rest of his soldiers leave to disperse themselves over the city and plunder it. Brennus himself advanced into the forum with the troops under his command, in order; and was there struck with admiration, at the unexpected sight of the venerable old men

who had devoted themselves to death, according

to the Roman superstition, for the salvation of their country. They were a portion of the priests and the most ancient of the senators who had been honored with consular dignity,or who had Yeen decreed triumphs. Their magnificent habits, the majesty of their countenances, the silence they kept, their modesty and constancy at the approach of his troops, made him take them for so many deities. The Gauls for a great while kept atan awful distance from them. At length a soldier, bolder than the rest, having out of curiosity touched the beard of M. Papirius, the old man, not being used to such familiarity, gave him a blow on the head with his ivory staff, and the soldier in revenge immediately killed him. The rest of the Gauls, following his example, slaughtered the whole of the companions of Papirius without mercy. After this the enemy set no bounds to their rage; dragging such of the Romans forth as had concealed themselves in their houses, and putting them to the sword in the streets without distinction of age or sex. Brennus then invested the capitol; but, being repulsed with great loss, to be revenged on the Romans he resolved to lay the city in ashes. Accordingly, by his command, the soldiers set fire to the houses, destroyed the temples and public edifices, and razed the walls to the ground. Thus was Rome in fact demolished: nothing was to be seen on its site but a few hills covered with ruins, and a wide waste, in which the Gauls who invested the capitol were encamped. Brennus, finding he should never be able to take a place which nature had so well fortified, except by famine, turned the siege into a blockade, and sent out parties to pillage the fields, and raise contributions. One of these appeared before Ardea, where Camillus had now spent two years in private life. Notwithstanding the affront he had received at Rome, the love he bore his country was not diminished, and, the senate of Ardea being met to deliberate on the measures to be taken with relation to the Gauls, Camillus desired to be admitted into the council. Here he prevailed upon the Ardeates to arm their youth in their own defence, and refuse the Gauls admittance into their city, and finally marched out in a very dark night, surprised the Gauls drowned in wine, and made a dreadful slaughter of them. Those who escaped under shelter of the night fell next into the hands of the peasants, by whom they were massacred without mercy. This defeat revived the courage of the Romans, especially of those who had retired to Veii. There was not one of them who did not condemn the exile of Camillus, and they now resolved to choose him for their leader. Accordingly, they sent ambassadors beseeching him to take into his protection the fugitive Romans, and the wrecks of the defeat at Allia. But Camillus would not accept of the command of the troops till the people assembled by curite had legally conferred it upon him; and to communicate with them was difficult, the capitol being invested on all sides. But Pontius Cominius, a man of mean birth, but bold, and very ambitious, undertook it. He put on a light habit, covered with cork, and, throwing himself into the Tiber above Rome in the beginning of the night, suf

fered himself to be carried down the stream. At length he came to the foot of the capitol, and, landing at a steep place where the Gauls had not posted sentinels, mounted with great difficulty to the rampart of the citadel; and, having made himself known to the guards, was admitt. ed into the place, and conducted to the magistrates. The remnant of the senate being immediately assembled, Pontius gave them an account of Camillus's victory; and in the name of all the Romans at Veii demanded that great captain for their general. The curiae being called together, the act of condemnation passed on Camillus was now abrogated; he was unanimously named dictator, and Pontus, being despatched with the decree, reached the army in safety. Thus was Camillus, from banishment, raised at once to be sovereign magistrate of his country. His promotion was no sooner known, but soldiers flocked from all parts to his camp; insomuch that he soon saw himself at the head of above 40,000 men, partly Romans and partly allies, who all thought themselves invincible. In the interim, while taking measures to raise the blockade of the citadel, some Gauls perceived on the side of the hill the print of Pontius's hands and feet. They observed likewise that the moss on the rocks was in several places torn up. From these marks they concluded that somebody had lately gone up to and returned from the capitol, and made their report to Brennus of what they had observed; when he immediately conceived the design, which he imparted to none, of surprising the place by the same way that it had been ascended., With this view he chose out of the army such soldiers as had dwelt in mountainous countries, and been accustomed from their youth to climb precipices. These he ordered, after he had well examined the nature of the place, to ascend in the night the way that was marked out for them, climbing two abreast, that one might support the other in getting up. By these means with much difficulty they advanced from rock to rock, till they arrived at the foot of the wall; and proceeded with such silence that they were not discovered or heard, either by the sentinels who were upon guard in the citadel, or even by their dogs. But a flock of geese kept in a court of the capitol in honor of Juno, and near her temple, had been spared from religious feeling, and were alarmed at their first approach; so that, running up and down, they awoke, with their cackling, Manlius, a soldier, who some years before had been consul. He sounded an alarm, and was the first who mounted the rampart, where he found two Gauls. One of these aimed a blow at him with his battle-ax; but Manlius it, return cut off his right hand, and pushed his companion with his buckler headlong from the top of the rock. In his fall he drew several others down; and in the meantime the Romans, crowding to the place, pressed upon the approaching enemy, and tumbled them over one another. As the nature of the ground would not suffer them to make a regular retreat, or even to fly, most of them, to avoid the swords of the enemy, threw themselves down the precipice, so that very few got safe back. Manlius was finally rewarded, and the captain of the Roman guard thrown down the precipice. The Romans extended their punishments and rewards even to the brutes. Geese were ever after had in honor at Rome, and a flock of them always kept at the expense of the public. A golden image of the bird was erected, and a goose every year carried in triumph upon a soft litter finely adorned; whilst dogs were held in abhorrence, and the Romans every year impaled one of them on a branch of elder. The blockade of the capitol had already lasted seven months; so that the want of provisions was very severely felt both by the besieged and besiegers. Camillus, since his nomination to the dictatorship, being master of the country, had posted strong guards on all the roads; so that Brennus, who besieged the capitol, was himself besieged, and suffered the same inconveniences which he inflicted on the Romans. Besides, a plague raged in his camp, which was placed in the midst of the ruins of the demolished city; and so great a number of them died in one quarter that it was afterwards called Busta Gallica, or the place where the dead bodies of the Gauls were burnt. In the mean time the capitol was reduced to the last extremity, and ignorant of the steps Camillus was taking to relieve them. That great general, on the other hand, not knowing the extreme want endured in the capitol, only waited for a favorable opportunity to fall upon the enemy; but, in the mean time, suffered them to pine away in their infected camp. The senate, at last, not knowing what was become of Camillus, resolved to enter upon a negociation, and empowered Sulpitius, one of the military tribunes, to treat with the Gauls; who made no great difficulty in coming to terms. In a conference, therefore, between Brennus and Sulpitius, an agreement was made; that the Romans were to pay to the Gauls 1000 lbs. of gold (about £45,000 sterling), and the latter to raise the siege of the capitol, and quit all the Roman territories. On the day appointed, Sulpitius brought the sum agreed on, and Brennus the scales and weights. Historians state that the weights of the Gauls were false, and their scales untrue; which Sulpitius complaining of, Brennus, instead of redressing the injustice, threw his sword and belt into the scale where the weights were; and, when the tribune asked him the meaning of so extraordinary a behaviour, the only answer he gave was, Va. Victis “Woe to the conquered '' Sulpitius was so stung with this haughty answer that he was for carrying the gold back into the capitol, and sustaining the siege to the last extremity; but other Romans thought it advisable to put up with the affront. During these disputes of the deputies among themselves and with the Gauls, Camillus advanced with his army to the very gates of Rome; and, being there informed of what had taken place, he commanded the main body to follow him, and, arriving at the place of parley, exclaimed ‘Carry back your gold into the capitol; and you, Gauls, retire with your scales and weights. Rome must not be redeemed with gold, but with steel.” Brennus replied, ‘that he contravened a treaty which was concluded and confirmed with mutual oaths.” * Be it so ;' answered Camillus, “yet it is of no force having been made by an inferior magistrate,

without the privity or consent of the dictator. I, who am vested with the supreme authority over the Romans, declare the contract void.' At these words, both sides drawing their swords, a confused scuffle ensued, in which the Gauls, after an inconsiderable loss, were forced to retire to their camp; which they abandoned in the night, and, having marched eight miles, encamped on the Gabinian way. Camillus pursued them as soon as it was day, and gave them a total overthrow, the Gauls, according to Livy, making but a faint resistance. It was not, says that author, so much a battle as a slaughter. Many of the Gauls were slain in the action, more in the pursuit; but the greater number were cut off, as they wandered up and down in the fields, by the inhabitants of the neighbouring villages. In short, there was not one single Gaul left to carry to his countrymen the news of this catastrophe. The camp of the barbarians was plundered; and Camillus, loaded with spoils, returned in triumph to the city, the soldiers styling him another Romulus, the Father of his country, and the Second Founder of Rome.

As the houses of Rome were now all razed, the tribunes of the people renewed, with more warmth than ever, an old project which had occasioned great disputes. They had formerly proposed a law for dividing the senate and government between the cities of Veii and Rome. This idea was revived; nay, most of the tribunes were for entirely abandoning their old ruined city, and making Veii the sole seat of the empire. But the senate took the part of Camillus, and, being desirous to see Rome rebuilt, continued him, contrary to custom, a full year in the office of dictator; during which time he made it his whole business to suppress the inclination of the people to remove to Veii. Having assenbled the curite, he prevailed on them to lay aside all thoughts of leaving Rome; and, when the dictator reported the resolution of the people to the senate, while L. Lucretius, who was to give the first opinion, was beginning to speak, it happened that a centurion, then marching by the senate-house, cried out aloud, “Plant your colors, ensign; this is the best place to stay in.' These words were considered as dictated by the gods; and Lucretius, taking occasion from them to urge the necessity of staying at Rome: “A happy omen!' cried he, “I adore the gods who gave it.’ The whole senate applauded his words; and a decree was passed without opposition for rebuilding the city. Though the tribunes were defeated by Camillus in this point, they resolved to exercise their authority against another patrician, who had indeed deserved punishment. This was Q. Fabius, who had violated the law of nations, and thereby provoked the Gauls, and occasioned the burning of Rome. His crime being notorious, he killed himself to avoid punishment. On the other hand, the republic gave a house situated on the capitol to M. Manlius, as a monument of his valor, and of the gratitude of his fellow-citizens. Camillus closed this year by laying down his dictatorship: whereupon an interregnum ensued, during which he governed the state alternately with P. Cornelius Scipio; and it fell to his lot to preside at the election of

new magistrates when L. Valerius Poplicola, L. Virginius Tricostus, P. Cornelius Cossus, A. Manlius Capitolinus, L. A. milius Mamercinus, and L. Posthumius Albinus, were chosen. The first care of these magistrates was to collect all the ancient monuments of the religion and civil laws of Rome which could be found among the ruins of the demolished city. The laws of the twelve tables, and some of the laws of the kings, had been written on brass, and fixed up in the forum; and the treaties made with several nations had been engraved on pillars erected in the temples. Pains were therefore taken to gather up the ruins of these precious monuments; and what could not be found was supplied by memory. The pontifices, on their part, took care to re-establish the religious ceremonies, and made also a list of lucky and unlucky days. And now the governors of the republic applied themselves wholly to rebuild the city. But Rome was scarcely restored when her citizens were alarmed by the news that all her neighbours were combining her destruction. The AEqui, Volsci, Etrurians, and even her old friends the Latins and Hernici, entered into an alliance against her. The republic, under this terror, nominated Camillus dictator a third time. He divided his new levies into three bodies. The first, under the command of A. Manlius, he ordered to encamp under the walls of Rome; the second he sent into the neighbourhood of Veii; and marched himself at the head of the third, to relieve the tribunes, who were closely besieged in their camp by the forces of the Volsci and Latins. Finding the enemy encamped near Lanuvium, on the declivity of the hill Marcius, he posted himself behind it, and, by lighting fires, gave his countrymen notice of their arrival. The Volsci and Latins, when they understood that Camillus was at the head of an army newly arrived, were so terrified that they shut themselves up in their camp, which they fortified with trees cut down in haste. The dictator observing that this barrier was of green wood, and that every morning there arose a great wind, which blew fall upon the enemy's camp, formed the design of taking it by fire. With this view he ordered one part of his army to go by break of day with fire-brands to the windward side of the camp, and the other to make a brisk attack on the opposite side. By these means the enemy were entirely defeated, and their camp taken. Camillus then commanded his men to extinguish the flames, and to save the booty, with which he rewarded his army. Then leaving his son in the camp to guard the prisoners, and entering the country of the Equi, he made himself master of their capital, Bola. Thence he marched against the Volsci; whom he entirely reduced, after they had waged war with the Romans for the space of 107 years. He next penetrated into Etruria, to relieve Sutrinum, a town in alliance with Rome. But, notwithstanding all the expedition Camillus could use, he did not reach the place before it had capitulated. The Sutrini being greatly distressed for want of provisions, and exhausted with labor, had surrendered to the Etrurians, who had granted them nothing but their lives

and clothes. In this destitute condition they had left their own country, and were going in search of new habitations, when they met Camillus. The unfortunate multitude no sooner saw the Romans than they threw themselves at the dictator's feet, who desired them to take a little rest, and refresh themselves, adding that he would soon dry up their tears, and transfer their sorrows to their enemies. The latter did not dream that the dictator could come so speedily from such a distance; and therefore were wholly employed in plundering the houses, or feasting on the provisions they found in Sutrium. Man of them were, therefore, put to the sword, while an incredible number were made prisoners; and the city was restored to its ancient inhabitants. And now, after these glorious exploits, which were finished in so short a time, Camillus entered Rome in triumph a third time; resigned his dictatorship, and the public chose six new military tribunes, Q. Quinctius, Q. Servius, L. Julius, L. Aquilius, L. Lucretius, and Ser. Sulpitius. During their administration the country of the AEqui was laid waste, in order to put it out of their power to revolt anew ; and the two cities of Cortuosa and Contenebra, in the lucumony of the Tarquinienses, were taken from the Etrurians. At this time it was thought proper to repair the capitol, and add new works to that part of the hill which the Gauls had endeavoured to scale. These works were esteemed very beautiful, as Livy informs us, even in the time of Augustus. And now, Rome being reinstated in her former flourishing condition, the tribunes, who had been for some time quiet, hegan to renew their seditious harangues, and revive the old quarrel about the division of the conquered lands. As for the military tribunes, they owned that their election had been defective; and voluntarily laid down their office. So that, after a short interregnum, during which M. Manlius, Ser. Sulpitius, and L. Valerius Potitius, governed the republic, six new military tribunes, L. Papirius, C. Sergius, L. A. milius, L. Menenius, L. Valerius, and C. Cornelius, were chosen for the ensuing year, which was spent in works of peace. A temple, which had been vowed to Mars during the war, was built and consecrated by T. Quinctius. As there had hitherto been but few Roman tribes beyond the Tiber which had a right of suffrage in the comitia, four new ones were added, under the name of the Stellatina, Tramontina, Sabatina, and Arniensis; so that the tribunes were now in all twenty-five, which enjoyed the same rights and privileges. The expectation of an approaching war induced the centuries to choose Camillus one of the military tribunes for the next year. His colleagues were Ser. Cornelius, Q. Servilius, L. Quinctius, L. Horatius, and P. Valerius. As all these were moderate and considerate men, they agreed to invest Camillus with the sole management of affairs in time of war; and in full senate transferred their power into his hands. It had already been determined in the senate to turn the arms of the republic against the Etrurians; but, upon intelligence being received that the Antiates had entered the Pomptin territory, and obliged ther

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