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legislature, Edgeworth observes, has limited, in which is to gather up the surface-soil into a several instances, the height of hedges to five ridge, and, on this soft spongy bed, to lay, coat feet; but this limitation is neglected or evaded. after coat, some hard materials,-fetched perhaps Even were it strictly adhered to, it would not be from a distance. But M'Adam contends that a sufficient for narrow roads; the hedges would be stratum of hard materials covering a morass will still too high, for it is the sweeping power of the last longer than a similar stratum laid on rock; wind which carries off dust in dry weather, and indeed, according to this able engineer, it may which takes up moisture in wet. In fact, roads be questioned whether a properly made road og become dry by evaporation; and, when they are a bog, which yields by its elasticity, will not last exposed to the sun and wind, the effect of heat longer than one on a firm surface. In Ireland and ventilation are more powerful than any sur this is said to be found actually the case : • Fot face drainage that could be accomplished. Wal- the same cause,' as Fry observes, that a stone ker observes that the advantage of having the placed upon a wool-pack would bear a greater hedge next the road consists in its greater safety pressure before it would be broken, than it to the traveller, particularly if a ditch of any would if placed on an anvil.'—Essay on Wheel considerable depth is necessary, and in the hedge Carriages, &c. Edgeworth and many others being supported in its growth from the ground have recommended covering the base of an ununder the road, without drawing upon the sound road with faggots, branches, furze, or farmer's side of the ditch. The fences, Telford heath. Flat stones, he adds, if they can be had, observes, form a very material and important should then be laid over the faggots, and upon subject, with regard to the perfection of roads; them stones of six or seven pounds' weight, and, they should in no instance be more than five feet lastly, a coat of eight or ten inches of pounded in height above the centre of the road, and all stone. If the practicability of consolidating a trees which stand within twenty yards from the mass of stones of six or eight ounces weight and centre of it ought to be removed. I am sure under each, so as to act as one plate or flooring, that twenty per cent of the expense of improving be admitted, then the faggots and flat stones and repairing roads is incurred by the improper must at least be useless, and the stones of six ot state of the fences and trees along the sides of it, seven pounds' weight injurious; because, wheton the sunny side more particularly; this must ever the upper stratum has worn down a fer be evident to any person who will notice the inches, some of these stones, and eventually the state of a road which is much shaded by high greater number will be worked up to the surfences and trees, compared to the other parts of face, and the road destroyed or put in a state to the road which are exposed to the sun and air. require lifting, breaking, and relaying. A base. My observations, with regard to fences and trees, ment of trees, bavins, or bushes, was made use of apply when the road is on the same level as the by Walker when the ground was soft. They carry adjacent fields ; but in many cases, on the most off the water previous to the materials of the frequented roads of England, more stuff has been road being so consolidated as to form a solid body, removed from time to time than was put on; the and to be impervious to water. Bushes are, hoxsurface of the road is consequently sunk into a ever, not advisable to be used, unless they are so trough or channel from three to six feet below low as always to be completely moist. When the surface of the fields on each side; here all they are dry and excluded from the air they deattempts at drainage, or even common repairs, cay in a few years, and produce a sinking in the seem to be quite out of the question; and by road; a thickness of chalk is useful for the same far the most judicious and economical mode purpose in cases where bushes are improper: the will be to remove the whole road into the field chalk mixing with the gravel or stones becomes which is on the sunny side of it.- Eramination concreted, and presents a larger surface to the before the House of Commons, &c.
pressure. 3. Of the foundation of roads.-Edgeworth, Mr. M'Adam would lay his "metals' at once Marshall
, and all the practical engineers before on the earth, provided it were even a bog, 'if a Mr. M'Adam differ with him as to the base of man could walk over it.' In his examination roads. The author of Landed Property in Eng- before the house of commons he says, the land would prepare the ground by striking off Somersetshire morass is so extremely soft that the protuberances, and filling up the hollow when you ride in a carriage along the road you parts: the footpath and the higher side of the see the water tremble in the ditches on each side; soft road being raised with the earth which is re- and the vibration so great that it will break you quired to be taken off the bed of the hard road; in.' Yet here he would use ng large foundawhose base or foundation ought to be formed tion stones, nor faggots, nor any material larger with peculiar care. Every part is required, as than will weigh six ounces. If a road be made he says, to be firm and sound : dry earth, or smooth and solid, it will be one mass, and the hard materials, being rammed into every hollow effect of the substrata, whether clay or sand, can and yielding part. In a dry situation, as across never be felt in effect by carriages going over the a gravelly or stony height, little more, he says, is road; because a road well made unites itself in required than to remove the surface mould, and a body like a piece of timber or a board. And lay bare the rock, or bed of gravel beneath it: we may now introduce and, then, to give the indurate base a round or 4. Mr. M'Adam's system.-- This able and ina shelving form, as the lying of the ground may genious engineer agrees with many of his prerequire. In this way, a travelable road may be decessors that a good road may be considered as made, and kept up, at one-tenth of the expense an artificial flooring, forming a strong, solid, incurred by the ordinary practice in this case ; smooth-surfaced stratum, sufficiently fat to
admit of carriages standing upright on any part nomy, or other causes, have prevented the road of it, capable of carrying a great weight, and being lifted to the bottom at once; the wear has presenting no impediment to the animals or ma- always been found to diminish, as soon as it chines which pass along it. In forming this was possible to remove the hard foundation. As flooring, he has, however, gone one material step to the fact, already adverted to, that a road lasts beyond his predecessors in breaking the stone to much longer over a morass than when made over a smaller size, and in forming the entire stratum rock, the evidence produced before the comof this small-sized stone. It is in this point, of mittee of the house of commons showed the making use of one small size of stones through comparison, on the road between Bristol and out the stratum, that the originality of Mr. Bridgewater, to be as five to seven in favor of M'Adam's plan consists. It is doubted by some the wearing on the morass, where the road is laid whether this would be durable in the northern on the naked surface of the soil, against a part districts at the breaking up of frosts, and espe- of the same road made over rocky ground. cially in the case of roads not much in use, or Water, with alternate frost and thaw, are the consisting of a stratum less consolidated, and great evils to be guarded against in the base of more penetrable by water. The durability of a road : consequently nothing can be more erroroads,' he says, 'will of course depend on the neous than providing a reservoir for water under strength of the materials of which they may be the road, and giving facility to the water to pass composed, but they will all be good while they through the road into this trench, where it is last, and the only question that can arise respect- acted upon by frost to the destruction of the ing the kind of materials is one of duration and road. As no artificial road can ever be made expense, but never of the immediate condition so good and so useful as the natural soil in a of the roads.'-Remarks on Roads, &c. p. 11. dry state, it is only necessary to procure and
Roads can never be rendered perfectly secure, preserve, according to M'Adam, this dry state of according to this gentleman (see his report to so much ground as is intended to be occupied by the board of agriculture), until the following prin- a road. The first operation is to be the reverse ciples be fully understood, admitted, and acted of digging a trench. The road should not be upon : namely, that it is the native soil which sunk below, but rather raised above the ordinary really supports the weight of traffic; that while level of the adjacent ground; care should at it is preserved in a dry state it will carry any any rate be taken that there be a sufficient fall weight without sinking; and that it does, in fact, to take off the water, so that it should always be carry the road and the carriages also; that this some inches below the level of the ground upon. native soil must previously be made quite dry, which the road is intended to be placed : This and a covering impenetrable to rain must then must be done, either by making drains to lower be placed over it to preserve it in that dry state; ground, or if that be not practicable, from the that the thickness of a road should only be re nature of the country, then the soil upon which gulated by the quantity of materials necessary the road is proposed to be laid must be raised to form such impervious covering, and never by by addition, so as to be some inches above the any reference to its own power of carrying level of the water. weight. The erroneous opinion, so long acted Having secured his soil from under-water, the upon, that by placing a large quantity of stone road-maker is next to secure it from rain by a under the roads, a remedy will be found for the solid road made of clean dry stone or flint, so sinking into wet clay, or other soft soils; or, in selected, prepared, and laid, as to be perfectly other words, that a road may be made sufficiently impervious to water; and this cannot be effected strong, artificially, to carry heavy carriages, unless the greatest care be taken that no earth, though the sub-soil be in a wet state, and by clay, chalk, or other matter, that will hold or such means to avert the inconveniences of the conduct water, be mixed with the broken stone; natural soil receiving water from rain, or other which must be so prepared and laid as to unité causes, seems to have produced most of the de- with its own angles into a firm, compact, impefects of the roads of Great Britain. At one netrable body. The thickness of this body is time Mr. M’Adam had formed the opinion that immaterial, as to its strength for carrying weight; this practice was only a useless expense; but this object is already obtained by providing a experience has convinced him that it is likewise dry surface, over which the road is to be placed positively injurious.
as a covering or roof, to preserve it in that state: In confirmation of this, if strata of stone of experience having shown that if water passes various sizes be placed as a road, it is well through a road, and fill the native soil, the road, known to every observant road-maker that the whatever may be its thickness, loses its support, largest stones will constantly work up by the and goes to pieces. In consequence of an al-, shaking and pressure of the traffic; and that the teration in the line of the turnpike-road, near only mode of keeping the stones of a road from Rownham-ferry, in the parish of Ashton, near motion is to use materials of a uniform size from Bristol, it was necessary to remove the old road. the bottom. In roads made upon large stones, This road was lifted, and re-laid very skilfully in as a foundation, the perpetual motion, or change 1806; since which time it has been in contemof the position of the materials, keeps open many plation to change the line, and consequently it apertures, through which the water passes. It has been suffered to wear very thin. At prehas also been found that roads placed upon a sent it is not above three inches thick in most hard bottom wear away more quickly than those places, and in none more than four: yet, on rewhich are placed upon a soft soil. This has moving the road, it was found that no water had been apparent upon roads where motives of eco penetrated, nor had the frost affected it during
the winter preceding, and the natural earth be- it has tolerably straight streets, and good houses;
runtir. To cry as
Jeremiah ii. 15. extent of upwards of 1000 miles of road.'
Roaring bulls he would make him to tame. We may add that several large streets and
Spenser. thoroughfares of the metropolis have been un
Warwick and Montague, paved, and laid down again on the principles of
That in their chains fettered the kingly lion, Mr. M'Adam. The result has not been uni
And made the forest tremble when they roared.
Shakspeare. formly successful; but in the cases where the
At his nurse's tears, paving system has been renewed, we believe the
He whined and roared away your victory, base has been M'Adamised, and so a substantial
That blushed at him. Id. Coriolanus. improvement has, on the whole, been obtained.
Where be your gibes now! your gambols ? you"
Deep throated engines belcned, whose pour were going to Rome.'
Oft on a plat of rising ground, Five summers have I spent in farthest Greece,
I hear the far-off curfew sound,
Over some wide-watered shoar,
When cannons did diffuse, And now wild beasts came forth the woods to roam. Preventing posts, the terror, and the news ;
Our neighbour princes trembled at their roar. The lonely fox roams far abroad,
The death of Daphnis woods and hills deplore,
They cast the sound to Libya's desart shore;
The Libyan lions hear, and hearing roar.
Dryden. ROAN, adj. Sax. roon; Fr. rouen ; Ital. Sole on the barren sands the suffering chief roano ; Span. ruano. Of a bay sorrel or sorrel Roured out for anguish, and indulged his grief ld.
The waters, listening to the trumpet's roar,
Consider what fatigues I've known,
Gay. river is only forty miles north-west of Lyons.
Loud as the wolves on Orcas' stormy steep, In the beginning of the last century it was a
Howl to the roaring of the northern deep. Pope. mere village; and it owes its increase to its hav
The wonted roar is up, ing become an entrepot for goods sent from the And hiss continual through the tedious night. east and south-east of France, to Orleans, Nantes,
Thomson. Paris, &c. It has now 7000 inhabitants. The
Earth shakes beneath them, and Heaven raars streets stretch out in various directions into the
above; country, and the most remote parts of them are But nothing scares them from the course they love. intermixed with trees. In the interior, however,
ROA'R Y, adj. Better, rory; Lat. rores. Dewy. from the whole author, whose fragments only fall to On Lebanon his foot he set,
Dryden. And shook his wings with roary May dews wet.
Bold Prometheus did aspire,
And stole from heaven the seeds of fire;
A train of ills, a ghastly crew, ROAST, v. a. & purt. adj. _Saxon geroszot,
The robher's blazing track pursue.
Id. Horace. roasted; Fr. rustir, rotir; Teut. rosten, from
Public robbers are more criminal than petty and Lat. rastrum, a grate. To dress meat before the
Davenant. fire : originally, to broil it: to heat; vex; tease : The robber must run, ride, and use all the despe"to rule the roast' is, to preside; manage. rate ways of escape; and probably, after all, his sin Where champions ruleth the roast,
betrays him to the gaol, and from thence advances Their daily disorder is most. Tusser's Husbandry. him to the gibbet.
South. Rousted in wrath and fire,
The water-nymphs lament their empty urns, He thus o'ersized with coagulate gore,
Bæotia, robbed of silver Dirce, mourns.
Add son. Old Priam seeks.
Shakspeare. The new made duke that rules the roast.
Rob, in pharmacy, is the juice of fruits puriId.
fied and inspissated till it is of the consistence In eggs boiled and roasted there is scarce difference to be discerned. Bacon's Natural History.
of honey. He lost his roast beef stomach, not being able to
ROBBERY, the rapina of the civilians, is the touch a sirloin.
felonious and forcible taking from the person of And, if Dan Congreve judges right,
another of goods or money to any value, by vioRoast beef and ale make Britons fight. Prior. lence, or putting him in fear. 1. There must Alma slap-dash is all again
be a taking, otherwise it is no robbery. A mere In every sinew, nerve, and vein ;
attempt to rob was indeed held a felony, so late Runs here and there, like Hamlet's ghost, as Henry IV.'s time; but afterwards it was While every where she rules the roast. Id.
taken to be only a misdemeanor, and punishable Roasting and boiling are below the dignity of your with fine and imprisonment; till the statute of office. Swift's Directions to the Cook.
7 Geo. II. c. 21, which makes it a felony (transHere elements have lost their uses, Air ripens not, nor earth produces ;
portable for seven years), unlawfully and maliFire will not roost, nor water boil. Swift.
ciously to assault another, with any offensive ROASTING, in metallurgy, the dissipation of weapon or instrument; or by menaces, or by the volatile parts of ores by heat.
See METAL- other forcible or violent manner, to demand any
money or goods, with a felonious intent to rob. ROB, n. S. Sax. robe ; Port. roob. Inspis. If the thief, having once taken a purse, returns sated juices.
it, still it is a robbery; and so it is, whether the
taking be strictly from the person of another, or The infusion, being evaporated to a thicker consistence, passeth into a jelly, rob, extract, which in his presence only: as where a robber, by mecontain all the virtues of the infusion.
naces and violence, puts a man in fear, and Arbuthnot on Aliments.
drives away his sheep or his cattle before his Rob, v. a. Old Fr. robber ; Ital. 'rob- face. It is immaterial of what value the thing ROB'BER, n. S.
- bare ; Teut. rauber. To de- taken is : a penny, as well as a pound, thus forROB'BING. prive of any thing by unlawful cibly extorted, makes a robbery. Lastly, the violence; to thieve; plunder; take away : hence taking must be by force, or a previous putting in set free : the noun-substantives corresponding.
fear; which makes the violation of the person Thieves for their robbery have authority,
more atrocious than privately stealing. This When judges steal themselves. Shakspeare. species of larceny is debarred of the benefit of Is't not enough to break into my garden,
clergy, by statute 23 Hen. VIII. c. 1., and other And, like a thief, to come to rob my grounds, subsequent statutes; not indeed in general, but But thou wilt brave me with these sawcy terms ? only when committed in a dwelling-house, or in
or near the king's highway. A robbery, there. Our house is hell, and thou, a merry devil, fore, in a distant field, or footpath, was not puDidst rob it of some taste of tediousness. Id.
nished with death, but was open to the benefit Better be disdained of all, than fashion a carriage of clergy, till the statute of 3 and 4 W. & M., to rob love from any.
Id. These hairs, which thou dost ravish from my chin, pals and accessories before the fact, in robbery,
c. 9. which takes away clergy from both princiWill quicken and accuse thee : I'm your host'; With robbers' hands, my hospitable favours
wheresoever committed. You should not ruffle thus.
Id. If a man force another to part with his proProcure, that the nourishment may not be robbed perty, for the sake of preserving his character and drawn away.
Bacon's Natural History. from the imputation of having been guilty of an Our sins being ripe, there was no preventing of unnatural crime, it will amount to a robbery, God's justice from reaping that glory in our calami even though the party was under no apprehenties, which we robbed him of in our prosperity. sion of personal danger. If any thing is snatched
suddenly from the head, hand, or person of any Had'st thou not committed
one, without any struggle on the part of the Notorious murder on those thirty men At Ascalon;
owner, or without any evidence of force or vio
lence being exerted by the thief, it does not Then, like a robber, strip’d'st them of their robes.
amount to robbery. But if any thing be broken Some more effectual way might be found, for sup
or torn in consequence of the sudden seizure, it pressing common thefts and robberies. Temple.
would be evidence of such force as would conI have not here designed to rob him of any part of stitute a robbery : as where a part of a lady's that commendation which he has so justly acquired hair was torn away by snatching a diamond pin
from her head, and an ear was torn by pulling There are also some coves and bays, which afford off an ear-ring; each of these cases was deter- good anchorage and shelter. Long. 219° 47 E., mined to be a robbery. The hundred in which a lat. 7° 5' S. robbery is committed is liable to pay the da ROBERTELLS (Francis), a learned Italian, mage when it is committed between the rising and of the sixteenth century, who was successively setting of the sun, on any day except Sunday, in professor of philosophy and rhetoric at Lucca, case the robbers are not taken in forty days; hue Pisa, Bologna, and Padua. He wrote commerand cry being made after the robber. The pro taries on several of the Greek and Latin poets, perty taken must be of some value. Therefore, and several other works. He died in 1567. in a case where the prisoner had obtained a note ROBERTSON (William), D. D., a leame] of hand from a gentleman, by threatening with a divine, born in Dublin, in 1705. He took the knife, held to his throat, to take away his life, degree of M. A. at Glasgow, whence he returned and it appeared that she had furnished the pa- to Ireland, and, entering into orders, obtained per and ink with which it was written, and that several considerable livings. All these, however, the paper was never out of her possession, this he resigned in 1764 ; and, in 1766, published was holden not to be a robbery; the judges his apology, with reasons for what he had done. being of opinion that the note was of no value He presented a copy of his work to the University to the prosecutor, and not within the proviso of Glasgow, upon which the professors gave him of statute 2 Geo. II. c. 5. sect. 3: making the the degree of D. D. The company of merchant stealing a chose in action felony.
tailors, patrons of the grammar-school of WolROBE, n. s. &v. a. Fr. robbe ; Ital. robba ; verhampton, presented him with the mastership low Lat. rauba ; Span. ropu, quod à Gr. pwros, of it, in which office he died in 1783. i. e. mercy.–Minsheu. A gown of state; a ROBERTSON (William), D. D. and F. R. S., of dress : to invest with robes.
Edinburgh, a late celebrated historian and clerThrough tatter'd cloaths small vices do appear ; gyman of the church of Scotland, born in EdinRobes and furred gowns hide all. Shakspeare. burgh in 1721. He was educated at the school
What Christian soldier will not be touched with of Dalkeith, and afterwards at the University of a religious emulation, to see an order of Jews do Edinburgh. In 1743 he was appointed minister such service for enlarging the christian borders ; and of Gladsmuir. On the death of his parents he an order of St. George only to robe and feast, and took his sisters and a younger brother, afterwards perform rites and observances ?
Bacon, The last good king, whom willing Rome obey'd
a respectable jeweller in Edinburgh, under his Was the poor offspring of a captive maid ;
care, though his living did not then exceed £100 Yet he those robes of empire justly wore,
a-year, and maintained them till they were all Which Romulus, our sacred founder, wore. Dryden. settled in the world. In 1751 he married the
There in long robes the royal magi stand; daughter of the Rev. Mr. Nisbet, one of the The sage Chaldæans rob’d in white appeared, ministers of Edinburgh. About this period he And Brachmans.
Pope's Temple of Fame. began to attain eminence as an orator, and not Robed in loose array she came to bathe. Thomson.
long after became a leading member in the GeROBERT I. or Robert Bruce. See Bruce neral Assembly. In 1755 he preached a serand SCOTLAND,
mon before the Society for Propagating Christian ROBERT OF GLOUCESTER, the oldest of the Knowledge, on the state of the world previous English poets. He flourished in the reign of to the appearance of Christ, the only one he llenry II. Camden quotes many of his old ever published, and which was much admired. English rhymes, and speaks highly in his praise. In February, 1759, he published his celebrated He died in the beginning of king John's reign, at History of Scotland, in 4to., which was received an advanced age.
with unbounded applause. While this work was ROBERTS (Rev. Peter), M. A., aWelsh divine, in the press, he was translated from Gladsmuir and writer on British history, was a native of to Edinburgh. In 1759 he was appointed North Wales, and received his education at Tri- chaplain of Stirling Castle; in 1761 one of his nity College, Dublin. Having taken orders, he majesty's chaplains; and in 1762 principal of obtained the living of Halkin, in the county of the University of Edinburgh. In 1764 the ofFlint. He published, Letters to M. Volney, in fice of king's historiographer for Scotland was answer to his book on the Revolution of Em-revived in his favor, with a salary of £200 a-year. pires, 8vo.; A Harmony of the Epistles, 4to.; A About 1761 he began, and in 1769 published Sketch of the Early History of the Ancient his celebrated History of Charles V. in 4to. In Britons, 8vo.; and A Review of the Policy and 1775 the Dr. published his History of America, for Peculiar Doctrines of the Modern Church of which excellent work he received £4500. In 1780, Rome, 1809, 8vo. But his best work is The after having for nearly thirty years acted the most Chronicle of the Kings of Britain, 1810, 4to, a conspicuous part in the supreme ecclesiastical translation from the ancient Welsh Chronicles, court, he retired from the General Assembly. In with copious notes and illustrations. His death 1790 he published his Historical Disquisition took place in 1819.
concerning ancient India. He died at EdinRoberts' ISLANDS, two large islands of the burgh, June 11th, 1793. As an author, his Pacific, discovered by Henguist, in 1792. The style has been universally admired; as a minister largest has no convenient landing place, and of the gospel, he was a faithful pastor, and justly seems only to be inhabited by tropical oceanic merited the esteem and veneration of his flock. birds. The north-west side of the island has a His conversation was cheerful, entertaining, and more favorable aspect; and, although its shores instructive; his manners affable, pleasing, and are rocky, a number of trees are produced. endearing.