Obrazy na stronie

Decempeda was a measuring rod for taking the dimensions of buildings, and signified the same thing as pertica, taken as a measure of length. Arbuthnot. Haste, ye Cyclops, with your forked rods, This rebel love braves all the gods, And every hour by love is made Some heaven-defying Encelade. A wit’s a feather, and a chief a rod; An honest man's the noblest work of God. O gentle sleep, I cried, Why is thy gift to me alone denied ? Mildest of beings, friend to every clime, Where lies my error, what has been my crime? Beasts, birds, and cattle, feel thy balmy rod; The drowsy mountains wave, and seem to nod: The torrents cease to chide, the seas to roar, And the hushed waves recline upon the shore. Harte.

RODNEY (George Brydges, lord Rodney), was born in 1718. His father was a naval officer, commanding, at the time of his son's birth, the yacht in which the king, attended by the duke of Chandos, used to pass to or from Hanover, and he asked and obtained leave to call his infant son George Brydges. The royal and noble god-fathers advised captain Rodney to educate his boy for his own profession, promising to promote him as rapidly as the merit he should display, and the regulations of the navy, would permit. In 1751, accordingly, we find him in the rank of a commodore, sent out to make accurate discoveries respecting an island which was supposed to lie about 50° N. lat., and about 300 leagues west of England; but he returned without having seen any such island. In the war which soon followed this voyage of discovery, he was promoted to the rank of a rear-admiral, and was employed to bombard Havre de Grace; which in 1759 and 1760 he considerably damaged, together with the shipping. In 1761 he was sent on an expedition against Martinico, which was reduced in the beginning of 1762, and about the same time St. Lucia surrendered to captain Harvey. In reward for his services, he was created K. B.; but, in consequence of extravagance, his circumstances became so embarrassed that he was obliged to fly from his country. He was in France when that court took a decided part with America against Great Britain; and the king of France through the duke de Biron offered him a high command in the French navy, if he would carry arms against his own country; an offer which he rejected with indignation. When the divisions which the mutual recriminations of admiral Keppel and Sir Hugh Palliser excited in the British navy made it difficult for the ministry to procure experienced and popular commanders for their fleets, lord Sandwich offered him the chief command off the Leeward Isles, and he hoisted his flag, December 1779, on board the Sandwich. His first exploit was in January 1780, when he took nineteen Spanish transports bound to Cadiz from Bilboa, with a sixty-four gun ship and five frigates. On the 16th of January he fell in with the Spanish fleet, consisting of eleven sail of the line, under don John de Langara; of which one was blown up during the engagement, five were taken and carried into Gibraltar, among which was the admiral's ship;



and the rest were much shattered. In April, 1780, he fell in with the French fleet, under admiral Guichen, at Martinico, whom he engaged; though from the shattered state of his own fleet, and the unwillingness of the enemy to risk another action, he took none of their ships. His successful efforts during 1780 were generally applauded. He received the thanks of both houses of parliament, and addresses of thanks from various parts of Great Britain, and from the islands to which his victories were more o serviceable. In 1781 he continued is exertions, with much success, in defending the West India Islands; and, along with general Vaughan, he conquered St. Eustatius. On the 12th of April, 1782, he came to a close action with the §d fleet under count de Grasse; during which he sunk one ship, and took five, of which the admiral's ship, the Ville de Paris, was one. Peace was made in 1782; but, as a reward for his numerous services, he received a pension of £2000 a-year for himself and his two successors. He had long before been created a baronet, and was justly promoted to the peerage, by the title of baron Rodney of Stoke, Somersetshire, and made vice-admiral of Great Britain. Lord Rodney had been twice married; first to the sister of the earl of Northampton; and secondly, to the daughter of John Clies, esq. with whom he did not reside for several years before his death, which happened on the 24th of May, 1792. In 1783 the house of Assembly, in Jamaica, voted £1000 towards erecting a marble statue to him, as a mark of their gratitude and veneration for his gallant services. RODOMONTA'DE, n. s. Fr. rodomontade. From a boastful boisterous hero of Ariosto, called Rodomonte. An empty noisy bluster or boast: a rant. The libertines of painting have no other model but a rodomontade genius, and very irregular, which violently hurries them away. Dryden's Dufresnoy. He talks extravagantly in his passion, but, if I would quote a hundred passages in Ben Jonson's Cethegus, I could shew that the rodomontades of Almanzor are neither so irrational nor impossible, for Cethegus threatens to destroy nature. Dryden. He only serves to be sport for his company; for in these gamesome days men will give him hints, which may put him upon his rodomontades. Government of the Tongue.

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of soft roe, or milt; and that of the female, hard roe, or spawn. So inconceivably numerous are these ovula, or small eggs, that M. Petit found 342,144 of them in a carp of eighteen inches; but M. Leuwenhoeck found in a carp no more than 211,629. This last gentlemen observes that there are four times this number in a cod; and that a common one contains 9,344,000 eggs. Roe, in zoology. See CERvus. Roe (sir Thomas), an able statesman and ambassador, born at Low Leyton, in Essex, about 1580. He was admitted into Magdalen College, Oxford, in 1593. After studying at the inns of court, and travelling to France, he was made esquire to queen Elizabeth. In 1604 he was knighted by king James I. and soon after sent to make discoveries in America. In 1614 he was sent ambassador to the great mogul, at whose court he continued four years. In 1620 he was chosen M. P. for Cirencester, and in 1621 sent ambassador to the grand signior: in which post he continued under Osman, Mustapha I., and Amurath IV. Of the transactions there he sent a true and faithful relation to the king and prince Henry; which was printed at London in 1622, in 4to. He also wrote a curious account of his transactions at the Porte, which remained in MS. till 1740; when it was published under the title of the Negociations of sir Thomas Roe, in his Embassy to the Ottoman Porte; from 1621 to 1628, in folio. He also made a large collection of Greek and oriental MSS. which he presented to the Bodleian Library. He brought over the fine Alexandrian MS. of the Greek Bible, as a present to Charles I. from Cyril, patriarch of Constantinople; since transcribed and published by Dr. Grabe. In 1620 he was sent to mediate a peace between the kings of Poland and Sweden. This he effected, and acquired such credit with Gustavus Adolphus, that, after the victory of Leipsic, the king sent him a present of £2000. In 1640 he was chosen M. P. for the university of Oxford. In 1641 he was sent ambassador to Ratisbon; and on his return was made chancellor of the garter, and a privy-counsellor. He died in November 1644. ROEBUCK (John), M.D., was born at Sheffield in Yorkshire, in the year 1718. After the usual course of the grammar school at Sheffield, his parents being dissenters, they placed their son under the tuition of Dr. Doddridge, then master of an academy at Northampton. He was next sent to the university of Edinburgh, where he studied medicine and chemistry; and he afterwards spent some time at the university of Leyden; at which last place he obtained a degree in medicine, in 1743. He left Leyden, after having visited some parts of the north of Germany about the end of 1744. Soon after his return, he settled as a physician at Birmingham, where he met with great encouragement. Strongly attached to chemistry, he fitted up a small laboratory in his own house, in which he spent every spare moment of his time. His first discoveries were certain improved methods of refining gold and silver, and particularly an ingenious mode of collecting the smaller particles of these precious metals, which had been formerly lost in the practical operations of many of

the manufactures. By other chemical processes, carried on about the same time in his little laboratory, he discovered also improved methods of making sublimate, hartshorn, and sundry other articles of equal importance. In order to render these employments useful to himself and the public, he chose his associate Mr. Samuel Garbet of Birmingham. They erected an extensive laboratory at Birmingham, for the purposes above mentioned ; which was productive of many advantages to the manufactures of that place, and of much emolument to themselves. In 1747 the doctor married Miss Ann Roe of Sheffield. In 1749 Messrs. Roebuck and Garbet established a manufacture of oil of vitriol at Prestonpans: and, by conducting their operations with secrecy, they were enabled to preserve the advantages of their ingenuity and industry for a long period of years; and not only served the public at a much cheaper rate than had ever been done formerly, but realised in that manufacture a greater annual profit from a smaller capital than had been done in any similar undertaking. Dr. Roebuck next projected the establishment of cast iron works on an extensive and improved plan; and under his direction, with the assistance of Mr. Smeaton, and Mr. James Watt, the magnificent works at Carron were finished in the end of 1759. For some time after the establishment of the Carron works Dr. Roebuck continued to give his attention and assistance in the general management and superintendance of them; but, when the business sunk by degrees into a matter of ordinary detail, he was unfortunately induced to become lessee of the duke of Hamilton's extensive coal and salt works at Borrowstouness. The coal there was represented to exist in great abundance, and to be of superior quality; but the perpetual succession of difficulties and obstacles, which occurred in the working and raising of the coal, was such as has been seldom experienced in any work of that kind. The result was that, after many years of labor and industry, there were sunk in the coal and salt at Borrowstounness, not only his own, and the considerable fortune brought him by his wife, but the regular profits of his more successful works; together with sums of money borrowed from his relations and friends, which he was never able to repay. He died on the 17th of July, 1794. Dr. Roebuck left behind him many works, but few writings. A comparison of the Heat of London and Edinburgh, read in the Royal Society of London, June 29th, 1775; Experiments on Ignited Bodies, read there 16th of February 1776; Observations on the Ripening and Filling of Corn, read in the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 5th of June, 1784,-are all the writings of his, two political pamphlets excepted, which have been published. ROELLA, in botany, a genus of the monogynia order and pentandria class of plants; natural order twenty-ninth, campanaceae: cor. funnel-shaped, with its bottom shut up by staminiferous valvules: stigma bifid: cAPs. bilocular, and cylindrical inferior. ROEMER (Olaus), a celebrated Danish astronomer and mathematician, born at Arthusen in Jutland, 1644; and at eighteen years of age sent to the University of Copenhagen. He studied mathematics and astronomy, and became so expert in those sciences that when Picard was sent by Louis XIV., in 1671, to make observations in the north, he engaged him to return with him to France, and had him presented to the king, who made him tutor to the dauphin, and gave him a pension. He was joined with Pi— card and Cassini in making astronomical observations; and in 1672 he was admitted a member of the Academy of Sciences. During the ten years he resided at Paris, he gained great reputation by his discoveries: and first found out the velocity with which light moves, by the eclipses of Jupiter's satellites. In 1681 Roemer was recalled to Denmark, by Christian V., who made him professor of astronomy at Copenhagen; and chancellor of the exchequer, &c. He became counsellor of state, and burgomaster of Copenhagen under Frederick IV. He died September 19th, 1710, aged sixty-six. Horrebow, his disciple, professor of astronomy at Copenhagen, R." in 4to., 1753, various observations of oemer, with his system, under the title of Astronomiae. He had also printed various astronomical observations, &c., in several volumes of the Memoirs of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Paris, 1666. ROER, or RUHR. There are two rivers of this name in the west of the Prussian states; the one flowing through the provinces of the Lower Rhine, and Cleves, and Berg, passes by Duren and Juliers, and falls into the Maese. The other, rising near Winterburg in Westphalia, flows westward, till it joins the Rhine between Ruhrort and Duisburg. It is navigable by means of sluices, but rapid and frequently overflows its banks. ROGA, in antiquity, a present which the emperors made to the senators, magistrates, and even to the people; and the popes and patriarchs to their clergy. These rogae were distributed by the emperors on the first day of the year, on their birth day, or on thenatalis dies of the cities; and by the popes and patriarchs in passion-week. Roga is also used for the common pay of the soldiers. ROGATIO, or Rogation, in the Roman jurisprudence, a demand made by the consuls or tribunes of the Roman people, when a law was proposed to be passed. Rogatio is also used for the decree itself made in consequence of the people's giving their assent to this demand ; to distinguish it from a senatus consultum, or decree of the senate. ROGATION, n.s. Fr. rogation, from Lat. rogo. Litany; supplication. He perfecteth the rogations or litanies before in use, and addeth unto them that which the present necessity required. Hooker. Supplications, with this solemnity for appeasing of God's wrath, were of the Greek church termed litanies, and rogations of the Latin. Taylor.

ROGER of Hexh AM, an ancient English historian, educated in the monastery of Hexham in Northumberland. He was elected prior of it about 1138. He wrote a history of the campaign of the Scottish army, under David I.,

king of Scots, when the battle of the standard was fought. Roger of HovedEN, a learned man of the thirteenth century, born in Yorkshire, most probably at the town of that name, now called Howden, some time in the reign of Henry I. After he had received the first parts of education, in his native country, he studied the civil and canon law, which were then become the most lucrative branches of learning. He became domestic chaplain to Henry II, who employed him to transact several ecclesiastical affairs; in which he acquitted himself with honor. But his most celebrated work was, his Annals of England, from A. D. 731, when Bede's Ecclesiastical History ends, to A. D. 1202. This work, which is one of the most voluminous of our ancient his– tories, is more valuable for the sincerity with which it is written, and the great variety of facts which it contains, than for the beauty of its style, or the regularity of its arrangement. ROGERS (Charles), F.R.S., an eminent antiquarian, born in London, August 2d, 1711. In 1731 he obtained an office in the custom-house, and in 1747 was promoted to be clerk of the certificates. In 1752 he was admitted a member of the society of antiquaries; and soon after F. R. S. He published a most elegant and expensive work, exhibiting specimens of the manner of the different masters. This work was so much admired, that copies of it were placed in his majesty's library, and in those of the emperor of Germany, the empress of Russia, the late king of France, the British museum, &c. &c. He also published a translation of Dante's Inferno in 1782, 4to.; and several curious papers. He died January 26, 1784. Rogers (John), D.D. an eminent English divine, born in 1679, at Ensham, in Oxfordshire, where his father was vicar. He was educated at Oxford, and in 1693 was admitted of Corpus Christi College, and became fellow in 1706. In 1710 he became B. D., and in 1716 rector of Wrington; when he married Miss L. Hare, sister of lord Coleraine. In 1719 he engaged in the Bangorian controversy; and published A Discourse on the Visible and Invisible Church of Christ; in 8vo. Dr. Sykes having published an answer, he replied in a Review ..} the Discourse. He gained so much credit by these works that the university of Oxford conferred on him by diploma the degree of D. D. In 1726 he was made chaplain to the prince of Wales, afterwards George II; when he published A Defence of Christianity against Collins's Scheme of Literal Prophecy. In October 1728 he was made vicar of St. Giles's in London: but died 1st of May, 1729. ROGGERVELDT, UPPER, Middle, AND Little, three districts in the north part of the colony of the Cape of Good Hope, occupying a table land formed at the summit of the great range of mountains from which it derives its name. It contains the largest and best breed of horses in the colony; but the temperature is cold, so that the inhabitants are under the necessity of coming down for four months to the foot of the mountains. See CAPE of Good Hope.

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“Of uncertain etymology,’ says Johnson. Qu. Lat. arrogo? A wandering beggar; Roguishly, adv. a vagrant; a dishoncst Roguish Ness, n.s. person; a name of slight tenderness: to play the rogue: the other derivatives corresponding. For fear lest we, like rogues, should be reputed, And for ear-marked beasts abroad be bruited. Spenser. If he be but once so taken idly roguing, he may punish him with the stocks. 1d. on Ireland. Though the persons, by whom it is used, be of better note than the former roguish sort; yet the fault is no less worthy of a marshal. Spenser. Thou killest me like a rogue and a villain. Shakspeare. I never knew a woman love man so. —Alas, poor rogue, I think indeed she loves. . Id. You rogue, here's lime in this sack too; there's nothing but roguery to be found in villainous *};

The scum of people and wicked condemned men spoiled the plantation; for they will ever live like rogues, and not fall to work, but be lazy and do mischief. Bacon's Essays. To live in one land is captivity, To run all countries wild a roguery. Donne. He rogued away at last, and was lost. Carew. Like the devil did tempt and sway 'em To rogueries, and then betray 'em. Hudibras. If he call rogue and rascal from the garret, He means you no more mischief than a parrot. Dryden. Say, in what nasty cellar under ground, Or i. church porch your rogueship may be o Id. The most bewitching leer with her eyes, the most roguish cast; her cheeks are dimpled when she smiles, and her smiles would tempt an F. Id. Spanish Fryar. The kid smelt out the roguery. L'Estrange. A rogue upon the highway may have as strong an arm, and take off a man's head as cleverly as the executioner; but then there is a vast disparity, when one action is murther, and the other justice. South. I am pleased to see my tenants pass away a whole evening in playing their innocent tricks; our friend Wimble is as merry as any of them, and shews a thousand roguish tricks on these occasions. Addison. The rogue and fool by fits is fair and wise, And even the best, by fits, what they despise. Pope. The roguery of ão. And we, the bubbled fools, Spend all our present stock in hopes of golden rules. - Swift. He gets a thousand thumps and kicks, Yet cannot leave his roguish tricks. Id. I see thee dancing o'er the green, Thy waist sae jimp, thy limbs sae clean, Thy tempting looks, thy roguish een— By heaven and earth I love thee! Burns. ROHAN (Peter), Chevalier de Ghie, a brave Frenchman who flourished under Louis XI., who, for his valor, made him marshal of France, in 1475. He was one of the four lords who governed the kingdom during that king's illness, in 1484. In 1486 he defended Picardy against the archduke of Austria. He commanded the vanguard at the battle of Fournoue, in 1495; and Louis XII. appointed him his prime counsellor, and general of the army in Italy. But

all his merits were disregarded by the queen Anne of Austria, who, taking umbrage at him for having stopped her equipage, persecuted him with the most unrelenting violence, and subjected him by an iniquitous process to damages of 31,000 livres. This brave but ill-used general died April 22d, 1613. Roh AN (Henry duke of), prince of Leon, and peer of France, was born at the castle of Blein, in Brittany, in 1579; and gained the affection of Henry IV. by his bravery at the siege of Amiens, when only in his sixteenth year. After Henry's death, he became the chief leader of the Protestants in France, in defence of whose rights he carried on three wars against Louis XIII. The first ended to the advantage of the Protestants; the second and third were occasioned by the sieges of Rochelle. The duke at last procured for them an honorable peace in 1629. After this he retired to Venice, and that republic appointed him their commander-in-chief against the Imperialists; but Louis XIII. recalled him, and sent him ambassador to Switzerland and the Grisons. After many victories he drove the Spaniards and Imperialists out of the Valteline, in 1633; and defeated the former again at Lake Koma, in 1636. In 1637 he concluded a treaty with the Grisons: but afterwards, joining the duke of Saxe Weimar against the Imperialists, he was wounded at the battle of Rhinfeld, February 28th 1638; and died 13th of April, aged fifty-nine. Though so much engaged in wars, he wrote several treatises: as 1. The Interests of Princes: Cologn, 1660, 12mo. 2. The Perfect General; 12mo. 3. On the Corruption of the Ancient Militia. 4. On the Government of the thirteen Provinces. 5. Memoirs containing the history of France, from 1610 to 1629. 6. Political Discourses on State affairs, from 1612 to 1629, 8vo. Paris, 1644. 7. Memoirs and Letters on the War of the Walteline, in 3 vols. 12mo. Geneva, 1759. ROHAULT (James), a celebrated Cartesian, the son of a merchant of Amiens, where he was born in 1620. He became well skilled in the mathematics, and taught them at Paris where he became acquainted with M. Clerselier, an advocate, whose daughter he married. He taught philosophy in the same city with uncommon applause. He died in Paris in 1675. He wrote in French, 1. A Treatise on Natural Philosophy, 2. The Elements of the Mathematics. 3. A Treatise on Mechanics, which is very curious. 4. Philosophical Conversations; and other works. His Physics were translated into Latin, by Dr. Samuel Clarke, with notes, in which the Cartesian errors are corrected upon the Newtonian sys

tem. ROHILCUND, or RAHILKHAND, in Sanscrit Kuttair, is a tract of Hindostan situated east of the Ganges, between 28° and 30° N. lat., and 78° to 80° E. long. Commencing in the vicinity of the Lolldong Pass, at the foot of the Kemaoon Hills, it extends south-eastward to the t wn of Pillibeet. On the north it is bounded by the Sewalic and Kemaoon Hills, and on the south by the dominions of Oude, the principal rivers being the Ganges and Ramgunga: the latter traverses Rohilcund nearly in its whole ex

tent, and joins the Ganges at Kanoge. On the eastern side the Dewah, or Goggra, issues from the Kemaoon Mountains, and runs past the town of Pillibeet, where, during the height of the rains, the timber of the adjacent forests is embarked for Patna, Calcutta, and other large towns. There are many smaller streams which contribute to its fertility, being distributed by means of canals and reservoirs; water is also found by digging a few feet. Rohilcund is calculated to be one of the richest natural districts of the East; and was, when ceded to the British by the nabob of Oude, in 1801, one of the most desolate regions in Hindostan. The chief articles raised are grain of all sorts, sugar-cane, indigo, cotton, and tobacco. 'n the early periods of the Mogul empire Rohilcund contained the cities of Shahabad, Shahjeanpoor, Bareily, Bissowlee, Budayoon, Owlah, Moradabad, and Sumbul: which last communicated its name to a #. part of the district. During the existence of the Patan dynasty, many princes of that family kept their court, for a series of years, in Budayoon, where, as in many other parts of Rohilcund, are still to be seen the remains of magnificent edifices and mausoleums. The Rohillas were originally an Afghaun or Patan race, who emigrated from the province of Cabul. About 1720 the Afghaun chiefs, Bisharut Khan and Daood Khan, accompanied by a band of their countrymen, came to Hindostan in quest of military service. They were first entertained by Madhoo Sah, the zemindar of Serowly, who maintained, o incursions, a large party of banditti. hile plundering an adjacent village, Daood Khan captured a youth of the Jaut tribe, whom he converted to the Mahommedan religion, named Ali Mahommed, and adopted. Daood Khan was succeeded as principal leader of the Rohillahs by this youth, who, in consequence of the distracted state of Hindostan, soon established his power over this territory. He died in 1748, and left six sons; but was succeeded in the chieftainship by Hafez Rehmut. In 1774 the combined forces of the Rohillahs were totally defeated by the British army at the battle of Cutterah, where Hafez Rehmut was slain, and with this event terminated the Rohillah sway. ROIST, v. n. A Goth. rosta ; Goth. and Swed. Ro1'stER, n.s. ! raust. Of this word the most o etymology, says Dr. Johnson, is from sl. rister, a violent man. To behave turbulently; to act at discretion; to be at free quarter; to bluster: vociferation. Thomson. I have a roisting challenge sent amongst The dull and factious nobles of the Greeks, Will strike amazement to their drowsy spirits. Shakspeare. Among a crew of roist'ring fellows, "He'd sit whole evenings at the alehouse. Swift.

ROLAND (M.), one of the celebrated founders of the French Revolution, was born in 1732, at Le Clos de la Platiere, twelve miles from Vil"lefranche. His family was ancient and noble. He was educated for the church; but, not choosing the clerical profession, he went to Rouen, where his relation M. Godinot was inspector of manufactures, and proposed to him to


follow this branch of administration. He agreed and soon was distinguished for activity, industry, and disinterestedness. Government soon gave him a higher office, with an income which satisfied his wishes. While in Italy, he wrote letters to Madame Philepon, afterwards his wife, by the medium of his brother, a Benedictine prior, containing Observations on the Men, Manners, and Manufactures of Italy, which were af. terwards published. He was soon after entrusted with a considerable part of the Encyclopædia. At the commencement of the revolution M. Roland was appointed inspector for Lyons: he was a member of all the academies in the south of France; and had drawn up the Cahiers of Lyons, on the convocation of the states general, at the express desire of the society of agriculture. After faithfully discharging the duties of his mission, he returned to his native province. Returning some time after to Paris, he became intimate with the celebrated Brissot, who introduced him to the Jacobin club. He was soon nominated a member of the committee of correspondence. Much jealousy had been excited about this time by the suspicious conduct of the court; and, some of the Girondists being consulted about the formation of a patriotic administration, Roland was pointed out by the committee of the Place Vendome as a man every way qualified; and his writings were referred to as proofs of his attachment to liberty. The king

approved, and Brissot was sent to Madame Ro

land, to discover whether her husband would accept of the important office of minister of the Home Department. Roland accepted of the appointment; and the next day Roland appeared at court, to be presented, take the oaths, and enter on his new office; but the courtiers were astonished, to find him not in an elegant court habit, but in his ordinary dress. At length the menacing attitude assumed by the court of Vienna produced a crisis. Servan, the minister at war, proposed to the assembly the formation of a camp of 20,000 men under the walls of Paris. This , scheme was adopted with enthusiasm, as well as another against the clergy. All the six ministers supported these decrees, but the king made use of the veto which the constitution had given him, and refused his assent; on which, after sending a letter to the king, Roland gave in his resignation. The constituent assembly unanimously voted that he had “retired with the thanks and gratitude of his country.” His resignation had a prodigious effect on the minds of the public, and rendered the conduct of the court suspected. At length, on the 10th of August, the palace being taken, and the king and royal family made prisoners, citizens Roland, Claviers, and Servan, were restored to their of. fices, and three new ones appointed, viz. Danton to that of justice, le Brun, to that of the foreign affairs, and Monge to the marine. But, in September 1792, sanguinary men murdered a number of the clergy and aristocracy, without trial or form of justice. Roland and all his friends of the Girondist party disapproved of these crimes, and endeavoured to bring the murderers to justice, and thus lost their popularity. Roland's house, formerly reverenced as sacred, was 2 T

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