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Adulterous Jour, the king of Membrant, raped Fair Josian his dear love. Drayton. Underneath a bright sea flowed Of jasper, or of liquid pearl, whereon Who after came from earth, sailing arrived Wafted by angels, or flew o'er the lake Rapt in a chariot drawn by fiery steeds. Milton. Their husbands robbed, and made hard shifts To administer unto their gifts All they could rap and rend and pilfer, To scraps and ends of gold and silver. Hudibras. I'm rupt with joy to see my Mercia's tears. Addison's Cato. How comest thou to go with thy arm tied up? has old Lewis given thee a rap over thy fingers’ ends? Arbuthnot. It is impossible duly to consider these things, without being rapt into admiration of the infinite wisdom of the divine architect. Cheyne. Rapt into future times, the bard begun, A virgin shall conceive, a virgin bear a son' . Pope. RAPA’CIOUS, adj. Fr. rapace ; Lat. RAPA’ciously, adv. ( rapar. Given to plunRAPA'ciousNESS, n.s. (der or violence: the RAPAcITY. adverb and noun substantives corresponding. Well may thy Lord, appeased, Redeem thee quite from death's rapacious claim. Milton. Any of these, without regarding the pains of churchmen, grudge them those small remains of ancient piety which the rapacity of some ages has scarce left to the church. Sprat. Shall this prize, Soon heightened by the diamond's circling rays, On that rapacious hand for ever blaze? Pope.
Rape, n.s. Sax. nabe; Goth, and Swed rep. A bunch or cluster. See RoPE.
The juice of grapes is drawn as well from the rape, or whole grapes plucked from the cluster, and wine poured upon them in a vessel, as from a vat, where they are bruised. Ray.
RAPE, n.s. Fr. rapt ; Lat. raptus, rapio. Act of taking away; violent defloration of chastity; something snatched or taken violently. Where now are all my hopes? oh never more Shall they revive nor death her rapes restore Sandys. You are both decyphered For villains marked with rape. Shakspeare. Titus Andronicus. The parliament conceived that the obtaining of women by force into so howsoever afterwards assent might follow by allurements, was but a rape drawn forth in length, because the first force drew on all the rest. Bacon's Henry VII. Pear grew after pear, Fig after fig came ; time made never rape, of any dainty there. Chapman's Odyssey. Witness that night In Gibeah, when the hospitable door Exposed a matron, to avoid worse rape. Milton. Tell the Thracian tyrant's altered shape, And dire revenge of Philomela's rape. Roscommon. The haughty fair Who not the rape ev’n of a god could bear. Dryden. RAPE or Wom EN, in English law, from rapio. An unlawful and carnal knowledge of a woman, by force, and against her will; which is felony
by the common and statute law. Co. Litt. 190. The word rapuit (ravished) is so appropriated by law to this offence, that it cannot be expressed by any other; even the word carnaliter cognovit, &c., without it, will not be sufficient. Co. Litt. 124. 2 Inst. 180. Rape was punished by the Saxon laws, particularly those of king Athelstan, with death; but this was afterwards thought too hard, and in its stead another severe, but not capital punishment was inflicted by William the Conqueror, viz. castration and loss of eyes; which continued till after Bracton wrote, in the reign of Henry III. But, in order to prevent malicious accusations, it was then the law that the woman should immediately after “dum recens fuerit maleficium,’ go to the next town, and there make discovery to some credible persons of the injury she has suffered: and afterwards should acquaint the high constable of the hundred, the coroners, and the sheriff with the outrage. Af. terwards, by statute Westm. c. 13, the time of limitation was extended to forty days. At present there is no time of limitation fixed; for, as it is usually punished by indictment at the suit of the king, the maxim of law takes place that nullum tempus occurrit regi: but the jury will rarely give credit to a stale complaint. Durin the former period also it was held for law, that the woman (by consent of the judge and her parents) might redeem the offender from the execution of his sentence, by accepting him for her husband; if he also was willing to agree to the exchange, not otherwise. But this is now not held for law; and it is said that the election of the woman is taken away by the stat. Westm. 2, making the rape felony, although she consent afterwards. By stat. Westm. 1, 3 Ed. I. c. 13, the punishment of rape was much mitigated: the offence itself being reduced to a trespass, if not prosecuted by appeal within forty days, and subjecting the offender only to two years' imprisonment, and a fine at the king's will. But, this lenity being productive of terrible consequences, it was soon found necessary to make the offence of forcible rape felony, which was accordingly done by stat. Westm. 2, 13 Ed. III. c. 34. And by stat. 18 Eliz. c. 7, it is made felony without benefit of clergy: as is also the abominable wickedness of carnally knowing and abusing any woman child under the age of ten years; in which case the consent or non-consent is immaterial, as by reason of her tender years she is incapable of judgment and discretion. Hale is of opinion that such profligate actions committed on an infant under the age of twelve years, the age of female discretion by the common law, either with or without consent, amount to rape and felony; as well since as before the statute of queen Elizabeth, 1 Hal. P. C. 631. That law, however, has in general been held only to extend to infants under ten; though it should seem that damsels between ten and twelve are still under the protection of the stat. Westm. 1, the law with respect to their seduction not having been altered by either of the subsequent statutes. 4 Comm. c. 15. A male infant under the age of fourteen years is presumed by law incapable to commit a rape; and, therefore, it seems, cannot be found guilty of it. For though in other felonies malitia suplet aetatem, yet, as to this particular species of felony, the law supposes an imbecillity of body as well as mind. 1 Hal. P. C. 631. But it is no excuse or mitigation of the crime, that the woman at last yielded to the violence, and consented either after the fact or before, if such consent was forced by fear of death or duress; or that she was a common strumpet, for she is still under the protection of the law, and may be forced :- but it was anciently held to be no rape to force a man's own concubine; and it is said by some to be evidence of a woman's consent, that she was a common whore. Also, formerly, it was adjudged not to be a rape to force a woman, who conceived at the time; because it was imagined that, if she had not consented, she could not have conceived: though this opinion has been since questioned, by reason the previous violence is no way extenuated by such a subsequent consent: and if it were necessary to show the woman did not conceive, to make the crime, the offender could not be tried till such time as it might appear whether she did or not. 2 Inst. 190. As to the facts requisite to be given in evidence and proved upon an indictment of rape, they are of such a nature, that though necessary to be known and settled, they are highly improper to be publicly discussed, except in a court of justice. And Mr. Peel has recently simplified the evidence necessary to be given there. Judge Hale observes that, though a rape is a most detestable crime, it is an accusation easily made, and hard to be proved; but harder to be defended by the inan accused, although ever so innocent: and he mentions several instances of rapes, which at the time were apparently fully proved, but were afterwards discovered to have been malicious contrivances. 1 Hales's Hist. P. C. 625. 636. Aiders and abettors may be indicted as principal felons. RAPHAEL, RAFFAELLE, or RAFFAELlo SANzio, the most eminent of modern painters, was born at Urbino in 1483, being the son of a painter of no great reputation. He however cultivated with care the talents which his son Raphael exhibited at an early age, and was soon repaid by the assistance which he afforded him in several of his pieces. But, finding that the talents of his son merited still more skilful instruction, he placed him under the care of Carvadini, better known by the name of Carnevale, till he was sufficiently advanced to be received into the school of Pietro Perugino. This master was then in very high esteem, though his style was dry and meagre, in comparison with that of Masaccio, and others of the Florentine school. Raphael therefore soon became the rival, rather than the pupil of this artist. His aptitude enabled him quickly to acquire his master's manner in the most perfect degree. Vasari speaks of an Assumption of the Virgin, painted at this period by Raphael, as being wrought with extreme beauty, and precisely like the work of Perugino. In 1499, being then only sixteen years of age,
he quitted Perugino, and began soon after to execute designs of his own for the churches, and private persons. Among those early productions of his genius are, the Crowning of the Virgin, in the convent of the Eremitani; the Crucifixion in the Dominican church, at Citta di Castello; and a Holy Family at Formio, in which the Virgin is represented as lifting a veil from the Infant who is asleep. About this time, his friend and fellow pupil, Pinturicchio, being employed by cardinal Piccolomini to ornament the library at Sienna, requested Raphael to become his coadjutor in that work. He assented, and the two artists began there ten large pictures, illustrative of the history of Pope Pius II., and Raphael drew the sketches and cartoons for the whole work. Previous to the completion of these paintings, however, he visited Florence, where the performances of Masaccio and Lionardo da Vinci attracted his attention, and contributed considerably to his improvement. In this city he also became acquainted with Fra Bartolomeo di St. Marco, who instructed him in the principles of coloring, and the chiaro-oscuro, for which in return Raphael taught his friend the rules and |. of perspective. After a short stay at florence, the death of his father obliged him to return to Urbino, where the duke engaged him to paint four pictures for his palace, which were much valued. In 1505 he removed to Perugia, being engaged there to paint the chapel of St. Severo; and a crucifixion in the Camaldolian monastery. The latter he executed himself, but the former work he left to be completed by his old master; in order that he might return to Florence, for the continuance of his studies, well persuaded that he had yet much to learn. He remained at Florence nearly two years, during which period he painted the Virgin with the Infant and St. John, for the ducal gallery; and the Entombing of Christ, for the Franciscan church of Pe: rugia. The reputation which Raphael acquired by these productions having reached Rome, he was invited thither by pope Julius II., who was . at that time engaged in ornamenting the Vatican, At the beginning of 1508, the young Raphael presented himself to the pontiff, by whom he was cordially received, and immediately employed in painting a superb suite of apartments called La Segnatura. Here he began a set of pictures emblematical of theology, philosophy, poetry, and jurisprudence, the design of which so much pleased the pope that he ordered all the paintings on the walls of his palace to be obli: terated, and replaced by the productions of R+ phael. The works of former masters accord. ingly disappeared, with the exception of one piece by Perugino, which was saved through the earne; intercession of Raphael, out of respect to his 0. friend and preceptor. He was also employed by the rich banker, Agostino Chigi, for whose family chapel he painted some of his most beautiful pieces; but his passion for a beautiful young woman, the daughter of a baker, who thence took the name of La Bella Fornarina, causing him to withdraw to her house, Chigi invited her." his palace, that the painter might continue his work without interruption. The painting 9 these rooms, which occupied nine years, was co"
pleted in 1517, and they obtained the name, which they still retain of the stanze of Raphael: he within the same period also painted the principal events in the history of Constantine; twelve whole length figures of the apostles; and several small pictures for the ceilings of the palace. He also found time to study architecture under his uncle Bramante, whom he succeeded in 1515, as superintendant of the building of St. Peter's church, with a salary of 300 gold crowns. The same year Raphael accompanied the pope to Florence, where he constructed a design for the façade of the church of St. Lorenzo: and another of a palace for the bishop of Troja. He also designed the Caffarelli palace at Rome, another for the marquis della Salticella; a villa for the cardinal Giulio de Medici; a set of stables for the prince Ghigi; and a chapel in the church of St. Mario del Popolo. When he had completed the painting of the three principal apartments of the Vatican, his powers were directed to the decoration of the arcades, now known by the name of the Loggie, the architecture of which, though begun by Bramante, was finished by his nephew. Here Raphael and his assistants painted thirteen ceilings, each containing four subjects taken from sacred history, the whole having been designed by himself. The entire series has been engraved, and is commonly known by the title of Raphael's Bible. About the same period he also designed the celebrated Cartoons for the tapestry hangings of the papal chapel. These designs, after having been wrought in Flanders, were bought by Charles I., and have long formed a part of the royal collections at Hampton Court. They have been engraved more than once, and recently in the first style by Mr. Holloway, after the laborious application of many years. Besides his works in the Vatican, Ra
phael executed a number of frescoes, the Farnesina, where he painted the Triumph of Galatea, and designed a set of pictures of the Loves of Cupid and Psyche. Of his pieces in oil, the principal are a St. Cecilia, painted for the church of St. Giovanni in Monte, at Bologna; Christ carrying the Cross, which is, or was, in the royal collection at Madrid; St. Margaret and St. George now in the Louvre; St. John in the Desert; and a Holy Family, in the same repository; and a Virgin with the Child in her lap at Loretto. The last, and perhaps the greatest work of this celebrated artist is the Transfiguration of Christ, which he painted for the cardinal de Medici. At the foot of Mount Takor is an assembled multitude, among whom are some of the disciples endeavouring in vain to relieve a youth from the dominion of an evil spirit. The various emotions of the different Tarties in this groupe are most characteristic; but the mind is soon carried beyond the touching scene below to the more sublime one above, where Christ appears elevated in the air, surrounded with glory, between Moses and Elias, while the three favored apostles kneel in devout astonishment on the ground. With this great work the labors and life of the painter terminated; for while engaged upon it he was attacked by a disease, which, for want of proper treatment, carried him off on Good Friday, April 7th, 1520, when he had just completed his thirty-seventh year. His body lay in state in the room where he had been accustomed to study, and the picture of the Transfiguration was placed near the bier. The funeral was conducted with great pomp at the Pantheon, and cardinal Bembo, by the desire of the pope, wrote the following inscription for the tomb, which was soon afterwards erected to the memory of Raphael :
Raphael was of a mild and amiable character; but his immoderate attachment to his art induced him to decline matrimony, though cardinal Bibliena offered him one of his nieces. “General opinion,’ says Fuseli, “has placed Raphae at the head of his art, not because he possessed a decided superiority over every other painter in every branch, but because no other artist ever united with his own peculiar excellence all the other parts of the art in an equal degree with him. The drama, or the representation of character in conflict with passion, was his sphere; to represent which, his invention in the choice of the moment, his composition in the arrangement of his actors, and his expres
sion in the delineation of their emotions, were, and perhaps ever will be, unrivalled. To this he added a style of design dictated by the subject, a color correspondent thereto, all the grace which propriety permitted or sentiment suggested, and as much chiaro-oscuro as was compatible with his desire of perspicuity. It is therefore only when he forsook the drama to make excursions into the pure epic or sublime, that his forms became inadequate, and inferior to those of Michael Angelo. It is only in subjects where color becomes the ruling principle that he is excelled by Titian; and he yields to Corregio only in that grace and chiaro-oscuro which is less the minister of propriety and sentiment than its charming abuse or voluptuous excess, and sacrifices to the eye what is claimed by the mind.” RAPHAIM, or Reph AIM, a name mentioned by Moses, signifying Giants, as they really were, and an actual people too, situated in Basan or Batanea, beyond Jordan, separated from the Zanzummim by the river Jabbok. Also a valley near Jerusalem, Joshua x. RAPHANUS, radish, a genus of the siliquosa order, and tetradynamia class of plants; natural order thirty-ninth, siliquosae: ca L. close; the siliqua torose, or swelling out in knots, subarticulated, and round. There are two melliferous glandules between the shorter stamina and the pistil, and two between the longer stamina and the calyx. There is only one species, viz. R. sativus, the common garden radish, of which there are several varieties. They are annual plants, which, being sowed in spring, attain perfection in two or three months, and shoot up soon after into stalk for flower and seed, which, ripening in autumn, the whole plant, root and top, !". so that a fresh supply must be raised annually from seed in the spring, performing the sowings at several different times, from about Christmas until May, to continue a regular succession of young tender radishes throughout the season: allowing only a fortnight or three weeks interval between the sowings; for one crop will not continue good longer than that space of time, before they will either run to seed, or become tough, sticky, and too hot to eat. RAPHELENGIUS (Francis), a learned French orientalist, born at Laney, near Lisle, in 1539. He studied Greek and Hebrew at Paris; but, the civil wars breaking out, he came to England, and taught Greek at Cambridge. He afterwards went to the Netherlands, and corrected the press for the celebrated Plantin. He was afterwards appointed professor of Hebrew and Arabic in the university of Leyden. He published a Chaldaic Dictionary, an Arabic }. icon, and a Hebrew Grammar, which are much esteemed. He died in 1597, aged fifty-eight. RAPHIDIA, in entomology, a genus of insects of the neuroptera order. See ExtomoloGy. The most remarkable species is the R. ophiopsis. It has an oblong head, shaped like a heart, with its point joined to the thorax, and the broad part before. It is smooth, black, flattened, continually shaking, with short antennae, yellowish maxillae, and four palpi. Towards the middle of the upper part of the head, between the eyes are, the three stemmata, placed to a triangle. The thorax, to which this head is fastened, is narrow, long, and cylindrical. The abdomen, broader, is black like the rest of the body, with the segments margined yellow. The feet are of a yellowish cast. The wings, which are fastigiated, are white, diaphanous, veined, and as it were covered with a very fine net-work of black. This insect, in the figure of its head, resembles a snake. It is found but seldom, and in woods only. RAPHOE, a dilapidated village of Ireland, in the county of Donegal, but an ancient episco
pal see; the bishop of which is suffragan of A: magh. The cathedral was erected in the eleventh century. The episcopal castle was built in the reign of Charles I. at the expense of government. In the rebellion of 1641 it stood a long and vi. gorous siege; it has been since modernised. Twenty-one miles north-east of Donegal, and eleven south-west of Londonderry. RAPID, adj. Fr. rapide; Lat. rapidus. RAP'idly, adv. (Quick; swift: the adverb RAPID'ity, n.s. (and noun substantive corRAP'IDN Ess. responding.
Part shun the goal with rapid wheels. Milton. While you so smoothly turn and rowl our sphere, That rapid motion does but rest appear. Dryden. Where the words are not monosyllables, we make them so by our rapidity of pronunciation. Addison. To the lascivious pipe and wanton song, That charm down fear, they frolic it along, With mad rapidity and unconcern, Down to the gulf, from which is no return. Cowper.
RA'PIER, n.s. R. Fr. rapiere; Teut, rapier,
RA'pier-Fish. $ so called from the quickness of its motion. A small thrusting sword: for rapier-fish see below.
I will turn thy falsehood to thy heart, Where it was forged, with my rapier's point. Shakspeare. The rapier-fish, called xiphias, grows sometimes to the length of five yards: the sword, which grows level from the snout of the fish, is here about a yard long, at the basis four inches over, two-edged, and pointed exactly like a rapier: he preys on fishes, having first stabbed them with this sword. Grew. A soldier of far inferior strength may manage a rapier or fire-arms so expertly as to be an overmatch for his adversary. Pope.
Rapier formerly signified a long old fashioned sword, such as those worn by the common soldiers; but it now denotes a small sword, as contradistinguished from a broad sword.
RAPIN (Nicholas), an eminent French poet, born at Fontaney Le Comte, about 1540. He was made grand o by Henry III., displaced by the Leaguers, being a Protestant, but restored by Henry IV. Some of his best pieces are to be found in the Delices des Poetes Latins de France. He died at Fontaney in 1609.
RAPIN (Renatus), a Jesuit and eminent French writer, was born at Tours in 1621. He taught polite literature in the society of the Jesuits with great applause, and was justly esteemed one of the best Latin poets of his time. He died in Paris in 1687. He wrote, 1. A great number of Latin poems, which have rendered him famo throughout all Europe; among which are his Hortorum Libri Quatuor, reckoned his master piece. 2. Reflections on Eloquence, Poo, History, and Philosophy. 3. Comparisons bo. tween Virgil and Homer, Demosthenes and Cicero, Plato and Aristotle, Thucydides and Titus Livius. 4. The History of Jansents". 5. Several works on religious subjects. Theb” edition of his Latin poems is that of Paris " 1723, in 3 vols. 12mo.
Rapin De Thornas (Paul de), a celebrated historian, the son of James Rapin, lord of Thoyras, was born at Castres in 1661. After being educated under a tutor in his father's house, he was sent to Puy Laurens, and thence to Saumur. In 1669 he returned to his father, studied the law, and was admitted an advocate: but, reflecting that his being a Protestant would prevent his advancement at the bar, he resolved to quit the law, and apply himself to the sword; but his father "...' not consent to it. The revocation of the edict of Nantes in 1685, and the death of his father, which happened two months after, made him come to England; but he soon after went to Holland, and enlisted himself in the company of French volunteers at Utrecht, commanded by M. Rapin, his cousin-german. He attended the prince of Orange into England in 1688; and in 1689 lord Kingston made him an ensign in his regiment, with which he went into Ireland, where he gained the esteem of his officers at the siege of Carrickfergus, and had soon a lieutenant's commission. He was present at the battle of the Boyne, and was shot through the shoulder at the siege of Limerick. He was soon after captain of the company in which he had been ensign; but, in 1693, resigned it to one of his brothers, in order to be tutor to the earl of Portland's son. In 1699 he married Marianne Testard; but this neither abated his care of his pupil, nor prevented his accompanying him in his travels. Having finished his employment, he returned to his family, which he had settled at the Hague; and here he continued some years. But, as he found his family increase, he resolved to retire to some cheap country; and accordingly removed, in 1707, to Wesel, where he wrote his History of England, and some other pieces. Though he was of a strong constitution, yet seventeen years close application (in comi. that history) entirely ruined his health. He died in 1725. He wrote in French, 1. A Dissertation on the Whigs and Tories. 2. His History of England, printed at the Hague, in 1726 and 1727, in 9 vols., 4to., and reprinted at Trevoux in 1728, in 10 vols. 4to. This last edition is more complete than that of the Hague. It has been translated into English, and improved with notes, by the Rev. Mr. Tindal, in 2 vols. folio. Lord Gardenstone observes, that “Mr. Hume has branded him as an author the most despicable both in style and matter.’ ‘The censure (adds his lordship) is invidious and unjust. His work contains an immense multitude of interesting circumstances wholly omitted by the Scottish author. From his situation, a classical composition was not to be expected. He wrote a more complete general history of England than had ever appeared in this country; and, whatever be his faults, it would be ungenerous to deny his uncommon merit." Gard. Miscell. p. 203. RA'PINE, n.s. Fr. rapine; Lat. rapina. The act of plundering: violence; force.
If the poverty of Scotland might, yet the plenty of England cannot, excuse the envy and rupine of the church's rights. King, Charles. The logic of a conquering sword may silence, but convince it cannot; its efficacy rather breeds averVol. XVIII.-PART 2.
sion and abhorrence of religion, whose first address is in blood and rapine. Decay of Piety. RAPP (John), a modern French general, was born of an obscure family at Colmar in 1772, and entered upon a military life in 1788. Having become a lieutenant, in the tenth regiment of chasseurs, he served as aid-de-camp to Dessaix in the campaigns of 1796 and 1797, and afterwards in Egypt. After the battle of Marengo he became aid-de-camp to Buonaparte; and in 1802 was employed in the subjugation of Switzerland. Returning to Paris the following year, he accompanied Buonaparte into Belgium: at the battle of Austerlitz he defeated the Russian imperial guard, and took prisoner prince Repnin; In December 1805 he was a general of a division; and appointed governor of Dantzic in 1807. After the campaign of 1812 he commanded the garrison of that city, which he defended with great skill and valor, but he was at length obliged to capitulate. In 1814 he submitted to the Bourbons; but joined Napoleon on his return; and after all his vicissitudes died in 1823 in favor with Louis XVIII., and a member of the chamber of Peers. Mémoires du General Rapp appeared at Paris the same year, 8vo. RAPPAHANNOCK, a navigable river of Virginia, which rises in the Blue Ridge, and runs E. S. E. about 130 miles. It flows into the Chesapeake, twenty-five south of Potomac. It passes by the towns of Falmouth, Fredericksburgh, Port Royal, Leeds, Tappahannock, and Urbanna: has four fathoms water to Hobb's Hole, and is navigable for vessels of 130 or 140 tons to Fredericksburgh, 110 miles from its mouth. RAPPORT, n.s. Fr. rappat, rapport. Relation; reference; proportion. A word introduced by Temple, but not copied. 'Tis obvious what rapport there is between the conceptions and languages in every country, and how great a difference this must make in the excellence of books. Temple. RAPTURE, n.s. Lat. rapio. See RAP. RAP'TURED, adj. }: seizure; ecstacy; RAP'TURous. transport; violence of passion; rapidity: raptured is ravished ; transported: rapturous, ecstatic; transporting. And thicke into our ship he threw his flash : That 'gainst a rocke, or flat, her keele did dash With headlong rapture. Chapman. Could virtue be seen it would beget love, and advance it not only into admiration, but rapture. Holyday. The wat'ry throng, Wave rolling after wave, where way they found, If steep, with torrent rapture; if through plain Soft-ebbing; nor withstood them rock or hill. Milton. Musick, when thus applied, raises in the mind of the hearer great conceptions; it strengthens devotion, and advances praise into rupture. Addison. Are the pleasures o it so inviting and rapturous? is a man bound to look out sharp to plague himself? Collier. Nor will he be able to forbear a rapturous acknowledgment of the infinite wisdom and contrivance of the divine artificer. Blackmore. You grew correct, that once with rapture writ. - Pope. 2 C