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ROBERVALLIAN LINEs, a name given to ROBʻIN, n. s.
Lat. rubecula. certain lines used for the transformation of
} bird his
ROBIN-RED-BREAST. figures ; thus called from their inventor Roberval, red breast; a ruddock. an eminent French mathematician, who died in
Up a grove did spring, green as in May, 1675, aged seventy-six. The abbé Gallois, in the Memoirs of the Royal Academy, 1693, ob- The pretty robins, nightingales, and thrushes
When April had been moist : upon whose bushes serves that the method of transforming figures, Warbled their notes.
Suckling explained at the latter end of Roberval's Treatise
The robin-red-breast till of late had rest, of Indivisibles, was the same with that after
Pope. wards published by James Gregory, in his Geo And children sacred held a martin's nest. metria Universalis, and also by Barrow in his ROBINIA, false acacia, in botany, a genus of Lectiones Geometricæ; and that, by a letter of the decandria order, and diadelphia class of Torricelli, it appears that Roberval was the in- plants ; natural order thirty-second, papilionaceæ. ventor of this manner of transforming figures, by The calyx is quadrifid ; the legumen gibbous means of certain lines, which Torricelli therefore and elongated. There are nine species. The called Robervallian lines.
most remarkable are, ROBESPIERRE (Maximilian Isidore), the 1. R, caragnana. The leaves are conjugated, most cruel, perhaps, of the demagogues of the and coinposed of a number of small folioles, of French revolution, was born at Arras in 1759. an oval figure, and ranged by pairs on une comHaving lost his father in childhood, he was taken mon stock. The flowers are leguminous, and under the protection of the bishop of Arras, who are clustered on a filament. Every flower consent him to the college of Louis le Grand; after sists of a smalı bell shaped petal, cut into four which he studied the law, and was admitted an segments at the edge, the upper part being rather advocate in the council of Artois. Early in the widest. The keel is small, open, and rounded. life he published a Treatise on Electricity, and The wings are large, oval, and a little raised. another on Crimes and Punishments, in which Within are ten stamina, united at the base, he denied the right of society to put offenders to curved towards the top, and rounded at the sumdeath. He was, at the beginning of the revo- mit. In the midst of a sheath, formed by the lution, elected a member of the states-general, filaments of the stamina, the pistil is perceivable, where he obtained the name of 'incorruptible,' consisting of an oval germen, terminated by a by his constant and consistent testimony against kind of button. This germen becomes afterpolitical corruption. The Jacobin club raised wards an oblong flattish curved pod, containing him to power, when a scene of blood followed, four or five seeds, of a size and shape irregular to which hardly a parallel can be found in his- and unequal; yet in both respects somewhat retory. See our article France. Robespierre seinbling a lentil. This tree grows naturally in and his creatures established the terriole commit- the severe climates of Northern Asia, in a sandy tee of public safety, which spread dismay and soil mixed with black light earth. It is particudeath throughout France. At length a confede- larly found on the banks of great rivers, as the racy was formed against the tyrant, who was Oby, Jenisia, &c. It is very rarely met with in arrested July 9, 1794, but not till his lower jaw the inhabited parts of the country, because cattle was broken by a pistol shot in an abortive attempt are very fond of its leaves, and hogs of its roots; at suicide. He suffered the next day under the but it is so hardy that the severest winters do guillotine, amidst the execrations of the multi- not affect it. Gmelin found it in the neighbourtude. Buonaparte is stated to have said at St. hood of Tobolsk, buried under fifteen feet of Helena, that Robespierre displayed in his con snow and ice, yet had it not suffered the least duct more extensive and enlightened views than damage. Its culture consists in being planted or have been generally ascribed to him; and that sown in a lightish sandy soil, which must on no he intended to re-establish order after he had account have been lately manured. It thrives overturned the factions; but, not being powerful best near a river, or on the edge of a brook or enough to arrest the progress of the revolution, spring ; but presently dies if planted in a marshy he suffered himself to be carried away by the spot
, where the water stagnates. The Tongusian torrent. As a proof of this, the ex-emperor as- Tartars, and the inhabitants of the northern parts serted, that when with the army at Nice, he had of Siberia, are very fond of the fruit of this tree, seen in the hands of Robespierre's brother, let- it being almost the only sort of pulse they eat. ters, in which that demagogue expressed an in- The roots, being sweet and succulent, are very tention to put an end to the reign of terror. well adapted to fattening hogs; and the fruit is It may, perhaps, be reasonable to conclude that greedily eaten by all sorts of poultry. Linné something like principle guided him in the first assures us that, after the pinus fol. quinis, erinstance, until, unable to govern the elements of roneously called the cedar tree of Siberia, this disorder, contending around him, the cruelty of tree, of all that are to be found in Siberia, is perplexed cowardice at length became his only most worthy of cultivation. instrument.
2. R. ferox is a beautiful hardy shrub, and, ROBIGALIA, festivals held by the ancient on account of its robust strong prickles, might be Romans, on the 25th of April, when incense was introduced into this country as a hedge plant offered, along with the entrails of a sheep and with much propriety. It resists the severest a dog, in honor of
cold of St. Petersburgh, and rises to the height ROBIGUS AND ROBIgo, a Roman god and of six or eight feet; does not send out suckers goddess, who joined in the preservation of corn from the root, or ramble so much as to be with from blight.
difficulty kept within bounds. Its flowers are
yellow, and the general color of the plant a light into the conduct of L. G. Sir J. Core. This pleasing green.
was esteemed a master-piece. He afterwards ROBINS (Benjamin), an eminent English contributed to improve the observatory at Greenmathematician, born at Bath in 1707. His pa- wich; and, finally, went out as engineer-general rents were unable to give him a proper educa- to the East India Company. He arrived in the tion; but he procured a recommendation to East Indies in 1750, but fell a sacrifice to the Dr. Pemberton of London, by whose aid he not climate in 1751. only acquired a high knowledge of mathematics, ROBINSON (Anastasia), an eminent musician but even commenced teacher of the science. and singer on the stage, afterwards countess of He tried many laborious experiments in projec- Peterborough. She was the daughter of a portiles, to ascertain the resistance of the air, a trait-painter, and was born in 1662. She first principle which he considered as too much over- appeared at the concerts ; afterwards at the opera; looked by writers on gunnery. He also studied where her salary and emoluments amounted to the mechanic arts, as depending on mathematical £2000 a-year. She died in 1750, aged 88 years. principles; and applied his discoveries to the Robinson (Sir Richard), archbishop of Arconstruction of mills, &c. An attempt being magh and lord Rokeby, was descended from the made to explode the method of Auxións, Mr. Robinsons of Rokeby, in Yorkshire, and born in Robins published, in 1735, A Discourse con- · 1709. He was educated at Westminster, and cerning the Nature and Certainty of Sir Isaac sent thence to Christ Church, Oxford, in 1726. Newton's Method of Fluxions. Some objections Dr. Blackburne, archbishop of York, made hin being made to his manner of defending Sir Isaac, his chaplain ; and soon after rector of Elton in he wrote two or three additional discourses. In Yorkshire, and prebendary of Grindal. In 1751 1738 he defended Newton against an objection he accompanied the duke of Dorset, lord lieuteurged in a Latin piece, entitled Matho, sive nant of Ireland, to that kingdom, as his chapCosmotheoria puerilis; and, in 1739, published lain; and was soon made bishop of Killala. In Remarks on Euler's Treatise of Motion, Dr. 1759 he was translated to Leighlin and Fem; Smith's System of Optics, and Dr. Jurieu's Dis- in 1761 to Kildare; and in 1765, the duke of course of Vision. In 1739 he published three Northumberland being lord lieutenant, he was anonymous political pamphlets, two of which, on promoted to be primate of all Ireland, lord althe convention with Spain, were much admired, moner, and vice-chancellor of the university of and procured him a very honorable post; for, á Dublin. In 1777 the king created him baron committee being appointed to enquire into Sir Rokeby; in 1783 prelate to the order of St. Robert Walpole's conduct, Mr. Robins was Patrick; and in 1785 one of the lords justices. chosen secretary. In 1742 he published his His brother, Sir William, dying in 1785, he succelebrated treatise, entitled New Principles of ceeded to the title of baronet. He was a public Gunnery, containing the result of many experi- spirited prelate ; and, at his own expense, erected ments. See PROJECTILES. A treatise being a most princely palace at Armagh, and an eleafterwards published in the Philosophical Trans- gant library. In these works he spent no less actions, in opposition to some of his opinions, than £30,000 for the benefit of the public. He - he presented an account of his work to the so- died at Clifton, near Bristol, in 1794. ciety, wherein he took notice of those experi ROBINSON (Robert), a celebrated dissenting ments; and several of his Dissertations on the clergyman, born at Swaffham, in Norfolk, OcioResistance of Air were read, and his experiments ber 8th, 1735. His father died in his infancy, exhibited before the Royal Society, for which and his maternal grandfather, Robert Wilkin, they honored him with their gold medal. In of Milden-hall, esq., who had been displeased 1748 appeared Lord Anson's Voyage round the with his daughter's marriage, cut him off with World, which, though the title bears the name half a guinea from his maternal inberitance. of Mr. Walter, is ascribed to Mr. Robins. Mr. His uncle, however, a rich fariner, took him Walter, chaplain of the Centurion, had brought home, and placed him under the rev. Joseph it down to his departure from Macao, when he Brett, at Scarming school, in Norfolk, where lord proposed to print it by subscription. But it was chancellor Thurlow was his schoul-fellow. He first thought necessary to have it reviewed and became a disciple of George Whitfield in 1750, corrected by an able judge, and this task de- and commenced preacher in 1755, but left the volved on Robins, who was authorised to write Methodists in 1758, and settled at Norwich with the whole anew. Hence the entire introduction, a small congregation of Independents. Soon the style, and many dissertations in the work, after he became a Baptist, and in 1759 was inare the sole compositions of Mr. Robins; Mr. vited to Cambridge, where he had a small conWalter's original MS. containing little more than gregation, and a very poor living: but in 1774 notes of the wind and weather, currents, courses, the former had increased to 1000. He was even bearings, distances, qualities of the anchoring attended by many members of the university. grounds, and such particulars as commonly fill In 1764 his auditors built him a new and elegant · up a sailor's account. No work of this kind meeting-house. He was also invited to lecture ever met with a more favorable reception ; four in the adjacent villages. He died 9th June, large impressions were sold within the year, and 1790, with the reputation of a man of abilities it has been translated into most of the languages and integrity. His Plan of Lectures on the of Europe. Mr. Robins was soon after desired Principles of Nonconformity has been thought to compose an apology for the defeat at Preston- very acrimonious against the church of England. Pans; which was prefixed to the report of the His chief work is his History of Baptism, and of board of general officers, on their examination the Baptists, published since his death.
ROBINSON (Thomas), a respectable Calvinistic his studies with great assiduity, but his instrucdivine, was born at Wakefield, in Yorkshire, in tors were changed. Dr. Simson was dead; Dr. 1749. After receiving the rudiments of a classical Smith had left Glasgow to travel with the duke education at the foundation school, he removed to of Buccleugh. But the place of the latter genTrinity College, Cambridge, and obtained a fel- tleman had been well supplied by Dr. Reid, and lowship of that society in 1772. He was the Mr. Robison had also an opportunity of attendauthor of the Christian System unfolded, 8vo., ing the lectures of Mr. Miller on civil law, and 3 vols.; and the very popular Scripture Charac- of Dr. Black on chemistry. When Dr. Black, ters, 8vo., 4 vols. He also published some in 1769, was called to Edinburgh, Mr. Robison sermons, &c., and died in 1813 at Leicester, in was appointed by the university of Glasgow to which town he held the living of St. Mary's for succeed him as lecturer on chemistry; and he thirty-five years.
read lectures on that science for three years with ROBISON (John), professor of natural history great applause. In 1770 Sir Charles Knowles in the university of Glasgow, was born at Bog- having gone to Russia, on the invitation of the hall, in the county of Stirling, in 1739. He empress Catharine, then intent on the improvewas sent to Glasgow to receive his education, and ment of her marine, invited Mr. Robison to acwas soon distinguished for the rapid progress company him as his official secretary, with a which he made in classical learning. He went, salary of £250 a year. As he was still attached while very young, to the university, where he to the navy and to his former patron, and as, enjoyed the benefit of the instructions of pro- though lecturing on chemistry, he did not enjoy fessors Simson, Leechman, Moore, Smith, and the rank of a professor, Mr. Robison made no others. Dr. Robert Simson was his tutor in hesitation in accepting the proposal. In 1772 mathematics, and in this class Mr. Robison he was appointed, by the Russian admiralty, inwas soon distinguished beyond any of his fellow spector general of the corps of marine cadets : students. Among other branches Mr. Robison an academy consisting of upwards of 400 young made himself well acquainted with the modes of gentlemen and scholars, under the tuition of algebra; but from professor Simson he derived about forty teachers. While in this situation, a peculiar disposition to the study of geometry. Mr. Robison presented to the admiralty college Among his fellow students were the celebrated a plan for rendering more useful the magnificent Mr. Wind ham, with whom he formed an inti- docks at Cronstadt by means of a steam-engine, mate friendship, which continued to the end of which was adopted and executed with success his life; Richardson, afterwards eminent as a after he had left Russia. Being attached, by his critic and a professor: and Dr. Gillies, distin- office, to that island, he found it, particularly in guished by his illustrations of Grecian history winter, to be a dismal solitude, where he was and politics. Mr. Robison was designed by nearly cut off from all society. On this account, his parents for the clerical profession ; but, having held the appointment about four years, though deeply impressed with the truths of re- he determined to resign it, and to accept of an ligion, he had a great aversion to the professional invitation from the magistrates and town-council study of theology. His friends therefore looked of Edinburgh to be professor of natural philoround for some situation in which his mathema- sophy in their university. This situation be filled tical talents might be turned to advantage. Dr. with great honor to himself as well as benefit to Dick, professor of natural philosophy, being in the students of the university till his death, which want of an assistant, Mr. Robison,, then not happened in 1805. nineteen years of age, was recommended by Dr. Although Dr. Robison labored under a disSmith as a proper person to discharge that office. tressing and painful disorder, during the last Dr. Dick, however, thought him too young, and eighteen years of his life, his mind was in general three years after he went to sea as mathematical active. He is well known to be author of all tutor to Mr. Knowles, eldest son of admiral the most important mathematical and philosoKnowles. His pupil being appointed lieutenant phical articles in the third edition of the Encyon board the Royal William, Mr. Robison, at clopædia Britannica, and the supplement to that his own request, was rated midshipman. Here work. Several of these papers were afterwards he spent the three following years, and devoted thrown into a different form, and published himself particularly to the study of the art of under the title of Elements of Mechanical Phiseamanship, and was sometimes employed in losophy. In 1797 this gentleman published a making surveys of coasts and rivers. In this work entitled Proofs of a Conspiracy against capacity his merit seems to have attracted the no- all the Religions and Governments of Europe, tice of lord Anson, then at the head of the admi- carried on in the Secret Meetings of Free-Maralty board, by whom he was sent, in 1762, to sons, Illuminati, and Reading Societies, a work Jamaica, in order to make trial of Harrison's full of declamation and absurdity, but which, time-keeper. But on returning from this mission owing to the furor of the times, made a great he found his prospects of advancement completely impression, and rapidly passed through several blasted. Lord Anson had died; the vessel on editions. In 1803 Mr. Robison performed a board of which was his pupil, Mr. Knowles, had very acceptable service to the public, by giving foundered at sea, and bimself with all the crew them an edition of Dr. Black's lectures on the perished. Admiral Knowles had retired to the Elements of Chemistry, in 2 vols. 4to. When country, inconsolable for the loss of his son. the Royal Society of Edinburgh was incorporated He determined, therefore, to return to Glasgow; by charter, in 1783, he was chosen by that learned and admiral Knowles soon after placed under his body to be their general secretary, and discharged care his remaining son. At Glasgow he renewed that office to their entire satisfaction, till a few
days before his death, when the state of his health five miles W.N. W. of York, and 197 N. N. W.of obliged him to resign it. To their transactions he London. has contributed several very interesting papers, of ROCHEFORT, a town in the department of which the following is, we believe, a correct the Lower Charente, France, situated in a marsby list :--1. The orbit and motion of the Georgium tract on the right bank of the Charente, about Sidus determined directly from observations, five miles from its embouchure. Though founded vol. i. p. 305. 2. Observations on the places only in the latter half of the seventeenth century, of the Georgian planet made at Edinburgh, with it is a place of size, containing about 15,000 inan equatorial instrument, ii. p. 37. 3. On the habitants. Its form is that of a segment of motion of light, as affected by refracting and re a circle, of which the walls form the circumflecting substances, which are also in motion. ference, and the river the chord. In the interior
ROBUST, adj. Fr. robuste ; Lat. ro the streets are broad, and laid out on a plan of Robust’ious, bustus. Strong; sinewy; perfect regularity. Nearly in the centre of the
ROBUST'NESS, n. s. vigorous ; violent; re town is a spacious Place d'Armes. The objects quiring strength : the noun-substantive corres- of interest are the arsenal, cannon foundry, barponding.
racks, magazine of naval stores, the docks, the It offends me to hear a robustious periwig-pated civil and marine hospital, and the navigation fellow tear a passion to tatters, to very rags, to split school. The harbour, one of the great naval the ears of the groundlings.
Shukspeare. stations of France, is protected by five forts, These redundant locks,
and well locked in by the land. It is capable, Robustious to no purpose, clustering down, Vain monument of strength.
from its depth, of admitting vessels of great Milton's Agonistes.
size : but line of battle ships take out their While I was managing this young robustious fel. low, that old spark, who was nothing but skin and lower deck guns to enter the river. At low water bone, slipt through my fingers.
vessels are seldom in less than four fathoms depth The tenderness of a sprain remains a good while in this harbour. The docks for building and reftafter, and leaves a lasting caution in the man, not to ting of vessels, and the stores for their equipment, put the part quickly again to any robust employment. are very complete. The trade is limited, in great
Locke. measure, to the coasting and colonial traffic. Beef may confer a robustness on my son's limbs, Here are, however, manufactures of cordage, but will hebetate his intellectuals.
stoneware, and oil; and also for refining sugar. Arbuthnot and Pope: The ramparts of the town are planted with
Romp-loving miss Is hauled about in gallantry robust.
trees, and form an agreeable walk. Fevers are Thomson.
said to be occasioned here in the autumn by ROCA, a name given to an archipelago of bad water, and the extent of marshes. Since small desert islands on the coast of Venezuela, draining a part of the latter they have become Colombia. They extend about twenty-three miles less frequent. Twenty miles south-east of La from east to west, and ten from north to south. Rochelle, and 100 north of Bourdeaux. The most northern is worthy of note, from a Rochefort, a town of France, in the departlofty mountain of white stone, which it has at ment of the Maine and Loire, on the river Louet. the west extremity. The others are low, and Population 2400. Nine miles south-west of that which is nearest to the one just mentioned Angers. small and fat, producing nothing but grass. ROCHEFOUCAULT, a town of France, These islands are in long. 66° 45° W., lat. 11° department of the Charente, on the Tardiore, 55' N.
with a castle, which conferred, before the revoROC'AMBOLE, n. s. Span. rocambole. See lution, the title of duke. It has manufactures of GARLIC.
leather and linen, and its chief trade is in these Rocumbole is a sort of wild garlick, otherwise called articles and in wood. Inhabitants 2400. Twenty Spanish garlick; the seed is about the bigness of or- miles north-east of Angouleme, and fifty-eight dinary pease.
Mortimer. south of Poitiers. Garlick, rocambole, and onions, abound with a RocuEFOUCAULT (Francis duke of), prince of pungent volatile salt. Arbuthnot on Aliments.
Marsillac, governor of Poictou, was born in 1603. ROCHE-AL'UM, n. s. Fr. roche. A rock. He was the son of Francis, the first duke of A purer kind of alum.
Rochefoucault, and wrote two celebrated works, Roche-alum is also good. Mortimer's Husbandry. the one a book of Maxims, and the other, MeROCHDALE, a market-town of Lancashire, moirs of the Regency of Queen Anne of Austria
. seated in a valley on the Roch, at the foot of the In the civil war he signalised himself at the Yorkshire hills. It has flourishing manufactures battle of St. Antoine. After the civil wars were of serges, bays, and other woollen and cotton ended, his house became the rendezvous of all the goods. Over the river is a neat stone bridge of literati of Paris and Versailles. He died at Paris three arches. The town consists principally of in 1680, aged sixty-eight. one long street. Here are also several chapels ROCHEJAQUELIN (Henry de la), a French for Dissenters, and a well endowed school for royalist, distinguished in the war of La l'endée
. thirty boys; likewise a theatre and two assembly He was born in 1773, and was the son of the rooms: a new market-place has been added, and marquis de la Rochejaquelin, a nobleman of the whole town lighted with gas. The church Poitou. Having been educated at the military stands upon a remarkable eminence, to which school of Sorèze, he became one of the constituthe ascent from the lower part of the town is by tional guard of Louis XVI. His father quitted a flight of 118 steps. The manufactories extend France, and our young hero Paris, after the inabout ten miles north of the town, which is fifty- surrection of the 10th of August 1792. He re
sided with his relative, the marquis de Lescure, Richelieu caused the construction of a mole
three months' siege ; and in 1256 its castle, ROCHELLE, LA, a town of Lower Charente, founded by William the Conqueror, was stormed France, the capital of that department, is situe and taken by the barons, under the French king's ated in a plain at the bottom of a gulf of the At- son. In the reign of Henry III. it was besieged lantic. Iis form is nearly oval, and its length by Simon Montford, who burnt its then wooden from north to south, exclusive of the suburbs, bridge and tower, and spoiled the church and about three-quarters of a mile; its breadth above priory. In 1281 its old wooden bridge was carhalf a mile. The fortifications of the celebrated ried off by the ice in a sudden thaw after a frost Vauban are in good condition, and consist of which had made the Medway passable on foot. nineteen large bastions, and eight half moons, en- Another was built in the reign of Richard II., closed by a moat and covered way. On the side but pulled down again on a rumor of an invaof the sea it has a massy old wall, flanked with sion from France. It was afterwards restored, large towers. The streets are broad, and in but so often required expensive repairs, by reageneral straight, and the houses spacious through- son of the rapid course of the river under it, that out the town : they are almost all supported in in the reign of Edward III. it was resolved to front by arcades, which, by concealing the pe- build a new bridge of stone; which was begun, destrians, cause an apparent dulness in the streets. and completed, at the expense of Sir John CobThe Place d'Armes, or Place du Chateau, con- ham and Sir Robert Knolles, Edward III.'s sists of a spacious area planted with trees, and generals, out of the spoils they had taken in commands a fine view of the roadstead. The France. The town is governed by a mayor, reprincipal public buildings are the cathedral, hos- corder, twelve aldermen, twelve common-counpital, orphan-house, and exchange : here are also cilmen, a town clerk, and inferior officers. To several scientific institutions, a navigation school, its cathedral belong a dean and six prebendaries. and a cabinet of natural history.
The present castle of Rochester was one of those Rochelle has an excellent road, and a haven, founded by William the Conqueror, to keep in formed by a dike and basin for merchant vessels. awe his new subjects; but there seems every Its entrance is defended by two old Gothic reason to believe that a prior one existed on the towers of great height, and is crossed by a pon- same site, frequent mention being made of the derous iron chain. The trade to the colonies in Castrun Roffense in the Saxon annals. He wines, brandy, flour, linen ; taking in return committed to Odo, bishop of Baieux, the execusugar, coffee, cotton, and all kinds of produce, tion of the new work, and the custody of the is considerable. To ports of Eu the chief fortress; but, that prelate proving unworthy of articles of export are brandy and bay salt; its his trust, he was afterwards seized, and sent as imports from them are trifling. Glass, stone a prisoner to the castle of Röuen, in Normandy, ware, and sugar, are the chief manufactures. where he continued to the accession of William
La Rochelle was, in the thirteenth century, Rufus, who restored him to his dignities and for some time in the possession of the English. possessions; a favor which he shortly after unIn the sixteenth it became a strong hold of the gratefully repaid by raising an insurrection in Protestants, and governed itself for some time favor of the king's brother, Robert, duke of Noras a republic. It was several times besieged by mandy. Rufus, upon this, laid siege to Rochesthe Catholics without success, until 1637, when ter castle, and, having forced the garrison to surit was taken by Louis XIII. after a siege of render, banished the bishop from his dominions. thirteen months, during which the inhabitants During this siege the buildings sustained consisuffered all the horrors of famine. It was to lerable injury, which the king enjoined bishop exclude all its supplies at this time that cardinal Gundulph and the prior of Rochester to repair,