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and all worldly adversities. Those adversities substantial citizens, and the general insecurity, soon came upon him; he was attainted of trea was estimated at £300,000. Nor was it in son, and adjudged guilty of it. Accordingly he wealth alone that the kingdom suffered; the was arraigned for blasphemy, incontinency, and spirit of the nation sunk; and the character, and heresy, before the same commissioners who con- with it the prosperity, the English would demned his fellow-prisoners : but he was dealt have been irrecoverably lost, if God in bis mercy with very differently from any of the former had not cut short this abominable tyranny. sufferers; being removed to the house of the Mary was supposed to be with child; but those dean of Christ Church, and treated there rather appearances, which had so far deceived the queen as a guest than a prisoner. We have noticed the herself that the cradle was made ready, proved success of this treatment on a mind naturally to be the indications of a mortal disease. Not a timid. See our article CRANMER. He signed week before her death three women and two a recantation of his former opinions, and con men were burnt at Canterbury. cluded it with a protestation that he had done it Elizabeth, immediately on her accession, made freely and only for the discharge of his con- greater approaches to toleration than any prince science. The queen, however, was resolved to who had hitherto reigned on any throne in make him a sacrifice to her resentments. She Europe. Indulgence and forbearance, such as that said it was good for his own soul that he repented; age had never seen, were freely extended to all; but, since he had been the chief spreader of neither were there any violations of this unknown heresy over the nation, it was necessary to make and unthought of generosity till repeated acts of him a public example; so the writ was sent down treason endangered the safety both of her person to burn him: and, after some stop had been and her throne. When the parliament met, the made in the execution of it, new orders came keeper of the great seal, Sir Nicholas Bacon, was for doing it suddenly. This seems to have been directed, with a moderation at that time very kept from Cranmer's knowledge. He, however, unusual, to entreat the members to reunite all was gradually prepared by a better influence for classes of the people by avoiding the extremes the worst; and on being carried to St. Mary's of both parties. In consequence of this advice, where Dr. Cole vindicated the queen's justice in and in accordance with the known wishes of the condemning Cranmer while he magnified his queen, public worship was appointed in the vulconversion and ascribed it to the workings of gar tongue-the supremacy of the queen was God's Spirit, the conduct of the archbishop far restored--the acts of Edward, concerning relimore surprised his enemies. A Romanist who gion, were renewed and confirmed. No laws was present, and who thought that his former were made to punish the Romanist persecutors life and wretched end deserved a greater misery, of the former reign-no retaliation was atif greater had been possible, was yet, in spite of tempted-no censure was passed—no disapprohis opinions, touched with compassion at behold- bation expressed. ing him in a bare and ragged gown, exposed to The first act of the new queen was to take Sir universal contempt. “I think,' said he that there William Cecil into her council, and appoint was none that pitied not his case, and bewailed him her principal secretary. When the bill for not his fortune, and feared not his own chance, restoring the supremacy to the crown was deto see so noble a prelate, so grave a counsellor, of bated in parliament, it was opposed by the so long continued honor, after so many dignities, bishops. Heath said, that, as concerning tenin his old years to be deprived of his estate, ad- poral government, the house could give her judged to die, and in so painful a death to end highness no further aut| rity than she already his life.' In this hour of utter humiliation, and had by right and inheritance, not by their gift, severe repentance, he certainly possessed his but by the appointment of God, she being their soul in patience; never had his mind been more sovereign lord and lady, their king and queen. clear and collected, never had his heart been so their emperor and empress. But spiritual governstrong. At the stake no cry was heard from him, ment they could not grant, neither could she save the exclamation of the proto-martyr Stephen, receive. • Lord Jesus, receive my Spirit !' He stood im The bishop of Chester, speaking upon the movable as the tree to which he was bound, his same subject, asked of whom those men, who countenance raised, looking to heaven, and an- in this and other points dissented from the ticipating that rest into which he was about to Catholic church, learned their doctrine ? " They

must needs answer,' said he, that they learned Bonner now seemed not satisfied with single it of the Germans. Of whom did the Germans deaths, but sent men in whole companies to the learn it? Of Luther. Well, then, of whom did fames; even women were not spared; and in Luther learn it? He shall answer himself: he Guernsey, when a woman condemned for heresy saith, that such things as he teacheth against the was delivered of a child in the midst of the mass, and the blessed sacrament of the altar, he flames, and some of the spectators humanely learned of Satan, the devil; at whose hands, it is snatched it out, the magistrale, who was a papist, like, he did also receive the rest of his doctrines.' ordered it to be thrown in again, and it was con: The infamous persecutor, Story, went beyond sumed with the mother! During the four years this in the house of commons. He boasted of that this persecution continued, it appears by the part he had taken; related with exultation authentic records that_280 persons were burnt how he had throw'n a faggot in the face of an alive; ing number of those who perished in pri. earwig, as he called him, who was singing psalms son is unknown. The loss of property in London at the stake, and how he had thrust a thornbush alone, consequent upon the arrest or flight of under his feet to prick him: wished that he had

enter.

done more; and said he only regretted that they they had met, they were fined. Without delay should have labored at the young and little Elizabeth then deprived the refractory bishops, twigs, when they ought to have struck at the Kitchen of Llandaff being the only one who conroot;' words by which it was understood that he formed : there were but fourteen living, many meant the queen. Even this unreasonable inso- having died in the great mortality at the close of lence did not provoke the government to depart the preceding reign. The vacant sees were filled from the temperate course which it had laid by Parker, Grindal, Cox, Sands, Jewel, Parkdown. The measures adopted by the pope were, burst, Pilkington, and others; men worthy to be at this time, not less impolitic than cruel and held in lasting remembrance and honor, who had wicked. It is possible that Elizabeth would have either escaped, during the Marian persecution, been content to have allowed the people to retain by retiring to the continent or secreting themtheir faith so long as her crown was independent. selves at home. Thus was gradually established, The measures of the pope, and the dissensions he never more, we trust, to be subverted, the sepafomented, however, gradually kindled in Eliza- 'ration of England and all the members of her beth's mind the most anxious apprehensions for hierarchy from the domination of Rome. her individual safety as well as that of her throne. VIII. The Reformation in Denmark, France, The insurrection of Northumberland and West- 80.--In Denmark the Reformation was intromoreland was sanctioned by the pope, who, in duced as early as the year 1521, in consequence his letters, exhorts them to persevere in the of the ardent desire of Christiern II. to have work, not doubting but that God would grant his subjects instructed in the doctrines of Luther.' them assistance; and that if they should die in His uncle Frederick, duke of Holstein and asserting the Catholic faith, and the authority of Sleswick, being appointed his successor, conthe see of Rome, it were better for them, with ducted the Reformation with much greater pruthe advantage of a glorious death, to purchase dence than his predecessor. He permitted the eternal life, than by ignominiously living, with Protestant doctors to preach publicly the sentithe loss of their souls, shamefully to obey the will ments of Luther, but did not venture to change of an ungovernable woman.'— Pii. V. Epist. p. the established government and discipline of the 290. Soon after this pious exhortation the pope, church. However, he procured the publication in the thirteenth year of the reign of Elizabeth, of a famous edict, by which every subject of fulminated the Bull of Excommunication out Denmark was declared free either to adhere to of the fulness of his apostolic power ;' declaring the tenets of the church of Rome, or to the docthe queen to be a heretic, and a favorer of here- trine of Luther; and the papal tyranny was totics. • We declare her,' said the pope,' to be tally destroyed by his successor Christiern III., deprived of her pretended title to the kingdom who began by suppressing the despotic authority aforesaid, and of all dominions, dignity, and pri- of the bishops, and restoring to their lawful vilege whatsoever: and also the nobility, sub- owners a great part of the wealth and possesjects, and people of the said kingdoins, and all sions which the church had acquired. This was which have in any sort sworn unto her, to be followed by a plan of religious doctrine, worship, for ever absolved from every such oath, and all and discipline, laid down by Bugenhagius, manner of duty, of dominion, of allegiance, and whom the king had sent for from Wittemberg; obedience. We also command and interdict all and, in 1539, an assembly of the states at and every the noblemen, subjects, and people, Odensee gave a solemn sanction to all these aforesaid, that they presume not to obey her, or transactions, and settled that form of church her monitions, mandates, and laws, and those government which has since been retained. which shall do to the contrary we do likewise The first dawn of the Reformation in France anathemise.' Irritated by this presumptuous and appeared, as we have before noticed, in the scandalous decree Elizabeth procured an act preaching of Waldo, who, in the twelfth century, declaring it to be high treason to affirm that the brought to light some truths which had been queen was not a lawful sovereign, or to bring long hidden amidst the ignorance and superstibulls, indulgences, or absolutions from the pope. tion of the Romish church; and, though perseMatters now threatened so complete a separation cution soon attended his steps, it served but to of England from Rome that the pope declared it scatter his principles, and disperse his folwould be of so much benefit to Christendom that lowers over the face of Europe. Waldo himself Elizabeth should be destroyed, that he was ready appears to have proclaimed his opinions in to aid in person, to spend the whole revenue of various parts of the continent. The Albigenses, the apostolic see, all the chalices and crosses of so called from the country about Toulouse, the church, and even his very clothes, to procure where they dwelt, embraced in a body the docher destruction, &c. A public disputation was attrine of reform. It was carried into Calabria, this time appointed, not, as in Mary's reign, to Bohemia, Germany, Flanders, Poland, Spain, be concluded by burning those who differed in and even the dominions of the grand sultan. opinion from the ruling party, but with full Calvin was born at Noyon, in Picardy, early liberty of speech, and perfect safety for the in the sixteenth century; when twenty years of Romish disputants. Upon Heath's motion, the age, he first preached the doctrines of the Reforqueen ordered it should be managed in writing, mation to his countrymen; and, seven years as the best means to avoid vain altercation; but, afterwards (in 1536), printed his Institutes, when it came to the point, the Romanists, upon which contain a full, and certainly a very able, some difference concerning the manner of pro- .statement of his opinions. This work was dediceeding, refused to dispute at all. For this con cated, in a preface written with remarkable eletempt of the privy council, in whose presence gance of style, to Francis I.; but it does not

seem to have produced much effect on the mind was so haunted with images of murder and death of that monarch. In 1553 Calvin edited an that he directed it should cease. Charles IX. edition of Olivitan's translation of the Bible, survived this event only one year; he lived, which proved of great benefit to the church. In however, to repent of his crimes, and to suffer 1557, however, an attempt was made to estab- for them. His death was of that kind which it lish an inquisition at Paris, after the plan of that has pleased God often to inflict upon eminent in Spain, to put down heretical opinions ; but it persecutors of his church. He was tormented in did no effectual mischief. The king of Navarre, mind and body; and sank into his untimely who was also a prince of the blood, and through grave unhonored even by his former friends, whom the title to the crown of France afterwards and unregretted by every lover of his country, descended to his son Henry IV., became about During the concluding period of this reign, the this time a convert to the reformed doctrines. reformed church was at a very low ebb. There In 1562 the ever-memorable Charles IX. suc could be no security that the anniversary of St. ceeded to his brother. As he was ouly nine Bartholomew would not be celebrated with a years of age at that time, the government re recurrence of the same disasters. The heads of mained in the hands of Catherine. Two years the church were gone. Henry of Navarre himafter this period Calvin died. It does not ap- self seemed to have been in a sort of imprisonpear that this great man, except at an early ment, and the remainder of the scatiered flock period of bis life, took directly any personal could scarcely be collected together. It was not part in prosecuting the Reformation in France; till the year 1578 that another synod was held, but it grew up under his inspection; and his and then no formal notice was taken of the late authority was the acknowledged human standard events. Henry III. succeeded his brother in of faith and duty. In 1571 the Protestant church 1574. During his reign the great conflict for in France had reached its highest point of pros- independence and religious liberty was being perity. A synod was held at Rochelle, where carried on in the Low Countries; and the sucthe queen of Navarre, Jean D'Albert, her son, cessful issue of it gave respect and consideration afterwards Henry IV., and two princes of the to the Protestant cause wherever its supporters royal family, attended. At that time the protes- were found. tants had 2150 churches, some of which contained At length, in 1589, Henry IV. ascended the 10,000 members. The deepest aversion, however, throne. Never had a prince been nurtured to the views of the Protestants had long dwelt amidst greater dangers, concerned in more critiin the minds of all connected with the court, cal enterprises, or come to a throne more enexcept the few members of their own body; and compassed with difficulties. He had been well a plot for getting rid of the reformed religion educated by his excellent mother, whose pruhad long been meditated. To the queen-mother, dence and power he inherited, but not her piety. one of the family of Guise, the atrocious con In the year 1572 he married Margaret, sister of trivance is due, of the means by which it was to Charles IX., from whom he was divorced. He be attempted. On the occasion of the marriage married a second time Mary of Medicis. This of Henry, with the sister of Charles IX., the was the first step by which he allied himself to whole body of Protestants were enticed to the Catholics ; and it was doubted by some Paris. After the admiral De Coligny, the whether to it may not be traced another great champion of the reformed cause, as he was error of his life, his abjuration of the Protestant really the head of the party, was fairly in the faith, which took place in the year 1592. In the toils, the minds of the populace were exaspe- year 1598 he granted all his subjects full liberty rated against the Protestants by the contrivance of conscience by the famous edict of Nantes, of the Duc de Guise; and, by the command of and the Reformation seemed to be established the king, they were all given up to slaughter. throughout his dominions. During the minority The proclamation for their destruction was made of Louis XIV., however, this edict was revoked on the night of St. Bartholomew; and, at two by cardinal Mazarine; since which time the o'clock in the morning, the work of death began. Protestants have often been cruelly persecuted; The king himself is said to have shot from a nor has the profession of the reformed religion gallery many of the fugitives ; and neither age, in France been at any time so safe as in most rank, nor character, afforded any protection to other countries of Europe. the unfortunate victims. Henry of Navarre, the In the other parts of the continent the cause brother-in-law of Charles, the prince De Conde of the Reformation made a considerable, though his uncle, and the king's physician, were alone secret, progress. Some countries threw off the exempted from destruction. Henry and De Romish yoke entirely; and in others a prodigious Conde were hurried from their beds, and dragged, number of families embraced the principles of not without danger, before the king, who, when the reformed religion. It is certain indeed, and they refused to be converted, as the phrase ran, some Roman Catholics themselves do not hesibroke out into an excessive rage, declaring that tate to acknowledge it, that the papal doctrines he would be obeyed as the vicegerent of God; and authority would have fallen into ruin in all that they must teach others to submit by their parts of the world at once, had not the force of acquiescence; and that it became them no longer the secular arm been employed to support the to hold themselves in opposition to the holy tottering edifice. In several places the pope put mother. They were in consequence obliged to a stop to the progress of the Reformation, by attend mass. The massacre was continued letting loose the inquisitors; who spread dreadwithout cessation for three days, till the king ful marks of their barbarity through the greatest became aghast at his own act, and his conscience parts of Europe. These formidable ministers of

superstition put so many to death, and perpe their conduct on the example of the Protestants, trated such horrid acts of cruelty and oppression, and gained in manners, knowladge, and esteem, that most of the reformed consulted their safety as much as they lost in power and riches. Nos by a voluntary exile ; while others returned to has science been less a gainer. It is little more the religion of Rome, at least in external ap- than two centuries since Galileo, having dispearance. The political results of the Reforma- covered and collected incontestable proofs of the tion are thus summarily stated by Villiers : true motion of the earth, was condemned, 29 a • Europe, plunged for several centuries in a stů. heretic, to perpetual imprisonment, by the tribupor and apathy interrupted only by wars, ornal of the inquisition. The ancient system of sather by incursions and robberies, without any Roman Catholicism was diametrically opposite beneficial object to humanity, received at once a to the progress of knowledge; the Reformation, new life and a new activity; a universal and which has contributed to free the human mind deep interest agitated the nations, their powers from such an adversary, must ever be considered were developed, their minds expanded by new as one of the most fortunate epochs in the intelpolitical ideas. Former revolutions had only iectual culture of modern nations. The opposite exercised men's arms; this employed their heads. system of liberality, of examination, of free critiThe people, who before had been only estimated cism, established by the Reformation, has beas flocks passively subject to the caprice of their come the ægis under which the Galileos of subleaders, now began to act for themselves, and to sequent ages have been enabled securely to feel their importance and ability. Those who develope their exalted conceptions.' embraced the reform made common cause with The moral effects of the Reformation on the their princes for liberty; and hence arose a opinions and conduct of mankind must not be closer bond, a community of interests and of overlooked. The intention of the Reformers action, between the sovereign and his subjects. was, in principle, to free themselves from the Both were for ever delivered from the excessive despotism and infallibility of the popes; to deand burdensome power of the clergy, as well as pend only on the Sacred Writings for the grounds from the struggle, so distressing to all Europe, of their belief; and, in short, to overthrow the between the popes and the emperors, for supreme scholastic divinity, which was become the soul power. Social order was now regulated and of the Roman theology, and the firm support of brought nearer to perfection. In one part of the hierarchy. Hence it follows that the ReforEurope the church ceased to form an extraneous mation, in its essence, must have had an imstate within the state; from which it was easy mediate and powerful influence on the liberty to foretell that this change would one day be of men's opinions, judgment, and actions. It at effected through the whole of it, and that its once stimulated them to think for themselves, head would be reduced to the simple spiritual and handed to them a perfect standard of faith primacy. At length the Catholic clergy reformed and morals.

REFRACT', v.a. Lat. refractus ; Fr. re- obliquely out of one medium into another of a Refraction, n. s. fraction. To break the different density.

REFRAC'TIVE, adj. natural course of rays: That a body may be refracted, it is necessary the noun substantive and adjective corresponding. that it should fall obliquely on the second me

Refraction, in general, is the incurvation or change dium: in perpendicular incidence there is no reof determination in the body moved, which happens fraction. Yei Vossius and Snellius imagined to it whilst it enters or penetrates any medium : in they had observed a perpendicular ray of light dioptricks, it is the variation of a ray of light from undergo a refraction; à perpendicular object that right line, which it would have passed on in, appearing in the water nearer than it really was : had not the density of the medium turned it aside. but this was attributing that to a refraction of the

Harris.

perpendicular rays, which was owing to the diThe image of the sun should be drawn out into an vergency of the oblique rays after refraction, from oblong form, either by a dilatation of every ray, or a nearer point. Yet there is a manifest refracby any other casual inequality of the refractions.

Newton.

tion even of perpendicular rays found in island Those superficies of transparent bodies reflect the crystal. Rohault adds, that though an oblique greatest quantity of light, which have the greatest incidence be necessary in all other mediums we refracting power; that is, which intercede mediums know of, yet the obliquity must not exceed a that differ most in their refractive densities.

certain degree; if it do, the body will not peneid. Optics.

trate the medium, but will be reflected instead of If its angle of incidence be large, and the refrac- being refracted. Thus, cannon-balls, in sea entive power of the medium not very strong to throw it gagements, falling very obliquely on the surface far from the perpendicular, it will be retracted. of the water, are observed to bound or rise from

Cheyne's Philosophical Principles. it, and to sweep the men from off the enemy's Rays of light are urged by the refructing media.

decks. And the same thing happens to the little Cheyne.

stones with which children make their ducks and Refracted from yon eastern cloud, The grand etherial bow shoots up.

drakes along the surface of water. Thomson.

The ancients confounded refraction with reREFRACTioN is chiefly used with regard to the fection; and it was Newton who first taught rays of light, and is an inflection or deviation of the true difference between them. He shows the rays from their rectilinear course on passing however that there is a good deal of analogy

between them, and particularly in the case of REFRACTION OF AscensION AND DESCENSION light.

is an arc of the equator, by which the ascenThe laws of the refraction of the rays of lightsion and descension of a star, whether right or in mediums differently terminated, i.e. whose oblique, is increased or diminished by the resurfaces are plane, concave, and convex, make fraction. the subject of dioptrics. By refraction it is that REFRACTION OF DEclination is an arc of a convex glasses, or lenses, collect the rays, mag- circle of declination, by which the declination nify objects, burn, &c., and hence the founda- of a star is increased or diminished by the retion of microscopes, telescopes, &c. And by fraction. refraction it is that all remote objects are seen REFRACTION OF LATITUDE is an arc of a circle out of their real places; particularly that the hea- of latitude, by which the latitude of a star is invenly bodies are apparently higher than they are creased or diminished by the refraction. in reality. The refraction of the air has many REFraction of LONGITUDE is an arc of the times so uncertain an influence on the places of ecliptic, by which the longitude of a star is incelestial objects near the horizon, that, wherever creased or diminished by the refraction. refraction is concerned, the conclusions deduced Refraction, TERRESTRIAL or ATMOSPHERIfrom observations that are much affected by cal, is that by which terrestrial objects appear will always remain doubtful, and sometimes too to be raised higher than they really are, in obprecarious to be relied on. See OPTICS.

serving their altitudes. The quantity of this reThe true law of refraction, viz. that the ratio fraction is estimated by Dr. Maskelyne at oneof the sines of the angles made by the perpen- tenth ; by Le Gendre at one-fourteenth ; by De dicular (to the plane bounding the mediums) Lambre at one-eleventh, and by others at the with the incident and refracted rays, is a constant twelfth of the distance of the object observed, and fixed ratio, was first discovered by Wille- expressed in degrees of a great circle. But there brord Snell, professor of mathematics, at Ley, can be no fixed quantity of this refraction, as it den. From this law it follows that one'angle of depends on the state of the atmosphere, which is inclination, and its corresponding refracted angle, very variable. Some very singular effects of this being found by observation, the refracted angles are related in the Philosophical Transactions for corresponding to the several other angles of in- 1798, by W. Latham, esq., F. R. S. and A. S. clination are thence easily computed. Now

Many curious effects of atmospherical refraction Zahnius and Kircher have found that, if the angle have been noticed by ingenious men; for which of inclination be 70°, the refracted angle out of see Dr. Hutton's Dictionary, and the papers of air into glass will be 38° 50'; on which principle Vince, Huddart, Lathem, &c., in the PhilosopbiZahnius has constructed a table of these refrac- cal Transactions. For more on the theory of tions for the several degrees of the angle of in- atmospherical refraction, the reader may consult clination; a specimen of which here follows: the treatises on astronomy by Vince, Gregory,

Biot, Woodhouse, and Prony's Architectural Angle of In

Refracted

Angle of Re. Hydraulique. See also our article Astronomy. clination. angle. fraction.

REFRACTORY, adj. I French refractaire ;

REFPAC'TORINESS, n. s. Lat. refractarius. It

is sometimes accented on the first syllable, but by 1

0 40 5 0 19 55 Shakspeare on the second; sullen; obstinate;
2
20 6 0 39 54

perverse : sullenness; obstinacy.
3
2 0

0 59 56
4
2 40

There is a law in each well-ordered nation,
5 1 1955
5

To curb those raging appetites that are
3 20 3 1 39 57

Most disobedient and refractory. Shakspeare. 10 6 39 16 3 2044 20 13 11 35 6 48 25

A rough hewn seaman, being brought before a wise 30 19. 29 29 10 30

justice for some misdemeanor, was by him ordered to 31

be sent away to prison, and was refractory after be 45 28 9 19 16 50 41

heard his doom, insomuch as he would not stir a 90 41 51 40 48 8 20

foot from the place where he stood ; saying, it was

better to stand where he was, than go to a worse Hence it appears that, if the angle of inclina. place.

Bacon's Apophthegms. tion be less than 20°, the angle of refraction out I did never allow any man's refractoriness against of air into glass is almost one-third of the angle the privileges and orders of the houses. of inclination; and therefore a ray is refracted

King Charles. to the axis of refraction by almost a third part of from better instruction, pertinacious in their opinions,

It maketh them indocile and intractable, averse the quantity of its angle of inclination. And on

and refractory in their ways.

Barrow, this principle it is that Kepler, and most other dioptrical writers, demonstrate the refractions in

Great complaint was made by the presbyteriar glasses; though, in estimating the law of these gang, of refractoriness to obey the parliament's order.

Saunderson. refractions, he followed the example of Alhazen

Refractory mortal! if thou wilt not trust thy and Vitello, and sought to discover it in the pro- friends, take what follows ; know assuredly, before portion of the angles, and not in that of the sines,

next full moon, that thou wilt be hung up in chains. or cosecants, as discovered by Snell, as mentioned

Arbuthnot's History of John Bull. above.

These atoms of theirs may have it in them, but REFRACTION OF ALTITUDE is the arc or por- they are refractory and sullen ; and therefore, like tion of a vertical circle, by which the altitude of men of the same iempers, must be hanged and buta a star is increased by the refraction of light. feted into reason.

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