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casion, how many things to be done in their just season, after once a ground is in order. Evelyn. The birds heedless while they strain Their tuneful throats, the towering heavy lead O'ertakes their speed; they leave their little lives Above the clouds, precipitant to earth. Philips. Gold endures a vehement fire long without any change, and, after it has been divided by corrosive liquors into invisible parts, yet may presently be precipitated, so as to appear again in its own form. Grew's Cosmologia. When the full stores their ancient bounds disdain, Precipitate the furious torrent flows; In vain would speed avoid, or strength oppose. Prior. That could never happen from any other cause than the hurry, precipitation, and rapid motion of the water, returning at the end of the deluge towards the sea. Woodward. Mr. Gay died of a mortification of the bowels; it was the most precipitate case I ever knew, having cut him off in three days. . Arbuthnot. As the escar separated, I rubbed the superexcrescence with the vitriol stone, or sprinkled it with precipitate. Wiseman. Should he return, that troop so blithe and bold, Precipitant in fear, would wing their flight, And curse their cumbrous pride's unwieldy weight. - Pope. Not so bold Arnall; with a weight of skull Furious he sinks, precipitately dull. Id. Dunciad. Hurried on by the precipitancy of youth, I took this opportunity to send a letter to the secretary. Swift. A rashness and precipitance of judgment, and (i. tiness to believe something on one side or the other, plunges us into many errors. Watts's Logick. We are complicated machines; and though we have one main spring, that gives motion to the whole, we have an infinity of little wheels, which, in their turns, retard, precipitate, and sometimes stop, the motion. - Chesterfield. Precipitation, in chemistry, the process of decomposition by which any body separates from others in a solution and falls to the bottom: thus, if to an acid and an oxide a third body as an alkali be added, then the alkali having a greater affinity to the acid than the metallic oxide has, combines with it, and the oxide in consequence precipitates, or appears in a separate state at the bottom. The substance thus sinking is called the precipitate, and that, by the addition of which this effect is produced is called the precipitant. Sir Humphry Davy found that whenever one metal precipitates another from its acid solution, the o, that falls down is usually free both from acid and oxygen; and that the whole of the oxygen and the acid, is transferred from one metal to the other. PRECISE, adj. Fr. precis; Lat. praePREcisely, |. cisus. Exact; strict; Precise's ess, n.s. W. nice; having definite liPreci's IAN, mits; formal : precisely PREci'sion, and preciseness correPreci'sive, adj. spond with this, and precision is synonymous with the latter: a precisian is one who limits or restrains with exactness or rigor: precisive, exactly limited. In his track my wary feet have stept, His undeclined ways precisely kept. Sandys. Means more durable to preserve the laws of God

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He cannot so precisely weed this land As his misdoubts present occasion, His foes are so enrooted with his friends. Id. Though love use reason for his precisian, he admits him not for his counsellor. Id. The state hath given you licence to stay on land six weeks, and let it not trouble you if your occasions ask farther time; for the law in this point is not ise. Bacon. I will distinguish the cases; though give me leave, in the handling of them, not to sever them with too much preciseness. Id. These men, for all the world, like our precisians

y Who for some cross or saint they in the window see Will pluck down all the church. Drayton. Where more of these orders than one shall be set in several stories, there must be an exquisite care to place the columns precisely one over another. Wotton's Architecture. In human actions there are no degrees and precise natural limits described, but a latitude is indulged. Taylor. Let us descend from this top Of speculation ; for the hour precise Exacts our parting. Milton's Paradise Lost. The rule, to find the age of the moon, cannot shew precisely an exact account of the moon, because of the inequality of the motions of the sun and of the Indon. Holder. He that thinks of being in general, thinks never of any particular species of being: unless he can think of it with and without precision at the same time. Locke. The raillery of the wits in king Charles the Second's reign, upon every thing which they called precise, was carried to so great an extravagance that it almost put all Christianity out of countenance. Addison. Measuring the diameter of the fifth dark circle, I found it the fifth part of an inch precisely. 'ewton's Opticks. The reasonings must be precise, though the practice may admit of great latitude. Arbuthnot. I was unable to treat this part more in detail, without sacrificing perspicuity to ornament, without wandering from the precision or breaking the chain of reasoning. Pope. The precise difference between a compound an collective idea is this, that a compound idea unites things of a different kind, but a collective, things of the same kind. Watts. A profane person calls a man of piety a po d.

Precisive abstraction is when we consider those things apart which cannot really exist apart; as when we consider mode, without considering its substance or subject. Id

What is the world? a term which men have got To signify not one in ten knows what. : A term which with no more precision passes, To point out herds of men than heads of asses! In common use no more it means, we find, Than many fools in same opinions joined.

- Churchill.

PRECLUDE', v.a. Lat. pracludo. To shut out or hinder by anticipation.

This much will obviate and preclude the objections of our adversaries, that we do not determine the final cause of the systematical parts of the world, merely as they have respect to the exigencies or conveniences of life. Bentley.

If you once allow them such an acceptation of chance, you have precluded yourself from any more reasoning against them. Id.

I fear there will be no way left to tell you, that I entirely esteem you; none but that which no bills can preclude, and no king can prevent. Pope.

PRECO'CIOUS, adj. Fr. precose; Latin PREcoc'ITY. $pra-cosis. Ripe before the time: too early ripeness.

I may say of the younglings of our time, that precocity of understanding supplieth age and stature. Bp. Hall. Some impute the cause of his fall to a precocity of spirit and valour in him; and that therefore some infectious southern air did blast him. Howel. Many precocious trees, and such as have their spring in the winter, may be found in most parts. Browne. And every body but his mother deemed Him almost man; but she flew in a rage And bit her lips (for else she might have screamed) lf any said so, for to be precocious Was in her eyes a thing the most atrocious. Byron.

PRECONCEIT, n.s. opinion previously formed.

A thing in reason impossible, which notwithstanding through their misfashioned preconceit appeared unto them no less certain than if nature had written it in the very foreheads of all the creatures. Hooker. In a dead plain the way seemeth the longer because the eye hath preconceited it shorter than the truth; and the frustration of that maketh it seem so. Bacon. Custom with most men prevails more than truth; according to the notions and preconceptions which it hath formed in our minds, we shape the discourse of reason itself. Hakewill. Fondness of preconceived opinions is not like to render your reports suspect, nor for want of care, defective. Glanville. The reason why men are so weak in governing is, because most things fall out accidentally, and come not into any compliance with their preconceived ends, but they are forced to comply *o. th.

Prae and conceit. An

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Jove's lightnings, the precursors Of dreadful thunder claps, more momentary Were not. Id. Tempest. This contagion might have been presaged upon consideration of its precursors, viz. a rude winter, and a close, sulphurous and fiery air. Harvey. Thomas Burnet played the precursor to the coming of Homer in his Homerides. Pope. PREDACEOUS, adj. Q Lat. praeda. LivPRE'DAL, ing by prey; plun PRED'AtoRY. $ dering. The king called his parliament, where he exaggerated the malice and the cruel predatory war made by Scotland. Bacon. As those are endowed with poison, because they are predaceous: so these need it not, because their food is near at hand, and may be obtained without contest. . Derham. Sarmat a, laid by predal rapine low, Mourned the hard yoke, and sought relief in vain. Boyse. PREDECEASED, adj. Pre and deceased. Dead before. Will you mock at an ancient tradition, begun upon an honourable respect, and worn as a memorable trophy of predeceased valour? Shakspeare.

PREDECESSOR, n.s. Fr. predecesseur; Lat. prae and decedo. One that was in any state or place before another; an ancestor.

In these pastoral pastimes a great many days were spent to follow i. flying predecessors. Sidney. There is cause why we should be slow and unwilling to change, without very urgent necessity, the ancient ordinances, rites, an approved customs of our venerable predecessors. Hooker. If I seem partial to my predecessor in the laurel, the friends of antiquity are not few. Dryden. The present pope, who is well acquainted with the secret history, and the weakness of his predecessor, seems resolved to bring the project to its perfection. Addison. The more beauteous Chloe sat to thee, Good Howard, emulous of Apelles' art; But happy thou from Cupid's arrow free, And flames that pierced thy predecessor's heart.

Prior. PREDESTINATE, v. a. & v. n. Fr. prePREDESTINA'RIAN, n.s. destiner; PREDESTINA'tion, Latin præ PREDEs'TINAToR, \ and destiPREDEs'TINE, v. a. no. Toa

point beforehand: in ludicrous language, to hold predestination: predestinarian, one who holds that doctrine; see below. Predestinator is used out of all analogy by Cowley as synonymous with predestinarian: to predestine is to decree beforehand.

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Why does the predestinarian so adventurously climb into heaven, to ransack the celestial archives, read God's hidden decrees, when with less labour he may secure an authentick transcript within himself? Decay of Piety. Me, mine example let the Stoicks use, Their sad and cruel doctrine to maintain; Let all predestinators me produce, Who struggle with eternal fate in vain. Cowley. Nor can they justly accuse Their maker, or their making, or their fate; As if predestination overruled Their will, disposed by absolute decree, Or high fore-knowledge. - Milton's Paradise Lost. His ruff crest he rears, And pricks up his predestinating ears. Dryden. Ye careful angels, whom eternal fate Ordains on earth and human acts to wait, Who turn with secret power this restless ball, And bid predestined empires rise and fall. Prior.

PreDestination is, according to the Calvinistic writers, the decree of God, whereby he hath from all eternity unchangeably appointed whatsoever comes to pass; and hath more especially fore-ordained certain individuals of the human race to everlasting happiness, and hath o: by the rest, or fore-ordained them to ever

ting misery. The former of these are called the elect, and the latter the reprobate. This doctrine is the subject of one of the most perPlexing controversies that have occurred among mankind. But it is not peculiar to the Christian faith. It has always been in some degree a popular opinion, . has been believed by many 3. men. The ancient Stoics, Zeno and

hrysippus, whom the Jewish Essenes seem to have followed, asserted the existence of a Deity that, acting wisely, but necessarily, contrived the general system of the world; from which, by a series of causes, whatever is now done in it unavoidably results. This series or concatenation of causes, they held to be necessary in every part; and that God himself is so much the servant of necessity, and of his own decrees, that he could not have made the smallest object in the world otherwise than it now is, much less is he able to alter any thing. Seneca gives a similar account of the doctrine of fate. See Necessity. The Stoical fate differs, however, from the Christian predestination in several Points. They regard the divine nature and will as a necessary part of a chain of causes; whereas all Christians consider the Deity as the Lord and Ruler of the universe, omnipotent and free, oppointing all things according to his pleasure. Being doubtful of the immortality of the soul, the Stoics could have no idea of the doctrine of election, and reprobation; nor did they ever doubt their own freedom of will, or power of doing good as well as evil, as the Christian predestinarians have done. Mahomet introduced into his Koran the doctrine of an absolute preostination in the strongest terms. In the Christian Church the controversy concerning predestination first made its appearance about the beFinning of the fifth century, in consequence of the heretical o advanced by Pelagius and Caelestius. See Pelagiass. #. were zealously

opposed by the celebrated St. Augustine, bishop of Hippo, who first asserted the leading tenets of the Predestinarians. The dispute was carried on with great zeal. Zosimus, bishop of Rome, decided at first in favor of Pelagius, but afterwards altered his opinion. The council of Ephesus approved of St. Augustine's doctrine, and condemned that of his opponents. These opinions soon after assumed various modifications. A party called predestinarians carried Augustine's doctrine farther than he had done, and said that God had decreed the sins as well as punishment of the wicked. Another party mo– derated Pelagius's doctrine, and were called SEMI-PELAGIANs. (See that article.) But the doctrine of St. Augustine, who wrote several treatises on the subject, became general. He was the oracle of the school-men. They only disputed about the true sense of his writings. he whole of the earliest reformers maintained these opinions of Augustine. Under Luther they only assumed a more regular and systematic form than they had before exhibited. But, as the Lutherans afterwards abandoned them, they are now known by the name of Calvinistic doctrines, from John Calvin of Geneva. The opponents of the doctrine of predestination among the Protestants usually receive the appellation of Arminians or Remonstrants. They derive the first of these appellations from James Arminius, professor of theology at Leyden, and the second from the Arminians who remonstrated against the synod of Dort. (See ARMINIUs.) A counter remonstrance was presented, containing the opinions of the Calvinists, which was approved of by the synod. The substance of it was afterwards adopted in nearly the same expressions into the Confession of Faith, compiled by the assembly of divines at Westminster in 1643; which every clergyman of the church of Scotland subscribes previous to his admission. It runs thus:—“God from all eternity did, by the most wise and holy counsel of his own will, freely and unchangeably ordain whatsoever comes to pass: yet so, as thereby neither is God the author of sin, nor is violence offered to the will of the creatures, nor is the liberty or contingency of second causes taken away, but rather established. Although God knows whatsoever may or can come to pass upon all supposed conditions; yet hath he not decreed anything because he foresaw it as future, or that which would come to pass upon such conditions. . By the decree of God, for the manifestation of his glory, some men and angels are predestinated unto everlasting life, and others are fore-ordained to everlasting death. These angels and men, thus predestinated and fore-ordained, are particularly and unchangeably designed; and their number is so certain and definite that it cannot be either increased or diminished. Those of mankind that are predestinated unto life, God, before the foundation of the world was laid, according to his eternal and immutable purpose, and the secret council and good pleasure of his will, hath chosen, in Christ, unto everlasting glory, out of his mere free grace and love, without any foresight of faith, good works, or perseverance in either of them, or any other thing in the

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creature, as conditions or causes moving him thereunto; and all to the praise of his glorious grace. As God hath appointed the elect unto glory, so hath he, by the eternal and most free purpose of his will, fore-ordained all the means thereunto. Wherefore, they who are elected, being fallen in Adam, are redeemed by Christ, are effectually called unto faith in Christ, by his Spirit working in due season; are justified, adopted, sanctified, and kept, by his power through faith unto salvation. Neither are any other redeemed by Christ, effectually called, justified, adopted, sanctified, and saved, but the elect only. The rest of mankind God was pleased, according to the unsearchable counsel of his own will, whereby he extended or withholdeth mercy as he pleaseth, for the glory of his sovereign|." over his creatures, to pass by, and to ordain them to dishonor and wrath for their sin, to the praise of his glorious justice.” There are two kinds of modern Calvinists or Predestinarians, viz. the Supralapsarians, who maintain that God did originally and expressly decree the fall of Adam, as a foundation for the display of his justice and mercy; while those who maintain that God only permitted the fall of Adam are called Sublapsarians; their system of decrees concerning election and reprobation being, as it were, subsequent to that event. But, as Dr. Priestley justly remarks, if we admit the divine prescience, there is not, in fact, any difference between the two schemes; and, accordingly, that distinction is now seldom mentioned. Nor was the church of Rome less agitated by the contest about predestination than the first Protestants were. The council of Trent was much perplexed how to settle the matter without giving offence to the Dominicans, who were much attached to the doctrine of Augustine, and possessed great influence in the council. After much dispute, the great object came to be, how to contrive such a decree as might give offence to nobody, and decide nothing. Upon the whole, however, they seem to have favored the Semipelagian scheme. Among other things, it was determined that good works are of themselves meritorious to eternal life; but it is added, by way of softening, that it is through the goodness of God that he makes his own gifts to be merits in us, Catarin revived at that council an opinion of some of the schoolmen, that God chose a small number of persons, such as the blessed virgin, the apostles, &c., whom he was determined to save without any foresight of their good works; and that he also wills that all the rest should be saved, providing for them all necessary means, but they are at liberty to use them or not. This is called in England the Baxterian scheme. The Jesuits at first followed the opinion of Augustine; but afterwards forsook it. Molina, one of their order, was the author of what is called the middle scheme, or the doctrine of a grace sufficient for all men, but subject to the freedom of the human will. Jansenius, a doctor of Louvain, opposed the Jesuits with great vigor, and supported the doctrine of Augustine. (See JANsenists.) But the Jesuits had sufficient interest at Rome to procure the

opinions of Jansenius to be condemned. These disputes have never been fully settled, and still divide even the Roman Catholic church. Some of the ablest supporters of Predestination have appeared among the Jansenists, and particularly among the gentlemen of Port-Royal. With regard to Great Britain, the earliest English reformers were in general Sublapsarians, although some of them were Supralapsarians. But the rigid Predestinarians have been gradually declining in number in that church, although they still subscribe the thirty-nine articles. The celebrated Scottish Reformer, John Knox, having been educated at Geneva, established in his own country the doctrine of predestination in its strictest form ; and it has probably been adhered to more strictly in Scotland than in any part of Europe. Of late years, however, the dispute concerning predestination has assumed a form considerably different from that which it formerly possessed. Instead of being considered as a §. to be determined almost entirely by the acred Scriptures, it has, in the hands of a number of able writers, in a great measure resolved itself into a question of natural religion, under the head of the philosophical liberty or necessity of the will. (See METAPHYsics and NEcEssity.) Readers who wish for farther information on this subject may consult the writings of lord Kames, Jonathan Edwards, and Dr. Priestley, one of the most celebrated Necessitarians of his age. To give even a sketch of the arguments on both sides would far exceed our bounds. Milton, an eminent philosopher and divine, as well as the first of poets, when he wished to exhibit the fallen angels themselves as perplexed by questions above their comprehension, set them to dispute about predestination:— They reasoned high, of knowledge, will, and fate, Fixed fate, free-will, fore-knowledge absolute; And found no end, in wand'ring mazes lost.

PREDETER'MINE, v. a. Prae and determine. To doom or confine by previous decree. We see in brutes certain sensible instincts antecedent to their imaginative faculty, whereby they are predetermined to the convenience of the sensible life. - Hale. This predetermination of God's own will is so far from being the determining of ours, that it is distinctly the contrary; for supposing God to predetermine that I shall act freely ; ’tis certain from thence, that my will is free in respect of God, and not predetermined. Hammond's Fundamentals. The truth of the catholic doctrine of all ages, in points of predetermination and irresistibility, stands in opposition to the Calvinists. Hammond. PREDIAL, adj. Lat. pradium. of farms. By the civil law, their predial estates are liable to fiscal payments and taxes, as not being appropriated for the service of divine worship, but for profane

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uses. Ayliffe. PRED'ICABLE, n.s. & adj. Lat. pra-diPREDIc'AMENT, cabile. A loPRED'icaNT, gical term, dePRED'icate, v.a., v. n. & n.s. V noting one of PREDICATIon, n. s. the five things

which can be affirmed : such as may be affirmed: predicament is a class or arrangement of beings or things: hence class case or condition of any kind: predicant, one who affirms: to predicate, to affirm any thing of another: to comprise an affirmation; affirm in any way; or that which is affirmed or denied of the subject: predication, affirmation. The offender's life lies in the mercy f the duke only, 'gainst all other voice; In which predicament I say thou stand'st. Shakspeare. I shew the line and the predicament, Wherein you range under this subtile king. Id. God then is light in himself; so in relation to us: and this predication of light serves to confirm our conformity to God in his behalf. Bp. Hall. If there were nothing but bodies to be ranked by , them in the predicament of place, then that description would be allowed by them as sufficient. Digby on Bodies. It were a presumption to think that any thing in any created nature can bear any perfect resemblance of the incomprehensive perfection of the divine nature j o .*not predicating univocally touching him and any created being. Hale. All propositions, wherein a part of the complex idea, which any term stands for, is predicated of that term, are only verbal; v. g. to say that gold is a Retal. Locke

Let us reason from them as well as we can ; they an only about identical predications and influence. Id. These they call the five predicables; because every thing that is affirmed concerning any being, must be the genus, species, difference, some property, or acci

cent. - Watts. The predicate is that which is affirmed or denied of the subject. Id. Logick.

Fr. predire; Lat., praPREDic'Tion, n.s. 5 dictus. To foretell; to PREDic'Tob. foreshow: prediction is declaration or revelation of something future; Prophecy: predictor is a foreteller. These predictions Are to the world in general, as to Caesar. Shakspeare. The predictions of cold and long winters, hot and dry summers, are good to be known. Bacon. How soon hath thy prediction, seer blest Measured this transient world the race of time, Till time stand fixed. Milton's Paradise Lost. In Christ they all meet with an invincible evidence, as if they were not predictions, but after-relations; and the penmen of them hot prophets but evangelists. South. He is always inveighing against such unequal distributions; nor does he ever cease to predict publick ruins, till his private are repaired. Government of the Tongue. He, who prophesyed the best, Approves the judgment to the rest; He'd rather choose that I should die, Than his prediction prove a lie. Swift's Miscellanies. Whether he has not been the cause of this poor man's death, as well as the predictor, may be disputed. - Swift. PREDIGESTION, n.s. Pre and digestion. Digestion too soon performed. Predigestion, or hasty digestion, fills the body full of crudities and seeds of diseases. Bacon's Essays. PREDISPOSE, v.a. Pre and dispose. To adapt previously to any certain purpose.

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Tunes and airs have in themselves some affinity" with the affections; so as it is no marvel if they alter the spirits, considering that tunes have a predisposition to the motion of the spirits. Bacon. Vegetable productions require heat of the sun, to predispose, and excite the earth and the seeds. Burnet. Unless nature be predisposed to friendship by its own propensity, no arts of obligation shall be able to abate the secret hatred of some persons towards others. External accidents are often the occasional cause of the king's evil; but they suppose a predisposition of the body. Wiseman. PREDOM'INATE, v. no Fr. predominer; PREDoM'INANCE, n. s. Lat. prae and doPREDoM'INANT, adj. $ minor. To prevail; be ascendant; be supreme: predominance is prevalence; superiority; ascendancy: predominant, prevalent; ascendant. Miserable were the condition of that church, the weighty affairs whereof should be ordered by those deliberations, wherein such an humour as this were predominant. Hooker. We make guilty of our disasters, the sun, the moon, and the stars, as we if were knaves, thieves, and treacherous by spherical predominance. Shakspeare. Foul subordination is predominant, And equity exiled your highness' land. Id. Those helps were overweighed by things that made against him, and were predominant in the king's mind. Bacon. So much did love t' hel executed lord Preponderate in this fair lady's heart. Daniel. In human bodies there is an incessant warfare amongst the humours for predominancy. Howel. Whether the sun, predominant in heaven, Rise on the earth; or earth rise on the sun. Milton. An inflammation consists only of a sanguineous affluxion, or else is denominable from other humours, according to the predominancy of melancholy, phlegm, or choler. - Browne. The true cause of the Pharisees' disbelief of Christ's doctrine was, the predominance of their covetousness and ambition over their will. South. The gods formed women's souls out of these principles which compose several kinds of animals; and . their good or bad disposition arises, according as such and such principles predominate in their constitutions. Addison. The several rays in white light do retain their colorific qualities, § which those of any sort, whenever they become more copious than the rest, do, by their excess and predominance, cause their proper colour to appear. Newton. The rays, reflected least obliquely, may predominate over the rest, so much as to cause a heap of such particles to appear very intensely of their colour. Id. Opticks. I could shew you several pieces, where the beauties of this kind are so predominant, that you could never be able to read or understand them. Swift. Where judgment is at a loss to determine the choice of a lady who has several lovers, fancy may the more allowably predominate. Clarissa. If ever he fell into a fit of the gout, or if any other cause withdrew him from public cares, principles directly contrary were sure to predominate. -: Burke. Character of Lord Chatham. It is the prevalence or predominance of any particular passion which gives the turn or tincture to a

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