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should prescribe poison to all his patients, he cannot be justly punished, but is answerable only to God? Swift. So long a prescription supposes an acquiescence in the other claimants; and that acquiescence supposes also some reason, perhaps now unknown, for which the claim was forborne. Johnson. Yet half mankind maintain a churlish strife With Him, the 1)onor of eternal life, Because the deed, by which his love confirms The largess he bestows, prescribes the terms. Cowper. Prescription, in English law, is a title acquired by use and time, and allowed by law; as when a man claims any thing, because he, his ancestors, or they whose estate he hath, have had or nsed it all the time whereof no memory is to the contrary: or it is where for continuance of time, ultra memoriam hominis, a particular person hath a particular right against another. There is a difference between prescription, custom, and usage. Prescription hath respect to a certain person, who by intendment may have continuance for ever; but custom is loeal, and always applied to a certain place; as time out of mind there has been such a custom in such a place, &c. And prescription belongeth to one or a few only; but custom is common to all. Usage differs from both, for it may be either to persons or places: as to inhabitants of a town to have a way, &c. A custom and prescription are in the right; usage is in the possession; and a prescription, that is good for the matter and substance, may be bad by the manner of setting it forth: but where that which is claimed as a custom, in or for many, will be good, that regularly will be so when claimed by prescription for one. Prescription is to be time out of mind; though it is not the length of time that begets the right of prescription, nothing being done by time, although every thing is done in time; but it is a Tresumption in law that a thing cannot continue so long quiet, if it was against right or injurious to another. PRESEANCE, n.s. Fr. preseance. Priority ofso in sitting. Not used. e ghests, though rude in their other fashions, may, for their discreet judgment in precedence and preseance, read a lesson to our civilest gentry. Carew's Survey of Cornwall. PRESEN’SION, n. s. Lat. praisensio. Perception beforehand. The hedghog's presension of winds is exact. Browne. PRESENT, adj., v.a., & n.s.) Fr. present; PREs’ENCE, n.s. Latin praisens. PRESENCE-chamber, In company; PREs Exce-Room, face to face; PRESENTA'N Eous, adj. at hand; rea. PREsex't ABLE, dy ; quick in PRESENTA'tion, n. s. emergencies; PRESEN'rative, adj. attention; now PRESENTEE', m. s. existent or now PRESENTER, specified ; not PRESENTIAL, adj. past or future: PREs Exori Ality, n.s. “at present’ is PRESENTIATE, r. a. used for now, PRESENTIF'ic, adj. or, at the prePRESENTIFICALLY, adv. sent time: to PRESENT Ly, adv. present, is to Porses I'M NT, n. s. place in prePres'ENTN Ess. sence, particu

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larly of a superior; introduce; exhibit; offer; give, or put into the hands ceremoniously; distinguish with gifts; lay formally before a court, or high authority: a present, something offered; something given; something given ceremoniously; a letter or mandate, per praesentes: presence is, state of being present or together ; approach face to face, or into view, particularly of a superior; a number assembled before a superior; room in which a superior shows himself; the superior so shown; port; air; mien ; readiness; aptitude : the two compounds that follow are obvious in their meaning: presentaneous is, quick; immediate: presentable, what may be presented: presentation, the act of presenting; exhibition; particularly the act of giving any one an ecclesiastical benefice: presentative, presentable in an ecclesiastical sense: presentee, one presented to a benefice: presenter, one who presents: presential, supposing actual or real presence : the noun-substantive corresponding: presentiate, to make present: presentific (obsolete), making present: presently, soon after; and (obsolete) at this time; now : present

ment, the act of presenting or thing presented; representation in law: presentment is a de

nunciation of the jurors, or some other officer, as justice, constable, searcher, surveyor, of an offence enquirable in the court to which it is presented.—Cowell. Presentness is quickness at emergencies; readiness of mind, arising from fortitude.

The shepherd Dorus answered with such a trembling voice and abashed countenance, and oftentimes so far from the matter, that it was some sport to the young ladies, thinking it want of education, which made him so discountenanced with unwonted presence. Sidney. The towns and forts you presently have are still left unto you to be kept either with or without garrisons, so as you alter not the laws of the country. Id. By them they pass, all gazing on them round, And to the presence mount, whose glorious view Their frail amazed senses did confound. Spenser. Tell on, quoth she, the woeful tragedy, The which these reliques sad present unto. Id. Prayers are sometimes a presentation of mere desires, as a mean of procuring desired effects at the hand of God. Hooker. To speak of it as requireth, would require very long discourse; all I will presently say is this. Id. He sent part of the rich spoil with the admiral's

ensign, as a present unto Solyman. Knolles. To-night we hold a solemn supper, And I'll request your presence. Shakspeare.

I know not by what power I am made bold. In such a presence here, to plead my **, d. An't please your grace, the two great cardinals Wait in the presence. ld. Henry VIII. Plain Clarence 1 I will send thy soul to heaven, If heav'n will take the present at our hands. Shakspeare. Be it known to all men by these presents. Id. He knows not what he says; and vain is it, That we present us to him. ld. King Lear. When comes your book forth —Upon the heels of my presentment. Shak-1, a c.

Covetous ambition, thinking all too little which presently it hath, supposeth itself to stand in need of all which it hath not. Raleigh. Virtue is best in a body that is comely, and that hath rather dignity of presence than beauty of aspect. - Bacon. If a man write little, he had need have a great memory; if he confer little, he had need have a present wit; and if he read little, he had need have much cunning. - Id. He was appointed admiral, and presented battle to the French navy, which they refused. Hayward. Be present to her now, as then And let not proud and factious men Against your wills oppose their mights. - Ben Jonson. The Lady Anne of Bretagne, passing through the presence in the court of France, and espying Chartier, a famous poet, leaning upon his elbow fast asleep, openly kissing him, said, We must honour with our kiss the mouth from whence so many sweet verses have proceeded. Peacham.

Mrs. Gulston, possessed of the impropriate parsonage of Bardwell, did procure from the king leave to annex the same to the vicarage, and to make it presentative, and give them both to St. John's College in Oxon. Spelman. Men that very presence fear, Which once they knew authority did bear. Daniel. Some plagues partake of such malignity, that, like a presentaneous poison, they enecate in two hours. Harvey. Be not often present at feasts, not at all in dissolute company; pleasing objects steal away the heart. Taylor. Now every leaf, and every moving breath Presents a foe, and every foe a death. Denham. A present good may reasonably be parted with, upon a probable expectation of a future good, which is more excellent. Wilkins. Goring had a much better understanding, a much Keener courage, and presentness of mind in danger. Clarendon. Thou with eternal Wisdom didst converse, Wisdom thy sister, and with her did'st play In presence of the Almighty Father, pleas'd

With thy celestial song. Milton.

To her i. sov’reign presence thus replied. Id. Thou future things canst represent

As present. Id.

When he saw descend The Son of God to judge them, terrified He fled; not hoping to escape, but shun The present ; fearing, guilty, what his wrath Might suddenly inflict. Id.

Say, heav'nly muse, shall not thy sacred vein Afford a present to the infant God Id. On to the sacred hill They led him high applauded, and present Before the seat supreme. Id. Paradise Lost. Thou therefore now advise, Or hear what to my mind first thoughts present. Milton. Thus I hurl . My dazzling spells into the spungy air, Of power to cheat the eye with blear illusion, And give it false presentments, lest the place And my quaint habits breed astonishment. Id. But neither of these are any impediment, because the regent thereof is of an infinite immensity more than commensurate to the extent of the world, and such as is most intimately present with all the beings of the world. ' Hale.

He made effectual provision for recovery of advowsons and presentations to churches. Id. Perhaps I have not so well consulted the repute of my intellectuals, in bringing their imperfections into such discerning presences. Glanville's Seepsis. Errors, not to be recalled, do find Their best redress from presence of the mind"; Courage our greatest failings does supply. Waller. They that are to love inclined, Swayed by chance, not choice or art, To the first that's fair or kind, Make a present of their heart. Id. The whole evolution of times and ages, from everlasting to everlasting, is collectedly and presentifickly represented to God at once, as if all things and actions were, at this very instant, really present and existent before him. More. Since clinging cares and trains of inbred fears, Not awed by arms, but in the presence bold, Without respect to purple or to gold. Dryden. Nor could I hope in any place but there,

To find a god so present to my prayer. Id. Somewhat is sure designed by fraud or force; Trust not their presence, nor admit the horse. Id.

He now presents, as ancient ladies do, That courted long, at length are forced to woo. Id. Octavia presented the poet, for his admirable elegy on her son Marcellus. Id. Should I present thee with rare figured plate, O how thy rising heart would throb and beat. Id. These presentations of fighting on the stage are necessary to produce the effects of an heroick play. - Id.

A good bodily strength is a felicity of nature, but nothing comparable to a large understanding and ready presence of mind. L’Estrange. 'Tis a high point of philosophy and virtue for a man to be so present to himself as to be always provided against all accidents. Id. Men that set their hearts only upon the present, without looking forward into the end of things, are struck at. Id. . The thing was acceptable, but not the presenter. Id.

If these nerves, which are the conduits to convey them from without to their audience in the brain, the mind's presence-room, are so disordered as not to perform their functions, they have no postern to be admitted by. How great his presence, how erect his look, Howev'ry grace, how all his virtuous mother Shines in his face, and charms me from his eyes! Smith. The fancy may be so strong as to presentiate, upon one theatre, all that ever it took notice of in times past. Grew. By union, I do not understand that which is local or presential, because I consider God as omnipresent. Worris. Thou spendest thy time in waiting upon such a great one, and thy estate in presenting him; and, after all, hast no other reward, but sometimes to be smiled upon, and always to be smiled at. South. This eternal, indivisible act of his existence makes all futures actually present to him; and it is the presentiality of the object which founds the unerring certainty of his knowledge. Id. Sermon. Tell him that no history can match his ". and presently the sot shall measure himself by o uth. Who, since their own short understandings reach No further than the present, think e'en the wise

Speak what they think, and tell tales of themselves. Rowe

Kneller, with silence and surprise, We see Britannia's monarch rise, And aw'd by thy delusive hand, As in the presence-chamber stand. Addison. The state is at present very sensible of the deca in their trade. Id. Our laws make the ordinary a disturber, if he does not give institution upon the fitness of a person presented to him, or at least to give notice to the patron of the disability of his presentee. Ayliffe. Incumbents of churches presentable cannot, by their sole act, grant their incumbencies to others; but may make leases of the profits thereof. Id. The moments past, if thou art wise, retrieve With pleasant mem'ry of the bliss they gave ; The present hours in present mirth employ, And bribe the future with the hopes of joy. Prior. Folks in mudwall tenement, Affording peppercorn for rent, Present a turkey or a hen, To those might better spare them ten. . Id. A graceful presence bespeaks acceptance, gives a force to language, and helps to convince by look and posture. Collier. The present age hath not been less inquisitive than the former ages were. Woodward's Natural History. What, shall the curate controul me? have not I the presentation ? Guy. That he put these bishops in the places of the deceased by his own authority is notoriously false; for the duke of Saxony always presented. Atterbury. So ladies in romance assist their knight, Present the spear, and arm him for the fight. P

ope. The grand juries were practised with, to present the said pamphlet with all aggravating epithets, and their presentments published for several weeks in all the newspapers. Swift. The ample mind keeps the several objects all within sight, and present to the soul. Watts. Lectorides's memory is ever ready to offer to his mind something out of other men's writings or conversations, and is presenting him with the thoughts of other persons perpetually. Id. We have always the same natures, and are every where the servants of the same God, as every place is equally full of his presence, and every thing is equally his gift. greater part of them are not brought up so well, or accustomed to so much religion, as in the present in

$tance. Id.
The present moment like a wife we shun,
And ne'er enjoy, because it is our own. Young.

The ideas of pain, and above all of death, are so very affecting, that whilst we remain in the presence of whatever is supposed to have the power of inflicting either, it is impossible to be perfectly free from terror. Burke.

PRESENTATION, in ecclesiastic law. See ADvowson, and PATRoNAGE.

Paesentation of our LADY, the title of two orders of nuns. The first was established in France, about 1627, by Nicholas Sanguin, bisho of Senlis; it was approved by Urban VIII. This order never made any great progress. The second was established in 1664, when Frederick Borromeo, being apostolical visitor, in the Valteline, was intreate by some devout maids at Morbegno to allow them to live in community in a retired Place ; which he granted, and erected

- u). This much I believe may be said, that the much

them into a congregation, under the title of congregation of our Lady. They lived under the rule of St. Augustine.

PRESENTATION of the VIRGIN, a feast of the Romish church, celebrated on the 21st of November, in memory of the Holy Virgin's being presented by her parents in the temple, to be there educated. Emanuel Comnenus, who began to reign in 1143, makes mention of this feast in his constitution. Some imagine it to have been established among the Greeks in the eleventh century; and think they see evident proofs of it in some homilies of George of Nicomedia, who lived in the time of Photius. Its institution in the west is ascribed to Gregory XI. in 1372. Some think it was instituted in memory of the ceremony practised among the Jews for their new-born females; corresponding to the circumcision on the eighth day for males.

PRESENTMENT, in law. A presentment, properly speaking, is the notice taken by a grand jury of any offence from their own knowledge or observation, without any bill of indictment laid before them at the suit of the king; as the presentment of a nuisance, a libel, and the like; upon which the officer of the court must afterwards frame an indictment, before the party presented can be put to answer it. An inquisition of office is the act of a jury, summoned by the proper officer to enquire of matters relating to the crown, upon evidence laid before them. Some of these are in themselves convictions, and cannot afterwards be traversed or denied ; and therefore the inquest, or jury, ought to hear all that can be alleged on both sides. Of this nature are all inquisitions of felo dese; of flight in persons accused of felony; of deodands, and the like; and presentments of petty offences in the sheriff's tourn or court-leet, whereupon the presiding officer may set a fine. Other inquisitions may be afterwards traversed and examined; as particularly the coroner's inquisition of the death of a man, when it finds any one guilty of homicide; for in such cases the offender so presented must be arraigned upon this inquisition, and may dis}. the truth of it; which brings it to a kind of ndictment, the .most usual and effectual means of prosecution.

PRESERVE!, v. a. &n. s. PRESERVA’tion, n.s. PRESER’vative, adj. &n.s. (vo. To keep; PRESER’ver. save; defend; protect from decay: as a noun substantive, something so protected, as “preserved fruit': preservation is, the art or care of preserving: preservative, preventive; having the power of preserving; that which has this power: preserver, a defender or protector; one who keeps from ruin, or mischief; he who makes artificial preserves.

Fr. preserver; low Lat. praiser

God sent me to preserve you a posterity, and save your lives. Genesis xlv. 7. The Lord shall deliver me from every evil work, and preserve me unto his heavenly kingdom. 2 Timothy. Of all wild beasts preserve me from a tyrant; And of all tame, a flatterer. Sir P. Sidney. If we think that the church needeth not those ancient preservatives, which ages before us were glad to use, we deceive ourselves. Hooker.

Nature does require Her times of preservation, which, perforce, I give my tendance to. Shakspeare. Henry VIII. Sit, my preserver, by thy patient's side. Shakspeare. It hath been anciently in use to wear tablets of arsenick, as preservatires against the plague; for that, being poisons themselves, they draw the venom from the spirits. Bacon. Every senseless thing, by nature's light, Doth preservation seek, destruction shun. - Davies. Bodieskept clean, which use preservatives, are likely to escape infection. Harvey. He did too frequently gratify their unjustifiable designs, a guilt all men, who are obnoxious, are liable to, and can hardly preserve themselves from. Clarendon. We can preserve unhurt our minds. Milton. Were there truth herein, it were the best preservative for princes, and persons exalted unto such fears.

Browne. All this is easily discerned in those fruits which are brought in preserves unto us. ld.

Our allwise Maker has put into man the uneasiness of hunger, thirst, and other natural desires, to determine their wills for the preservation of themselves, and the continuation of their species. Locke. To be indifferent which of two opinions is true is the right temper of the mind, that preserves it from being imposed on, till it has done its best to find the truth. Id. To be always thinking, perhaps, is the privilege of the infinite Author and preserver of things, who never slumbers nor sleeps; but is not competent to any finite being. Id. The fruit with the husk, when tender and young, makes a good preserve. Mortimer. Andrew Doria has a statue erected to him, with the glorious title of deliverer of the commonwealth; and one of his family another, that calls him its preserver. Addison. The most effectual preservative of our virtue is to avoid the conversation of wicked men. Rogers. Every petty prince in Germany must be intreated to preserve the queen of Great Britain upon her throne. Swift. Molly is an Egyptian plant, and was really made use of as a preservative against enchantment. Broome. PRESERVER. M'Intosh's PATENT WATERPRoof LIFE PRESERVER. This is a simple but ingenious adaptation of air-bags, made of waterproof cloth or canvas, to the support of the body in water. It consists of two strips of waterproof cloth, each about four inches broad and a yard long, or just what will easily surround the body, fastened together at the edges in the form of a narrow bag without any opening, save a small aperture at the side, into which a cock is inserted for the admission of air. To render it perfectly air tight, the cloth is waterproofed while the bag is making, and it is completely fastened by folding the stripes over each other at their junction. The air is simply introduced by blowing with the mouth through the cock, which is to be turned as soon as a sufficient quantity has been admitted, and it may then be applied round the body for use. The proper place to fasten it is immediately under the arms and across the breast, for which purpose it is

furnished with a piece of strong tape, the two ends of which are sewed to the edge of the bag where it is joined, about two or three inches on each side of the middle, where the cock is firmly fastened and made perfectly air-tight; this piece of tape is just sufficiently wide to admit the head easily between it and the bag, and, when put on, it causes the latter to hang down from the neck a little below the breast, and to pass immediately under the arms round to the back, where it is fastened by two other pieces of tape sewed to the two ends of the bag; these pieces may be made long enough to allow them to be brought round and fastened in front to prevent accidents in the event of their loosing behind. A small so of tape about two inches long is likewise stened across the bag at the middle, to allow the other tying pieces to pass through and to prevent them from slipping below the bag, and occasioning the slightest apprehension of danger, in the management of the apparatus. The air may be introduced into the bag either before or after it is placed round the body and fastened ; if it hold more air than what is necessary to support the individual using it in water, he will be the best judge of the proper quantity by inflating it before he puts it on; but if it just hold the exact quantity, or very little more, it is quite immaterial whether it be inflated before or not ; though we are of opinion it is always better to follow the former plan. There is not the smallest fear of bursting the bag in any case, because, as soon as it is full, any individual will find that he can blow no longer, and will be obliged to desist. With an apparatus of this kind, which may be had at a very trifling expense, a man may throw himself into the sea with perfect safety, and he may float 100 or 1000 miles with his head and shoulders above water, without the least inconvenience, save what he would suffer from hunger or cold. He will not find it necessary to make the smallest exertion to keep himself in a proper position; for owing to the manner in which the apparatus is placed, and to the equal distribution of the air all round his body, he will preserve nearly an erect posture as long as he pleases; by making the smallest exertion, however, he may take any other position he may find most agreeable: he may lie at his ease on his back, or on one side, or lean forward just as he has a mind; do what he may he cannot sink, unless he chooses to open the cock, and then he must go to the bottom unless he can swim. PRESIDE', v. n. Fr. presider; Lat. pracPRES'IDENCY, n. s. (sideo. To have authority PRESIDENT, over; be set over : presiPREs’IDENTship. ) dency is superintending: president is, one placed in chief authority; a governor; prefect; tutelary power: presidentship, an office or station. When things came to trial of practice, their pastors' learning would be at all times of force to overpersuade simple men, who, knowing the time of their own presidentship to be but short, would always stand in fear of their ministers' perpetual authority. Hooker. How might those captive Israelites, under the oversight and government of Assyrian presidents, be able to leave the places they were to inhabit Brerewood on Languages.

As the president of my kingdom, will I
Appear there for a man.
Shakspeare. Antony and Cleopatra.

This last complaint the indulgent ears did pierce.

Of just Apollo, president of verse. Waller. Some o'er the publick magazines preside, And some are sent new forage to provide. Dryden. What account can be given of the growth of plants from mechanical principles, moved without the presidency and guidance of some superior agent? Ray on the Creation. The tutor sits in the chair as president or moderator, to see that the rules of disputation be observed. Watts. O'er the plans Of thriving peace, thy thoughtful sires preside. Thomson. PRESS, v. a., v. n. &Y Fr. presser; Lat. PREss'ER, [n. s. presso. To squeeze; PREss'GANG, compress; constrain; Press'1NGLY, adv. crush; drive with vioPREssion, n.s. lence; compel; urge; PREss'1TANT, adj. make earnest; force PREss'MAN, n.s. into naval or military PREss'Moxey, service: as a verb neuPREss'URE, ter, to act with or unPREST, adj. & n.s. J der compulsive violence; go forward with violence or energy; crowd; come or go importunately or vehemently; urge with vehemence; influence strongly; invade: a press is, an instrument used for squeezing, crushing, or compressing; particularly the machine for printing books; a crowd; tumult; violent tendency; commission for impressing men in a military sense: a presser and pressman, one who works a press; also one who forces away another: pressgang, a crew of men aiding a military press-officer: pression and pressure mean, the act of pressing, or force with which any thing is pressed; impression; stamp; oppression; distress: pressitant, gravitating; heavy: pressmoney, money given to bind to military service: prest is, ready; not dilatory; “this is said to have been the original sense of the word prest men; men, not forced into the service, as now we understand it, but men, for a certain sum received, præst, or ready to march at command.’ Johnson: also, neat; tight: as a noun substantive, a loan. The grapes I pressed into Pharaoh's cup. Genesis. He pressed upon them greatly; and they turned in. Id.

The posts that rode upon mules and camels, went
out, being hastened and pressed on by the king's
commands. Esther.
The press is full, the fats overflow. Joel iii. 13.
For he had healed many, insomuch that they
pressed upon him for to touch him. Mark iii. 10.
Good measure pressed down, shaken together, and
running over, shall men give into your bosom.
Luke vi. 38.
I press toward the mark for the prize.
Philippians.
More wealth any where, to be breefe,
More people, more handsome and prest
Where find yet Tusser's Husbandry.
She held a great gold chain ylinked well,
Whose upper end to highest heaven was knit,
And lower part did reach to lowest hell,
And all that press did round about her swell,
To catchen hold of that long chain. Spenser.

The experience of his goodness in her own deliverance, might cause her merciful disposition to take so much the more delight in saving others, whom the like necessity should press. Hooker. Grittus desired nothing more than to have confirmed the opinion of his authority in the minds of the vulgar people, by the prest and ready attendance of the Vayoud. Knolles's History of the Turks. The Turks gave a great shout, and pressed in on all sides, to have entered the breach. Knolles. Once or twice she heaved the name of father . Pantingly forth, as if it prest her heart. Shakspeare. Come with words as medical as true, Honest as either, to purge him of that humour That presses him from sleep. Id. For every man.that Bolingbroke hath pressed To lift sharp steel against our golden crown, Heaven for his Richard hath in store A glorious angel. Id. Richard II. From London by the king I was prest forth. Shakspeare.

I make bold to press With so little preparation. Id. These letters are of the second edition; he will print them out of doubt, for he cares not what he puts into the press, when he would put us two in. Id. Who is it in the press that calls on me? Id. Julius Caesar. Creep into the kiln hole.—Neither press, coffer, chest, trunk; but he hath an abstract for the remembrance of such places. Shakspeare. If I be not ashamed of my soldiers, I am a sowced gurnet; I have misused the king's press. - Id.

From my memory I'll wipe away all trivial fond records, All saws of books, all forms, all pressures past, That youth and observation copied there. Id. Concerning, the musters and presses for sufficient mariners to serve in his majesty's ships, either the care is very little, or the bribery very great. Raleigh. Let them be pressed, and ready to give succours to their confederates, as it ever was with the Romans; for, if the confederate had leagues defensive, the Romans would ever be the foremost. Bacon. The less blood he drew, the more he took of treasure; and, as some, construed it, he was the more sparing in the one, that he might be the more pressing in the other. - Id. A wise father ingenuously confessed, that those, which persuaded pressure of consciences, were commonly interested therein. Id. He required of the city a prest of six thousand marks; but he could obtain but two thousand pounds. Id. Each mind is prest, and open every ear, To hear new tidings, though they no way join us. Fairfar. Mine own and my people's pressures are grievous, and peace would be very pleasing. King Charles. Only one path to all; by which the pressmen came. Chapman. The one contracts his words, speaking pressingly and short; the other delights in long-breathed accents. Howel. The endeavour to raise new men for the recruit of the army by pressing, found opposition in many places. Clarendon. He pressed her matron lips With kisses pure. Milton. His obligation to read not only classick authors, but the more recent abortions of the press, wherein he proved frequently concerned. Fell.

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