Obrazy na stronie

Frederick I. chied in the beginning of 1713, of the French. In spring 1757 the Prussians and was succeeded by Frederick William I., in entered Bohemia in three divisions; ode under almost every thing the reverse of his father. His the king; another under general Schwerin; and dispositions were altogether martial ; so that he the third under the prince of Bevern, from Luapplied himself entirely to the augmentation of satia, where he defeated an army of 28,000 Austhe army. His whim was to have it composed trians. The Austrians then detached another of men above tne ordinarv size, and his officers body of 20,000 men from their main army; made no scruple of picking up such men wher- whereupon Frederick cut off all communication ever they could find them However he was between that detachment and the main body, and, never engaged in any martial enterprise of con- having quickly joined his two generals, attacked sequence; but having put his army on the most the Austrians near Prague and totally defeated respectable footing, and filled his coffers, he put them, but lost the brave general Schwerin. The it in the power of his son to perform those ex- Austrian general, also, was mortally wounded ; ploits which astonished all Europe. Frequent and about 40,000 of his troops took refuge in bickerings took place between the prince and the Prague, which was immediately invested by the emperor, for which the persecution of the Pro- king. The garrison made a sally, but were retestants by some of the Catholic states of the pulsed, as were also 12,000 of the inhabitants, empire afforded a pretence. But when Frederick who wished to quit it. In this desperate situaWilliam died, in 1740, this enmity broke out in tion, Leopold count Daun took the command of full forcc.

the remains of Brown's army, and having colFrederick II., immediately on his accession, lected 60,000 of them retired to a strong post seized upon Silesia, of which his ancestors, he near the town. Frederick sent against them said, had been unjustly deprived. But it cost only 32,000 men, who were defeated at Colin on him dear; for the empress queen, having over- the 18th of June, after a bloody battle. The come her momentary difficulties, formed against king then raised the siege of Prague, left Bohehim the most formidable combination that had mia, and retired into Saxony. hitherto been known in Europe. The treaty was Meantime the Russians, under Apraxin and hardly concluded, by which she reluctantly Permor, were committing the greatest cruelties in yielded up Silesia, with a revenue of £800,000 á Ducal Prussia. The Austrians entered Silesia, year, before she entered into another with Rus-· penetrated to Breslau, and besieged Schweidnitz. sia. This treaty, called the treaty of Peters- Another body of them took Zittau. An army of burgh, was apparently only defensive; but six 22,000 Swedes also entered Prussian Pomerania, secret articles were appended, one of which was, took Anclam and Demmein, and plundered the that if the king of Prussia should attack the em country : while the French devastated Halbertpress queen, or Russia, or Poland, it should be stadt and the Old Marche of Brandenburgh. held as a breach of the treaty of Dresden : ano- General Haddick laid Berlin itself under contrither contained a plan for a partition of Prussia. bution. The Prussian general, Lehwald, with The empress queen concluded also a treaty with 30,000 men, attacked 30,000 Russians, who France, on the 1st of May, 1756. Frederick, were strongly intrenched at Norkitten, but, hearing of these machinations, resolved to be though they performed prodigies of valor, were before-hand with his enemies, and, entering obliged to retire. At last, on the 5th of NovemSaxony with a considerable army, demanded ber 1757, the king of Prussia met,'at Rasbach, a free passage for his troops, on the principle of with the united army of his enemies under prince the king of Poland's professed neutrality; which Saxe-Hilburghhausen and general Soubise, being refused, he blockaded the Saxon camp at amounting to 50,000 men. His army did not Pirna. To oppose the two Saxon armies, then in amount to above half that number of men, but Bohemia, he placed one army under M. Schwerin inspired with the most enthusiastic patriotism, and another under the celebrated M. Keith; and and encouraged by the presence of their king, soon after joined the latter: on the first of De- they completely defeated the Austrians, with the cember, 1756, he attacked and defeated the Aus- loss of 3000 men killed; eight generals, 250 offitrian general. On this the king of Poland quitt- cers, and 6000 men, prisoners, while night alone ed his German dominions, and the Prussians prevented their total destruction. But in Silesia took up their quarters in Saxony, where they the Austrians, after a siege of sixteen days, reseized the revenues and raised recruits : in the duced Schweidnitz, and took the Prussian garriarchives of Dresden Frederick discovered the son of 4000 men prisoners. They next attacked originals of the secret articles above-mentioned. the army under the prince of Bevern, encamped Mean time he was put to the ban of the empire; at Breslau, on the 22d of November; but were the circles were ordered to furnish their contin- repulsed with dreadful slaughter. Yet the gents : the French sent a large body of troops Prussians, soon after, rashly deserted their strong under prince de Soubise; the Austrians raised post, and in two days the prince of Bevern, re100,000 men under prince Charles of Lorrain connoitering carelessly, was taken prisoner; and M. Brown; and the Czavina sent 60,000 Breslau of course surrendered, and all was going under M. Apraxin into Ducal Prussia, with a to wreck, when the king, by a rapid march, strong fleet to co-operate with them in the Baltic. passing through Thuringia, Misnia, and Lusatia, The king of Sweden and the duke of Mecklen- entered Silesia on the 2d of December, and was burgh also joined the combination ; while Prus- joined by the prince of Bevern's corps and the sia had not a single ally, except about 35,000 garrison of Schweidnitz. He now approached Hanoverians under the duke of Cumberland; Breslau, where the Austrians, trusting to their who were soon forced to yield to a superior army numbers (amounting to 70,000) while the Prus

sians were scarcely 36,000 men, left their strong ber. The brave marshal Keith, and prince camp and advanced to battle. The two armies Francis of Brunswick, were killed on the spot; met' on the 5th of December near Luthen. and though the king did his utmost to encourage Count Daun occupied a plain with some small his troops, and the victory was long doubtful, the eminences, and caused his troops to scatter a king at last ordered a retreat, which he conduct. great number of trees in the road of the Prus- ed in good order: but this bloody battle cost him sians. But Frederick overcame all these difficul- 7000 men, with a great number of cannon. The ties: attacked the enemy with the utmost impe- Austrians lost 5000. Frederick next reinforced tuosity, took the post, and a total rout ensued, his army from that of prince Henry, and hastened wherein the Austrians lost 6000 killed, 15,000 to raise the siege of Neiss, which had been inprisoners, and 200 cannons. The consequences vested on the 4th of October. On the 24th he were great; Breslau surrendered on the 29th of came to Gorlitz, where he defeated a party of December with a garrison of 13,000 men : the Austrians, with the loss of 800 men; and soon Russians retreated out of Ducal Prussia: general after relieved Cosel. The king then hastened to Lehwald expelled the Swedes out of Prussian the relief or Dresden, which was badly fortified Pomerania, and took part of Swedish Pomerania; and garrisoned by only 12,000 men. It had and the king took ample vengeance on Mecklen- large suburbs, but these had been burnt by burg. To add to his good fortune, the French Schmettau, the governor, on the 10th of Novemwere now so successfully opposed by the Hano- ber, to prevent their being taken by the Austrians verians, under prince Ferdinand, that he had no under Daun, as then all defence of the city more trouble from them.

would have been vain. Upon the king's apOn the 3d of April, 1758, Frederick laid proach all the Austrian arınies retired into Bohesiege to Schweidnitz, which surrendered on the mia. He now took up his winter quarters in 16th. He then disposed his forces in the best Saxony, where he levied the most exorbitant manner for the defence of his dominions, placing contributions. On the 23d of February, 1759, one army under count Dohna on the side of Po- general Wobersow marched with a body of merania; another between Wohlan and Glogau, Prussians into Poland, where he destroyed seto cover Silesia ; and a third in Saxony under veral large Russian magazines. The successes of his brother prince Henry, consisting of thirty prince Henry, in the interim, cleared Franconia battalions and forty-five squadrons, to make head of their enemies; but now the Russians once against the empire. All these armies were con more approached. The king disgraced count nected by posts. Frederick next, making a feint Dohna, for not opposing them with sufficient of invading Bohemia, suddenly burst into Mora- zeal, and appointed general Wedel in his place; via, over-run the whole country, and laid siege who, on the 23d of July, with an army of not to Olmutz on the 27th of May. But general quite 30,000 men, attacked 70,000 Russians Daun, seizing a strong hold where he could not most advantageously posted at Zulichau. The be attacked, obliged the king to raise the siege; Prussians fought with their usual bravery, but which he did very unexpectedly, on the 1st of were defeated with the loss of 4700 killed or July, and marched in two columns into Bohe- taken, and 3000 wounded. The consequences mia. After laying Konigsgratz and the adjacent were that the Russians took Crossen and Frankdistricts under contribution, he marched rapidly fort on the Oder; on which the king joined against the Russians, who had been employed in Wedel with a large body of troops, leaving the besieging Custrin, since the 15th of August. rest of his army in Saxony, under prince Henry. Frederick arrived on the 25th within sight of the But as Daun had sent 12,000 horse and 8000 Russians, after fifty-six days march: when they foot, under Laudohn, to assist the Russiaris, the raised the siege and retired to Zorndorff. The king was unwilling to venture a battle. This, battle of Zorndoff began at 9 A. M., and con- however, became unavoidable; he therefore, on tinued till 7 P. M., with various success and the 12th of August, attacked the enemy in their dreadful slaughter. At one period the Prussians strong entrenchments with a heavy cannonade, had given way and fled before an army half de- forced the entrenchments with great slaughter, feated; but the king, by a rapid and masterly and took seventy-two cannon. The Russians movement, 'rought his cavalry to the centre, made a stand ai Cunnersdorf, but were driven and, falling on the Russian foot, put them into from it, and from post to post to the last such confusion that they fired on each other, redoubts. For above six hours the Prussians plundered their own baggage, and got so much were wholly successful; and victory was comintoxicated that the fire of the Prussians had pletely in their power, if the king had not lost it dreadful effect. In a word, their loss, besides a by his impetuosity. General Saltikoff assembled vast train of artillery, amounted to 21,529 men, the remains of the Russian army at an advantathe military chest, &c., while that of the Prus- geous post where prudence and policy would sians did not exceed 2000. The remains of the have allowed them to remain, Bui, the king atRussian army retreated to Landsperg; and the tempting to drive them from it, his fatigued troops king marched to the relief of prince Henry. were overpowered, and the Austrians, who had Here he met with a severe check. Marshal Daun not been inuch engaged all day, assisting them, had his camp advantageously situated at Stolpen, the fortune of the day was turned so completely while the right wing of the king extended to that nothing but the night coming on saved the Hochkirchen, by which he had a communication Prussians from total destruction. Their loss with prince Henry and protected Brandenburg. amounted to 20,000 men. After this defeat In this critical situation Daun surprised the Frederick exerted himself to procure artillery Prussian camp at 5 A. M. or the 14th of Octo- from Berlin; he recalled general Kleist with


5000 men from Pomerania ; detached 6000 from foreign ministers, was better than could have his own army to defend Saxony; and with the been expected. The city, however, was obliged remainder put himself between the Russians and to pay the sums of 800,000 guilders, and Great Glogan; thus obliging them to return to 1,900,000 crowns: the magazines, arsenals, and Poland, notwithstanding their victory. New foundries were destroyed; all the military misfortunes, however, attended the Prussian stores, cannon, and other arms seized, and the arms. General Finch, who had been sent with king's palace plundered. The combined armies 12,000 Prussians to oppose Daun, having ad- left Berlin in four days, dreading the vengeance venced too far, was surrounded and obliged to of Frederick; and on their return took Leipsic, surrender. General Durceke, and another body Torgau, Meissen, and Wirtemberg. A detachof Prussians, were posted at the Elbe, opposite ment of French under M. Stainville laid HalberMeissen; but were suddenly attacked by the stadt under contribution. In East Pomerania Austrians, and lost 3000 men.

the Russians besieged Colberg; in West PomeThe year 1760 began with very unfavorable rania the Swedes advanced, while Laudohn beauspices. Since October 1756 forty generals sieged Cosel; and Daun watched the king with had been killed in the Prussian service, exclusive a superior army. The Prussians did not amount of those wounded or taken : and most of Fre- to 50,000: the Austrians exceeded 86,000. The derick's veteran soldiers had fallen in battle, and king therefore resolved to make a desperate their places were filled up by raw inexperienced effort. On the 3rd of November, 1760, he ditroops. At this time Laudohn drew general vided his forces into three columns, with one of Fouquet and a body of above 11,000 Prussians which general Huksen took post in a wood. With into a situation from which they could not es the other two columns, under himself and general cape ; and on the 23rd of June attacked them at Ziethen, the king attacked general Daun about midnight, near Landshut, when, though they 2 P. M., who received him with the fire of 200 made a brave defence, 4000 were killed, 7000

The Prussians were thrice led on to taken, with filty-eight cannon, and not above 300 the attack, but as often repulsed with dreadful escaped. The victory, however, cost the Aus- slaughter; till, at length, general Zeithen with trians 12,000 men in killed and wounded. Lau the right wing attacked the enemy in the doba immediately followed it up by the capture rear, repulsed them, and got possession of some of Glatz Thence he marched against Breslau, eminences. Encouraged by this success, the and invested it; but, the king of Prussia having Prussians advanced, mastered the Austrian enlaid siege to the town on the 13th of July, Daun trenchments, and made way for their cavalry, appeared within three miles on the 19th, and on which broke in with irresistible fury and threw the 21st had supplied it with sixteen battalions, the Austrians into irreparable confusion. It which obliged the king to raise the siege. Bres was now about 9 P. M., both armies were in lau was also bombarded by Laudohn, but the darkness, yet the firing continued, till M. Daun approach of prince Henry obliged him to retire was wounded; and the command devolved on on the 5th of August. Meantime the king ad- count O'Donnel, who ordered a retreat. This vanced into Silesia with his usual rapidity. This, important victory cost the Prussians 10,000 however, did not prevent the junction of the ar- killed and wounded, and 3000 prisoners. The mies under Laudohn, Daun, and Lacy, which loss of the Austrians in killed and wounded is formed a line of encampments, extending no less unknown; but 8000 were taken prisoners, among than thirty miles. They now laid a plan to at- whom were four generals and 212 other officers, tack and surround the king's army in the night; The consequences of this victory were that the but Frederick, having heard or suspected their king recovered all Saxony, excepi Dresden; the intention, quitted his camp privately, and took an Russians raised the siege of Colberg, and retired advantageous post on the road through which into Poland; Werner defeated the Swedes, and Laudohn was to pass. A thick fog in the morn- drove them totally out of West Pomerania; ing hid the Prussians till Laudohn saw them with Laudohn raised the blockade of Cosel, and resurprise regularly drawn up for battle. Au obsti- tired into Austrian Silesia; Daun placed his nate conflict ensued, wherein Laudohn was com- army in Dresden, and other strong posts south pletely defeated, with the loss of 10,000 killed, and west of it; and the imperial army retired wounded, and prisoners; eighty-two cannon, into Franconia. But, though these successes reand twenty-three colors. This victory compelled trieved the king's affairs, they exhausted his count Czernichew, who was advancing with strength; and in 1761 he was unable to make 24,000 Russians to join Daun, to repass the any vigorous efforts. He continued strongly enOder; and soon after the king joined prince camped at Schweidnitz, but was closely watched Henry at New Marche, and, attacking a corps by Davn ard Laudohn. He however defeated under general Breck, took two battalions of the designs of the Russians against Breslaw, by Croats prisoners.

About this time too general sending general Platen to destroy their magaHulsen defeated the imperial army in Saxony. zines, who at the same time cut off 4000 of their But a body of 15,000 Austrians, under generals troops. But they retook Colberg on the 3rd of Lacy and Brentano, with the whole of the impe- December ; and, the king having drawn 4000 rialists in Saxony, began their march in concert men out of Schweidnitz, Laudohn took it by a with the Russians towards Berlin. These armies coup de main. In the midst of these adverse amounted to 40,000 men. The Prussian gene- circumstances, the empress Elizabeth, Frederick's rals Hulsen and Werner could not raise above inveterate enemy, died on the 2d of January 16,000. Berlin was therefore abandoned to its 1762, and was succeeded by Peter III. his fate; which, by the powerful mediation of several warm friend. The crnsequences were a suspen


ston of hostilities on the 16th of March, and a pending upon support from France, treated with treaty of peace and alliance on the 5th of May. insolence every power connected with them in Sweden mage peace too on the 22d of May. Europe. The court of Berlin did not witness The arms of Prussia were now attended every these proceedings without indignation; and the where with success. Prince Henry drove the king formed his plan for restoring the power of imperialists from several important posts in the Stadtholder with such secresy and prudence, Saxony, which secured all the Prussian posses- that, in the space of one month, the duke of sions there. The king was joined by the Rus- Brunswick led 18,000 Prussians to Amsterdam. sians ir the end of June ; after which he drove The monarch's subsequent conduct was not such M. Daun to the extremity of Silesia. He then as the beginning of his reign gave reason to expenetrated deep into Bohemia, where the Rus- pect. See the article Poland. He was, on the sians committed the same crrelties on their late whole, a weak voluptuous character, who dissiallies, the Austrians, that they had long practised pated his treasures, and, in the part which he on the Prussians. But the deposition and murder took against the French republic, by no means of Peter III. occasioned a new change. Catharine added to the reputation of the Prussian arms. II. was prejudiced against Frederick ; but his pri Frederick William III. came to the crown in vate leiters to Peter, wherein he had advised 1797, and acted for several years in concurrence him to treat her well, being discovered, excited with France. In 1806, however, his eyes were her gratitude; ard, though she ordered her troops opened to the usurpations of Buonaparte; war home, she adhered to the peace, and restored all was determined on, and the army led to the the places taken during the war. The success of western frontier, with as much confidence as if Frederick, however, continued : he totally de- the French troops had been those of Louis XV. feated Laudohn; retook Schweidnitz, with a gar- The result was the fatal battle of Jena; and the rison of 8000 men; and, on the 29th of Octo- capture, in succession, of almost every corps of ber, entirely routed the Austrians at Freyberg, the Prussian army; the loss of Berlin, and soon vast numbers being killed, and 6000 taken pri- after of every province of the kingdom, except

This decisive victory produced the Prussia Proper. The peace of Tilsit restored peace of Hubertsburg, whereby every thing was little more than half the states of the monarchy; settled in statu quo. After this Frederick turned and during six years all the calamities of foreign his attention to the arts of peace; which was occupation and exaction were accumulated on hardly interrupted in 1778 by a difference with this ill fated country. Hence the ardor with Austria, about Bavaria. No other remarkable which the Prussians rushed to arms in 1813; events occurred during his life, but what are al- their courage under the first reverses of the camready mentioned in our article FREDERICK. He paign, and their perseverance in its prosecution. died August 17th, 1786, and was succeeded by The peace of Paris in 1814, confirmed by that his nephew, Frederick William II

of 1815, gave them their reward ; for, while the Frederick the Great had bequeathed the most Prussian monarch did not obtain the restoration effectual securities to his successor for the pre- of the same extent of territory in Poland, he had servation of his dominions, that human wisdom an ample equivalent in Saxony and on the Lower could provide or devise; and the new monarch, Rhine. Since that period the closest țies of the with these advantages, was not wanting to him- Prussian court have been with Russia and the self. But his uncle's prédilection for the French Netherlands. language and French literature was not grateful Prussia PROPER is a division of the Prussian to his subjects. Frederick-William began his dominions, having on the one side the northern reign with declaring in council, Germans we are, frontier of Poland, on the other the Baltic. Its and Germans I mean we shall continue; giving form, though irregular, approaches to an oblong, directions at the same time, that their native lan- extending from east to west ; its superficial exguage should resume its natural rank and station. tent is nearly equal to that of Scotland. It is in This was a very popular measure, and it was fol- a great measure agricultural, and is composed of lowed by another still more so. Observing that he the provinces of East and West Prussia, divided had marked with great concern the progress of formerly by the Vistula, but now by a line a few impiety and profaneness on the one hand, and of miles to the east of that river. enthusiasm on the other, he declared, that he East or Ducal Prussia lies between 19° 20' would not have his subjects corrupted either by and 24° 15' of E. long., and 52° 32' and 56° 3' fanatics or atheists, and strictly prohibited all pub- of N. lat. · It has a superficial extent of 15,000 lications tending to excite a contempt or indiffer- square miles, with 856,000 inhabitants, of whom ence for religion. An opportunity soon occurred, about a third are of Poish or Lithuanian origin. in which he was also thought to have displayed It is divided into the governments of Konigssuch talents in negociation and in military ar- berg and Gumbinnen, the latter being the part of rangements, as proclaimed him in every resper Lithuania allotten to Prussia on the partition of a worthy successor of his uncle. The States of Poland. Two-thirds of the population are dellolland, who had long been jealous of the power scendants of Swiss, French, or German proof the Stadtholder, and inclined to a republican testants. The soil is tolerably productive, but government without any permanent chief, had the climate severe, and the spring and autumn gained such ascendancy in the states general, that changeable and foggy. A great degree of moisin 1786 and 1787 they divested the prince of ture is produced by the lakes, marshes, and vast Orange of ail his prerogatives. They proceeded forests; yet the winds that brush the surface of even to the seizure and imprisonment of the this country almost without interruption purify princess, sister to the king of Prussia; and, de- the air. The forests are said to cover nearly

3,400,000 acres. They contain bears, elks, and north and north-west winds. It is manufactured other wild animals common in Poland ; they at Dantzic, Konigsberg, and Stolpe, and serves also produce kermes, or, as it is here termed, to make trinkets, scented powder, a spirituous Russian cochineal. The lakes, great and small, acid, and a fine varnishing oil. Part of it is exare said to be fully 300 in number. All these ported to Denmark and Italy, whence, after unabound in fish. Corn of all kinds, as well as dergoing a farther process of manufacture, it is flax and hemp, are largely cultivated ; hops and sent to Turkey. The quantity annually collected .nadder are reared in particular districts; and in Prussia is about 200 tons. potatoes are much used. Hogs are also reared West Prussia has an area of about 10,000 in great numbers, and bees, in a domestic as well square miles; its population is 560,000.. The as wild state, åre in great abundance. The foreign settlers here are far less numerous than horses are both numerous and of good breeds. in East Prussia. It is divided into the governThe royal studs are now united at the town of ments of Dantzic and Marienwerder. The Stallupohen, and are said to form the largest es- small part to the right of the Vistula is full of tablishment of the kind in Europe. Iron ore is lakes; but along the banks of that river the soil found in many of the marshes. Linen, woollen, is fertile; in other parts it is sandy and barren. and in a small degree leather and glass, are the The agricultural products are similar to those manufactures. The commercial towns are Ko- of East Prussia ; but the number of cattle is nigsberg and Memel. But the most singular ar- larger. Manufactures, with the exception of ticle in this country is amber, currently sold for linen, are backward ; but this province contains about three or four shillings the 1 cwt.. The the well known commercial towns of Dantzic district in which it is obtained from the sea is and Elbing, and possesses in the Vistula a grand about twenty-five miles in length. It is thrown channel of communication between Poland and on the coast or fished like coral, after strong the sea.

PRUSSIC, CYANIC, or HYDROCYANIC, Acid, light, into carbonic acid, ammonia, and carbuin chemistry, was first discovered in the pigment retted hydrogen. It does not completely neucommonly called Prussian blue, by Bergman, tralise alkalies, and is displaced even by the and first obtained separate by Scheele. The carbonic acid : it has no action upon metals, but compound formed by this acid with iron was unites with their oxides, and forms salts for the long known and used before its nature was most part insoluble ; it likewise unites into understood. Macquer first found that alkalies triple salts with these oxides and alkalies, would decompose Prussian blue, by separating The peculiar smell of the prussic acid could the iron from the principle with which it was scarcely fail to suggest its affinity with the poison combined, and which he supposed to be phlo-, of the leaves of the lauro-cerasus; and M. Schrader giston. Hence the prussiate of potash was long of Berlin has ascertained the fact, that these do called phlogisticated alkali. Bergman, however, contain a principle capable of forming a blue ranked it among the acids; and, as early as precipitate with iron; and that with lime they 1772, Sage announced that this animal acid, as afford a test of the presence of iron equal to the he called it, formed with the alkalies neutral prussiate of that earth. Dr. Bucholz of Weisalts. About the same time Scheele instituted a mar, and Mr. Roloff of Magdeburgn, confirm series of experiments to obtain the acid separate,

this fact. The prussic acid appears to come and to ascertain its constituent principles. over in the distilled oil. These, according to him, are ammonia and The following communication to the Royal carbon; and Berthollet showed that its triple Society, by Dr. Madden, of Dublin, contains base contains hydrogen and azote, nearly, if not the first proofs of the deleterious effects of this precisely, in the proportions that form ammonia. poison upon mankind :- A very extraordinary Berthollet could find no oxygen in any of his accident,' says the Dr., ' has discovered to us a experiments for decomposing this acid.

most dangerous poison, which was never before Scheele's method of p-eparing this acid is known to be so, though it has been in frequent this:-Mix four ounces of Prussian blue with use among us. This is a simple water, distilled two of red oxide of mercury prepared by nitric from the leaves of the lauro-cerasus; the water acid, and boil them in twelve ounces by weight is at first milky, but the oil which comes over, of water, till the whole becomes colorless; then being in a good measure separated from the filter and add to it one ounce of clean iron phlegm, by passing it through a flannel bag, it filings, and six or seven drachms of sulphuric becomes as clear as common water. acid. Draw off by distillation about a fourth of pened that a servant, who lived with a person the liquor, which will be prussic acid, contami- who sold great quantities of this water, got a nated with a portion of sulphuric; to render it bottle of it from her mistress, and gave it to a pure, it may be rectified by redistilling it from shop-keepeer in town, who she thought might carbonate of lime.

oblige her customers with it. Accordingly, in a This prussic acid has a strong smell of peach few days, she gave about two ounces to a woman biossoms, or bitter almonds; its taste is at first called Mary Whaley, who drank about twosweetish, then acrid, hot, and virulent, and ex- thirds and went away. In a quarter of an hour cites coughing; it has a strong tendency to as- after Mary Whaley had drunk the water, she sume the form of gas; it has been decomposed complained of a violent disorder in her stomach, in a high temperature, and by the contact of soon after lost her speech, and died in about an VOL. XVIII


It hap

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