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of the best description, was let to a dairyman at sidering corresponds with the low prices of the 368. per year. The owner told him he valued objects in which their labor is employed. The them at 755. per head, and thought the average working class of the inhabitants, amounting in weight of the butter from each, the calf being the maritime provinces to upwards of 1,000,000, taken from the mother when ten days old, was including both those who work for daily wages about 120 lbs. each year. The variation in the and those who cultivate their own little portions price of cows is much greater than in that of of land, cannot be compared to any class of persheep, according to their race, to the soil on sons in England. This large description of the which they are pastured, and to the distance from inhabitants live in dwellings provided with few large towns requiring supplies of milk and conveniencies, on the lowest and coarsest food; butter. The price of hay varies, according to the potatoes, or rye, or buck wheat, are their chief, situation and quality, froin 14s. to 20s. the ton. and frequently their only food; linen, with flax

Tares.—The general burdens of the state in of their own growth, and wool, spun by their Prussia are the subject of complaints among all own hands, both coarse and both worn as long classes; and although they may appear to us to as they will hold together, furnish their dress; amount to a very small sum, rated by the num- whilst an earthen pot that will bear fire forms ber of persons, they must be considered heavy one of the most valuable articles of their furniin a country so destitute of little other capital ture. As fuel is abundant they are warmed than that of land, now vastly depreciated in value. more by close stoves than by the shelter of their The whole taxes in Prussia amount to about wooden or mud houses covered by shingles, 10s. per head ; but the effective value of money, which admit the piercing cold of the severe weain exchange for commodities, may be considered ther through abundant crevices. If they have to be double what it is with us.

bees and a plot of chicory, their produce serves The land is divided into six classes, the rent as a substitute for sugar and coffee; but too of the lowest of which is estimated to be about often these must be sent to market to raise the 7d. per acre, and that of the highest about 4s. scanty pittance which the tax-gatherer demands. an acre. On this amount the grund steuer or land Though the price of whiskey is low, yet the farm tax is twenty-five per cent., and averages in the produce is still lower; and neither that, nor the three maritime provinces somewhat less than 3d. bad beer which is commonly brewed, can be per acre. The gross amount collected in the afforded by the peasantry as a usual drink. In ihree provinces annually, according to Hassel, is common seasons this description of people suffer about £265,000 sterling. The local taxes do much in the winter; but in times of scarcity, not fall wholly on the land. That for the disa- such as followed the disastrous harvest of 1816, bied soldiers, and the families of such as fell in their distress and their consequent mortality is the conflicts, is in part borne by the cities and increased. towns, though the chief weight falls on the land. Since the acquisition of the Rhenish proThe same, in some measure, is the case respecting vinces, wine is one of the most important of the tax for roads, bridges, schools, and the poor. the Prussian products. They yield various kinds These are various in different districts, so that it of a good quality; and the average quantity is is impossible to form any general estimate of estimated at 100,000 hogsheads. their amount. In some parts of the country The Prussian horses differ little from those of they appear to be equal to the grund steuer ; in the adjacent districts, but are generally conothers higher; and in others they do not amount sidered as inferior to the Polish: for the Prussian to one-tenth. Among the cultivators there is cavalry are chiefly supplied from that country. much complaint of the heavy tax on the distil- The domestic cattle are likewise the same as in leries,

the other parts of Northern Germany. Silesia, The military service is extremely onerous Saxony, and the provinces near the Rhine, are throughout Prussia, as every young man is com- the best adapted for supporting a superior breed pelled to serve three years, from the age of of sheep; and the increase of Merinos bas twenty to twenty-four, as a soldier. This, though greatly augmented both the quantity and quality not precisely a tax, and not peculiar to the agri- of the wool yielded by these districts. M. cultural class, is a burden which perhaps presses Krug has lately given the following estimate as much on the productive industry of the of the live stock in the entire Prussian States ; country as the heavier taxes that are collected in viz.other countries. To this must be added the

Horses.

1,661,800 quartering of the troops, who are billeted on pri

Cattle

5,252,820 vate houses; and, however well discipline may be maintained amongst them, must be a great an

Sheep and Lambs

11,230,000 Swine

2,640,000 noyance, and in most cases an expense, which,

Goats

181,000 though apparently trifling in amount, becomes

Asses and Mules

9,680 weighty to those whose means of supporting it

Bee-hives

521,000 are small. In a country where four-fifths of the inhabitants subsist wholly by producing food, The minerals of Prussia are found chiefly in and depend for the conveniencies besides bare the high ground of the Westphalian and Rhenish food on the price which they can obtain for their provinces, particularly in the mountainous dissurplus, the low rate at which that surplus can trict of the Harz. Iron, copper, lead, vitriol, be disposed of must be felt and observed in alum, saltpetre, are all found here, and, in a Every rank society.

smaller degree, silver. Salt from brine springs, The scale of living in the country we are con- and coal, are abundant in some parts of Prussian

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Saxony; but the expense of conveyance prevents ware, corn, wool, timber, pitch, tar, potasli, the use of the latter for fuel. Amber is found lintseed, tobacco, wax; horses, horned cattle, in several parts of Prussia Proper. The whole hogs, salt meat, and, from a few maritime towns, annual value of mineral produce in the states is the produce of the fisheries. Distilled spirits about £2,000,000.

are also, like corn, an article of export from the Timber can be exported only from the vicinity eastern part of the kingdom. The imports comof rivers or canals. Hops, in like manner, are prise coffee, cotton, sugar, tea, and other produce confined to particular districts. Wessphalia has of the colonies; the wines, silk, fruit, and baylong been noted for its hams ; Pomerania for its salt of the south of Europe, printed cotton, and poultry. Game is abundant in many parts. The the finer hardware, tin, furs, and dye-stuffs. The fisheries are confined to the shores of the Baltic, chief trade takes place with Great Britain, whithe lakes, and the mouths of the great rivers. ther Prussia sends her corn, and takes in return The general use of coffee, and the notion that manufactures and colonial goods. the import of large quantities of it from abroad The religion of the royal family, and of the was a disadvantage, induced certain individuals, majority of the population of Prussia, is the Calso far back as the year 1780, to attempt to find a vinist; but Christians of all denominations are substitute for it. Sereral plants were tried; admitted, on an equal footing, to public employamong which the root of succory was most suc ments The year 1817, the 300th anniversary of cessful, and is now cultivated to a great extent the reformation, was remarkable for the union of to mix with coffee.

the Calvinists and Lutherans of the Prussian doWeaving is the general employment of the minions, and of some other parts of Germany, lower orders in Silesia and Westphalia, long noted into one religious community, under the name for their linens, also in no small degree, in Pome- of Evarrgelical Christians. The relative numrania. Woollens are inade, more or less, in almost ber of the different creeds is thus stated, every town or large village : in some parts of Calvinists and Lutherans

. 6,600,000 Silesia, and of the province of the Lower Rhine, Catholics

3,600,000 they are manufactured in great quantities. Jews

75,000 Coiton manufactures are of recent introduction, Baptists

14,000 and are found chiefly near the Rhine, at Berlin, Moravian brethren

7,000 at Erfurt, at Elberfeld, and in particular quarters Unitarians, Pietists, and members of of Silesia. These and hardware are the only

the Greek church

4,000 fabrics carried on in collective establishments; the Prussian linens and woollens being both The elementary schools in Brandenburg, Saxmade by individuals in their cottages. Next in ony, and part of Prussia Proper, are numerous, importance is the leather manufacture, then and well conducted. Silesia has also much imearthenware, glass, paper, tobacco, starch, po- proved in the means of education since the tash, and vitriol. Brewing is also a pursuit of middle of last century; but in other parts of the considerable importance.

kingdom, particularly where the majority are Possessing on the Baltic the ports of Dantzic, Catholics, the government has as yet been unable Konigsberg, Memel, and Stralsund, the com to introduce much reform. The universities are merce of Prussia has kept fully pace with her in- those of Berlin, Halle, Breslau, Konigsberg; terior cultivation; and the maintenance of neutra- and here, and at Dantzic, Magdeburg, and a lity during so many years of war between Britain number of other towns, are academies (under and France (from 1795 to 1806) was highly the name of gymnasia, colleges, or high schools), favorable to it. Subsequently, however, it in which are taught the classics and mathematics, suffered greatly, particularly in 1810, 1811, 1812, the modern languages, drawing, &c. There are ard has recovered but slowly. The last century also, in the large towns, schools of surgery and was in Prussia the era of monopolies : one com- midwifery distinct from the universities; but for pany had the exclusive right of manufacturing the study of medicine, in a comprehensive sense, and selling tobacco; another were the sole im- Vienna is the great resort of all Germany. Freporters of salt; while a third had a contract to derick II. established an academy of sciences at supply Potsdam with firewood. Another abuse, Berlin, and associations of a similar nature, remedied only since 1818, was the tax levied on but on a smaller scale, are established in most of the introduction of merchandise from one pro- the great towns. vince of the kingdom to another. A third, and Frederick II. also introduced the liberty of the one not within the control of the goverument, press to that degree which led to the production is the heavy transit duty levied by the Dutch of a number of books disfigured by declamation and Hanoverian governments on foreign goods and extravagance. Others were, however, of a imported by the Rhine, on the Ems and the different character, and full of useful informaWeser. The result is, that the commerce of tion. The result was the formation of that spirit Prussia, though conducted under many advan- of freedom which has for some time back caused tages, both maritime and inland, is in an early great disquietude to the executive, and produced, stage. The value of goods annually exported in 1819, the restrictive enaciments of the condiffers under different circumstances, but the gress of Carlsbad. It is said that some of the great article of linen is steady in amount. The best writers in the Prussian dominions have been whole may probably be averaged between Jews. £7,000,000 and £8,000,000 sterling, or about a Several of the kings of Prussia have been ecoseventh of the exports of England. They con- nomists. The father of Frederick II., with a resist, in addition to linen, of woollens and hard- venue of only £1,200,000,'found means to leave at

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his death, in 1740, a well replenished treasury cavalry, artillery, or infantry, is diligently atand a large army. His successor, notwithstand- tended to. ing expensive wars and improvements, left in Prussia had formerly a representative body, 1785 a treasure of £7,000,000. This disappeared under the name of states. While the powers in the reign of his successor, and prior to the and privileges of the nobility were also very exyear 1785. In the twelve succeeding years of tensive, comprising, until lately, the local admipeace, the standing army was numerous and ex- nistration of justice. By degrees, the power of pensive, and the misfortunes of 1806, and the the crown reduced that of the aristocracy; and great exertions made in 1813, 1814, and 1615, the sovereign found means to conduct the public have all borne so hard on the Prussian finances, business independent of the states. Such was as to have led to the creation of a debt amounts the state of political affairs during the eighteenth ing to above £45,000,000 sterling. After all her century. But the diffusion of knowledge late acquisitions, the revenue of Prussia is not awakened the attention of the middling ranks to above £7 500,000 : but there is no paper cur. the existence of a number of abuses, and to the rency. Mr. Jacob, in his View of Germany, necessity of electing a representative body: this gives the following state of the revenue, and the feeling and hope prompted the memorable exerproportions contributed by the different pro- tions in 1813, 1814, and 1815, for the overthrow vinces of the monarchy, in 1819, viz. of Buonaparte; and great disappointment has East Prussia.

8,100,000

been experienced by the better classes of society West Prussia

3,750,000

at the successive delays and evasions of the court, Posen

3,100,000

which as yet has done little more than new Brandenburg

9,000,000

model the executive departments. Each circle Pomerania

3,000,000 or district has its council for the transaction of Silesia

13,500,000 public business, viz the collection of the direct Saxony.

10,417,000

taxes, regulation of local traffic, and superintenWestphalia

8,431,000

dance of police. In the second place, each goJuliers, Cleves, and Berg

8,670,000

vernment has an administrative board, charged Lower Rhine

7,000,000

with a similar superintendance; while, at the head

of each of the ten provinces, is a high president, Guldens, or 74,968,000 who, like the prefet of a French department,

serves as a medium or connecting link between. Sterling $7,528,003

the province and the ministers. These are

nearly on the same footing as in England and The Prussian army was a subject of admira- France. The orders of knighthood are four. tion to all foreigners, during great part of the The noblesse or gentry, comprising 20,000 famieighteenth century: On the termination of his lies, were formerly exempt from part of the dreadful struggle, in 1763, Frederick II. deter- taxes, and considered as entitled to a preference mined to cultivate peace, and to trust to the gra- in public appointments; but the disasters of dual operation of time for the reinstatement of 1806 taught government the folly of these prehis finances and army. Such, with little devia- ferences, and led also to the abolition of exclution, was the policy of Prussia during forty sive privileges in regard to trades, &c. years; and the number of disciplined men be The first proceedings of the law take place belonging to the army during this period was car- fore justices, or courts of limited jurisdiction, ried to more than 200,000, without involving a nominated chiefly by the king, but in certain dispermanent expense of more than half the num tricts by the mediatised princes, or ecclesiastical ber. The baitle of Jena was followed by the dignitaries of the quarter; the second stage of surrender of successive corps and garrisons, lo jurisdiction is the Oberlandes gerichte, or courts the number of more than 100,000 ; and the loss in each government; and the final appeal is to of the financial resources of the kingdom re- the supreme courts at Berlin, consisting of a duced for a time the Prussian military establish- high tribunal and commission. Ecclesiasticai ment to utter insignificance. The humiliating affairs are managed by provincial consistories or peace of Tilsit restricted the means of its rein- commissions: and medical police is, in like statement; but, in 1813, the national ardor burst manner, subject to a provincial commission forth, and the old soldiers repaired to their stan- Commercial affairs are superintended by a board dards, in a manner that excited universal admi- of merchants in several of the towns, particularly ration. They soon asserted in Silesia, their su at Berlin, Konigsberg, and Swinemünde. The periority over the raw levies of the French, and highest court for fiscal questions is the exchemaintained their character in a more advanced quer, or high chamber of reckoning at Berlin. stage of operations in Saxony and Champagne. The Prussians are generally allowed to be a At Ligny, in 1815, the army was 80,000 strong: brave and industrious people. They have more the total number of Prussian troops under arms military parade, more show, and higher pretenthat year exceeded 200,000. Since then, the sions, than any other people of northern Gerconfirmation of peace, the complaint of heavy many. Berlin is considered as the Paris of that taxation, and the reductions of neighbouring part of the continent; but, in other parts of old powers, have led to a partial diminution of the Prussia, the people have a tinge of gloom in military establishment; but it still exceeds their character. Some writers have ascribed this 150,000. At Berlin, Breslau, Konigsberg, and feature to the nature of their government, the at Stolpe in Pomerania are military schools: strict and unceasing vigilance of which, and the where every branch of the service, whether constant and uniform obedience of the people,

bave, doubtless, dove much towards superio- became extinct, and the electorate devolved to the ducing such a disposition in the inhabitants. empire. It was then given by the emperor Lewis

HISTORY.—On the expulsion of the Christians of Bavaria to his son Lewis, who was the first of from the Holy Land, by Saladin, a settlement the sixth race. Lewis the Roman succeeded his was given to the Teutonic knights in Prussia by brother; and, as he also died without children, Conrade duke of Masovia, the competitor of he was succeeded by Otho, his third brother, Boleslaus V. for the crown of Poland. Their who sold the electorate to the emperor Charles first residence in this country was Culm; to IV. for 200,000 forins of gold. Charles IV. which territory they were confined by the con gave the Marche to his son Wenceslaus, to whom ditions of the donation, excepting what they Sigismund succeeded. This elector, being emcould conquer from their pagan neighbours, all barrassed in his circumstances, sold the new of which the emperor granted to them in perpe- Marche to the knights of the Teutonic order. tuity. Encouraged by this grant, the knights Josse succeeded Sigismund; but, aspiring to the conquered the greatest part of the country which empire, sold the electorate to William duke of now goes by the name of Prussia ; and became Misnia; who, next year sold it again to the emvery troublesome to POLAND: see that article. peror Sigismund. In 1417 Frederick VI., of The Teutonic order continued in Prussia till Nuremberg, received the investiture of Branden1531. Their last grand-master was Albert mar- burg at Constance from the emperor Sigismund; quis of Brandenburg, nephew to Sigismund I., who, in 1415, had made him elector, and archking of Poland. He was preferred to this dig- chamberlain of the empire. nity in hopes that his affinity to Sigismund This prince, the first of the family of Hohenmight procure a restitution of some of the places zollern, found himself possessed of the Old and which had been taken from the order during the Middle Marches, but the dukes of Pomerania former unsuccessful wars with Poland; but Al- had usurped the Marche Ukraine. Against them, bert, instead of endeavouring to obtain any favor therefore, the elector immediately declared war, from his uncle, refused to do homage to him, and soon recovered the province. As the New began to assert his independence, and to recover Marche still continued in the hands of the Teuthe whole of Prussia and Pomerania by force of tonic knights, the elector took possession of arms. But, being foiled in every attempt, he Saxony, then vacant by the death of Albert the was forced to resign the grand-mastership, instead last elector of the Anhalt line. But the emperor of which his uncle gave him Ducal Prussia. It gave the investiture of Saxony to the duke of was now the interest of the house of Branden- Misnia; upon which Frederick voluntarily resignburg to assist in the expulsion of the fraternity; ed his acquisitions. This elector made a division and accordingly, being at last driven out of Prus- of his possessions by will. His eldest son, besia and Pomerania, they transferred their chapter cause he had attempted to search for the philosoto Mariendal in Franconia ; but in that, and other pher's stone, was left only Vogtland. The elecprovinces of the empire where they settled, little torate was given to his second son Frederick ; more than the name of the order once so famous Albert, surnamed Achilles, had Franconia ; and now remains.

Frederick the fat had the old Marche; but by The other most considerable part of his Prus- his death it returned to the electorate. Frederick sian majesty's dominions is the electorate of I. was succeeded by his son Frederick, surnamed Brandenburg. Like other parts of Germany, it Iron-tooth. He might have been surnamed the was anciently possessed by barbarians, of whom Magnanimous, for he refused two crowns, viz. no history can be given. These were subdued that of Bohemia, offered him by the pope, and by Charlemagne; but, being on every occasion that of Poland by the people; but Frederick deready to revolt, in 927 Henry the Fowler estab- clared he would not accept of it unless Casimir, lished margraves, or governors of the frontiers. brother to Ladislaus the late king, refused it. The first margrave of Brandenburg was Sigefroy, This induced the states of Lower Lusatia to make brother-in-law to Henry, under whose adminis- a voluntary surrender of their country to him. tration the bishoprics of Brandenburg and Havel- But, Lusatia being a fief of Bohemia, the king of bers were established by Otho I. From this that country made war on the elector to recover Sigefroy, to the succession of the house of Ho- it. But by a treaty, in 1462, he was obliged to henzollern, from whom the present elector is yield the sovereignty of Corbus, Peits, Sommerdescended, there are reckoned eight different fa- feld, &c. Frederick then, having redeemed the milies, who have been margraves of Branden- New Marche from the Teutonic order for 100,000 burg; namely, the family of the Saxons, of forins, and still further enlarged his dominions, Walbeck, Staden, Plenck, Anhalt, Bavaria, resigned the sovereignty in 1469, to his brother Luxemburg, and Misnia. The margraves of the Albert, surnamed Achilles. Albert was at this four first races had continual wars with the Van- time fifty-seven years old. Most of the exploits, dals and other barbarous people; nor could their for which he had the sirname of Achilles, had ravages be stopped till the reign of Albert, sur- been performed while he was burgrave of Nunamed the Bear, the first prince of the house of remberg. He had defeated and taken prisoner Anhalt. He was made margrave by the emperor Lewis duke of Bavaria. He had gained eight Conrad III., and afterwards elector by Frederick battles against the Nurembergers, in one of which Barbarossa, about A. D. 1100. Afterwards the he fought singly against sixteen men. He had king of the Vandals dying, without issue, left the taken Greissenburg, as Alexander took the capiMiddle Marche to the elector, who was possessed tal of the Oxydracæ, and Frederick III. gave him of the old Marche, Upper Saxony, the country the direction of almost the whole empire. He of Anhalt, and part of Lusace. In 1332 this line had also gained the prize at seventeen tourna

men.

ments. From this perod nothing important oc- Swedes, and took the cities of Stralsund and curred till 1594, when, John Sigismund of Bran- Gripswald. On this the Swedes, to oblige the denburg, having married Anne the only daughter elector to evacuate Pomerania, which he had alof Albert duke of Prussia, that duchy was joined most totally subdued, invaded Prussia, from Li to the electorate, with which it has continued vonia, with 16,000 men; burnt the suburbs of united ever since; and gave pretensions to the Memel, and took Tilse and Insterburg. The countries of Juliers, Berg, Cleves, Marck, Ra- elector, to oppose the invaders, left Berlin on vensburg, and Ravenstein, to the succession of the 10th of January, 1679, at the head of 9000 which Anne was heiress.

The Swedes retired at his approach, and Sigismund died in 1619, and was succeeded were very much harassed by his troops. So by his son George William ; during whose go- successful indeed was Frederick on this occavernment the electorate suffered the most miser- sion, that the Swedes lost almost one-half of their able calamities. At this time a war commenced army. At last, having crossed the bay of Frischebetween the Protestants and Catholics, which haff and Courland on the ice, he arrived on the lasted thirty years. The former, although leagued 19th of January, with his infantry, within three together, were on the point of being utterly de- miles of Tilse, the head quarters of the Swedes. stroyed by the Imperialists under Tilly and Wal- The same day his general, Trefenfeldt, defeated lenstein, when Gustavus Adolphus turned the two Swedish regiments near Splitter; and scale in their favor, and threatened the Catholic the Swedes abandoned Tilse. They were purparty with utter destruction. But by his death, sued into Courland by general Gortz, and de at the battle of Lutzen, the fortune of war was feated with such slaughter that scarce 3000 of once more changed. At last, however, peace them returned to Livonia. Yet, notwithstanding was concluded; and, in 1640, the elector died, these victories, the elector, pressed by the victoand was succeeded by bis son Frederick William. rious generals of France, Turenne and Conde, This young prince, though only twenty years of was obliged to make peace with the Swedes. age ai bis succession, applied himself to repair The conditions were, that the treaty of Westphathe losses and devastations occasioned by the lia should serve for a basis; that the elector dreadful wars which had preceded. He receiv- should have the property of the customs in all ed the investiture of Prussia personally from the the ports of Further Pomerania, with the cities king of Poland, on condition of paying 100,000 of Camin, Gortz, Griessenburg, and Wildenflorins annually, and not making truce or peace bruck ; while he gave up to the Swedes all that with the enemies of that crown. His envoy he had conquered from them. Frederick Willikewise received the investiture of the electorate liam passed his last years in peace. His great from Ferdinand III. The elector now conclud- qualities had rendered him respected by all Eued a truce for twenty years with the Swedes, rope, and had even reached Tartary, whence he who evacuated the greatest part of his estates, received an embassy courting his friendship. concluded a treaty with the Hessians, who deli- From 1684 to 1686 he received into his domivered up a part of the duchy of Cleves; and ob- nions 20,000 Protestants who fled out of France, tained of the Hollanders the evacuation of other after the revocation of the edict of Nantz, and cities. In the mean time the powers of Europe who introduced new arts and manufactures, that began to be weary of a war which had continued were of the utmost benefit to the country. By for so long a time with such unrelenting fury. this, however, he disobliged Louis XIV., for The conferences were opened at Osnaburg and which reason he concluded an alliance with the Munster, in 1645. France demanded that Po- emperor; and, having furnished him with 8000 merania should be ceded to Sweden, as an in- troops against the Turks in Hungary, the empedemnification for the expenses which the war ror ceded to him the circle of Schwibus in Silehad cost Gustavus Adolphus; but, though the sia. In 1688 the elector Frederick William empire and the elector refused to give up Pome- died, and was succeeded by his son Frederick III. rania, it was at last agreed to give up to the This elector was remarkably fond of show Swedes Hither Pomerania, with the isles of Ru- and ceremony; and the great object of his amgen and Wollin, and some other cities; in return bition seemed to be the regal dignity. To obfor which, the bishoprics of Halberstadt, Minden, tain this, he joined with the emperor in the alliand Camin, were secularised in favor of the elec ance against France in which he was engaged tor, and ceded to him, with the lordships of hy our William III. He also yielded up the Hochenstein and Richenstein, and the reversion circle of Schwibus, which had been given to his of the archbishopric of Magdeburg. Thus was predecessor; and, in 1700, obtained from the the treaty of Westphalia concluded in 1648, emperor that dignity which he had so earnestly which so long served as a basis for all the pos- desired. The chief terms on which it was obsessions and rights of the German princes. The tained were, that he should never separate from elector then concluded a new treaty with the the empire those provinces of his dominions Swedes, for the regulation of limits, and for the which depended on it; that he should not, in the acquittal of some debts ; and next year the elec- emperor's presence, demand any other marks of torate, Pomerania, and the duchy of Cleves, honor than those which he had hitherto enjoyed; were evacuated by the Swedes. Notwithstand- and that he should maintain 6000 men in Italy ing these treaties, however, the Swedes soon after at his own expense, in case the emperor should invaded Pomerania, but were entirely defeated be obliged to make war on account of the house by the elector near Fehrbellin; with the loss of of Bourbon's claim to the crown of Spain. Fre3000 killed, and many prisoners. He pursued derick I. continued all his life in strict alliance his victory, gained many advantages over the with the emperor.

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