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since not only the various acids, oxides, and salts I have enumerated, may be employed, but also various mixtures of them, and in various proportions ; but I prefer and generally use the following process:– First, I take one gallon of good vinegar, or rectified pyrolignous acid, which I thicken with starch or flour in the way practised by calico printers, in preparing the mordants or colors for printing. Whilst boiling hot I add to it five pounds of crystallised tartaric acid, and incorporate the whole very well by stirring. Or, I take one gallon of strong concentrated lime juice or lemon juice, or one gallon of water, in which I have dissolved two pounds and a half of crystallised citric acid, which I thicken with starch or flour in the manner directed above, and to which, whilst hot, I add two pounds of supersulphate of potassa, and incorporate the whole very well by stirring. I prefer starch to any other thickening, though others may be used with more or less advantage. Secondly, the paste so prepared I print, stamp, pencil, or otherwise apply to the cloth previously dyed turkey red, in the mode and with the precautions generally used in the printing or stamping of linens or cottons. Thirdly, I prepare a solution of oxymuriate of lime, either by dissolving the dry oxymuriate of lime (commonly called bleaching powder, or bleaching salts) in water, or by passing the oxymuriatic acid gas into a vat, vessel, or cistern, in which, by agitation or otherwise, I keep suspended such quantity of quicklime as will more than saturate '. and completely the said oxymuriatic acid gas. In either way, I obtain a solution of oxymuriate of lime, with excess of lime. That which I use and prefer is of the specific gravity 1050, and I seldom employ it lower than 1030(water being considered as 1000). The wat, vessel, or cistern, which contains the solution of oxymuriate of lime, in which I immerse the cloths, may be of any size or form best adapted to the purpose or situation. I use and prefer vessels of stone of from six to eight feet deep, six to seven feet long, and three and a half to four feet broad ; but larger or smaller vessels will answer very well. Fourthly, When the cloths are ready for immersion, which they are as soon as the paste is dry, I hook them on a frame, such as is used in dyeing indigo or China blues, commonly called a dipping frame, on which the cloth should be so disposed that no two folds can touch each other. I then plunge the frame with the cloth so attached into the vat containing the solution of oxymuriate of lime, and keep it gently in motion during the time of immersion, which should not be prolonged more than ten minutes, and which rarely need exceed five minutes. The object being either wholly or partially to remove the Turkey red dye from certain parts or places, as soon as that is done the cloth should be withdrawn from the solution of the oxymuriate of lime, and plunged or rinsed in clean water. I practise and approve the aforesaid plan of immersion; but any other Plan or plans by which the cloth can be exposed a greater or less time to the action of the oxymuriate of lime, without bringing one part of the
said cloth into contact with another, will answer very well. tly, After having, as before directed, rinsed or washed the cloths in clean water, I free them from all remains of the different agents or substances employed, by the ordinary means of washing, branning, or soaping, as practised by calico printers; and if those parts of the cloth that are intended to be made white should still retain any red, or other tinge or stain injurious to the effect, in order to render the white complete I clear it by the usual process of exposure to the air, or by passing the cloth through hot water, to which I have added as much of the solution of oxymuriate of lime as will remove the said stains or tinge, without material injury to those parts from which the red dye is not intended to be removed.
I then proceed, if other colors are to be applied
to finish the cloths, by the ordinary and well known methods of calico printers; but these not being necessarily connected with, nor forming any part of the peculiar process or invention herein intended to be described, I purposely make no mention of here. The above particulars and examples are given for the more full explanation of the said invention, and the manner in which the same is to be performed. But the invention, whereof I claim the sole and exclusive use, consists in printing, stamping, pencilling, or otherwise applying to those parts of the cloth which are intended to be either wholly, or in a greater or less degree, deprived of their red color, an acid, oxide, neutral salt, acid salt, or metallic salt, such as is herein before for that purpose directed, and immersing the whole cloth in such mixture or combination of oxymuriatic acid and water, with some of the alkaline salts or earths, as is herein directed for that purpose. Mr. Thomson's patent for 1815 is specified as follows:–The ordinary practice of calico printers is to apply, with the block or pencil, what are termed after-colors, to certain spaces, originally left in their patterns, and intended to receive the said after-colors; or to certain spaces on the cloth, from which parts of the original pattern have been discharged, in order to admit, by a subsequent operation, the application of the said after-colors. Now the object of my invention is, by one application of the block, cylinder, roller, P. pencil, or other mode, to remove parts of the original pattern or color from the cloth, and at the same time to deposit a metallic oxide, or earthy base, which shall of itself be a color, or shall serve as a mordant to some color to be produced, as hereinafter described. First, mix or combine with the acid called oxymuriatic acid (or dephlogisticated acid of sea salt) and water, the alkaline salts of potash or soda, or, which is still better, calcareous earth or quicklime, in such proportion as will weaken or suspend the power of the said acid, so that it shall not in such mixed or combined state, of itself, and without any further operation, be able to remove, or materially to improve the colors, within the moderate space of time taken up in the performance of the process. Secondly, Print, stamp, pencil, or otherwise apply to those parts of the cloth which are intended to be deprived of one color and to receive another, a solution of some earthy or metallic salt; the acid of which, having a greater affinity or attraction for the alkaline salt or earth with which the oxymuriate acid is mixed or combined than that acid itself possesses, will disengage it, and the metallic or earthy base of which, being deposited in the cloth, will either of itself be a color, or serve as a mordant to some other color, to be produced as hereinafter described. Thirdly, After the metallic or earthy solution aforesaid has been printed, stamped, pencilled, or otherwise applied to the cloth, as before directed, and is sufficiently dry, immerse the cloth in the solution of oxymuriatic acid, combinedwith the alkaline salt of potash or soda, or, which I greatly prefer, with calcareous earth or lime, when the acid of the metallic or earthy solution which has been applied to parts of the cloth will immediately seize upon and combine with the alkaline salt or earth with which the oxymuriatic acid has been mixed or combined, and disengage that acid which will almost instantaneously deprive of their color those parts of the cloth to which the said earthy or metallic salt has been applied. Fourthly, Wash or otherwise remove the said acids or salts by the usual processes, and when the earthy or metallic base, deposited in the cloth, is intended to receive another color, proceed to raise it by the usual operations of dyeing, as will be further illustrated in the examples hereafter given of particular applications of this invention. The earthy solutions which I apply to the parts intended to be deprived of their color, and to receive another, are the solutions of alumina, or earth of alum in acids; such, for example, as the sulphate of alumina, or common alum, the acetate of alumina, or the nitrate or muriate of alumina. The metallic solutions which I employ are, the sulphate of iron or copperas; the nitrate, or muriate, or acetate of iron; the muriate of tin, or nitro-muriate of tin; the sulphate of copper or blue vitriol, or the nitrate, muriate, or acetate of copper. All acids that form soluble compounds with the before-named metals, or the earth of alum, may be employed; but those only which form the most soluble compounds, such, for example, as those enumerated above, can be or. with advantage. For the more full and complete understanding of the principle laid down in the preceding part of this specification, I subjoin the following practical illustration of its application to various kinds of work. If I desire to have a yellow figure or stripe on the cloth, upon which a madder-red ground or pattern has been printed, after having, by the ordinary processes of calico printing, produced the red ground or pattern, I first print, stamp, pencil, or otherwise apply to those parts intended to be yellow, a strong aluminous mordant, composed of three pounds of sugar of lead, and six pounds of alum, dissolved in a gallon of water, and thickened with a due proportion of calcined starch, in the manner usually practised by calico printers. Secondly, I prepare a solution of oxymuriate of lime, either by dissolving the dry oxymuriate
of lime (commonly called bleaching powder, or bleaching salts) in water, or by passing the oxymuriatic gas into a vat, vessel, or cistern, in which, by agitation or otherwise, I keep suspended such a quantity of quicklime as will more than saturate fully and completely the said oxymuriatic gas. In either way I obtain a solution of oxymuriate of lime, with excess of lime. That which I use and prefer is of the specific gravity 1050, and I seldom employ it lower than 1030 (water being considered as 1000). The vat, vessel, or cistern, which contains the solution of oxymuriate of lime in which I immerse the cloth, may be of any size or form best adapted to the purpose or situation. I use and prefer vessels of stone, of from six to eight feet deep, six to seven feet long, and three and a half to four feet broad; but larger or smaller vessels will answer very well. Thirdly, When the cloth is ready for immersibn, which it is as soon as the paste is dry, I hook it on a frame, such as is used in dyeing indigo or China blues, commonly called a dipping frame, on which the cloth should be so disposed that no two folds can touch each other. I then plunge the frame, with the cloth so attached, into the vat containing the solution of oxymuriate of lime, and keep it gently in motion during the time of immersion, which rarely need exceed five minutes. The object being to remove the red dye from certain parts or places, as soon as that is done the cloth should be withdrawn from the solution of the oxymuriate of lime, and plunged into, or rinsed in cold water. I practise and approve the aforesaid plan of immersion; but any other plan, or plans, by which the cloth can be exposed a greater or less time to the action of the oxymuriate of lime, without bringing one part of the said cloth into contact with another, will answer very well. Lastly, After having, as before directed, rinsed or washed the cloth in clean water, I free it from all superfluous remains of the different substances employed, by the ordinary means of washing, dunging, and cleaning, as practised by calico printers; after which I dye the cloth and raise the yellow in the usual way, with quercitron bark, or any other yellow dye. If, instead of yellow, it is proposed to have a buff pattern or figure, I add to the aluminous mordant, prepared and thickened as above, onefourth or one-sixth, or some intermediate proportion, of a solution of nitrate of iron, and proceed to print and immerse in oxymuriate of lime as in the former case. The red dye will be removed as before, and its place be occupied by a buff. If the buff be raised in quercitron bark, an olive will be obtained. By printing at separate times, and on different parts of the cloth, each of the abovementioned mordants, both yellow and olive figures on a red ground may be obtained. Similar effects, with trifling variations, take place, when, instead of red grounds, purple or chocolate grounds are employed; but it must be observed, that these colors being produced from mordants, consisting wholly, or in part, of solutions of iron, and the oxide of that metal not being removeable by the process detailed in this
specification, the after colors produced will be modified more or less by the said oxide of iron. The foregoing examples are given for the more full explanation of the said invention, and the manner in which the same is to be performed; but the invention, whereof I claim the sole and exclusive use, consists in printing, stamping, pencilling, or otherwise applying to cloth, pre
viously printed and dyed, or dyed any other co
lor than turkey red, any of the earthy or metallic solutions herein before for that purpose directed, and immersing the whole cloth in such mixture or combination of oxymuriatic acid and water, with some of the alkaline salts or earths, as is herein directed for that purpose, so as to remove the color or pattern from the part so printed, stamped, pencilled, or receiving such application, and, by the same process, fix on such parts either a new color or a mordant for a new color.
In our treatise on the manufacture of cotton it was found necessary to describe the admirable printing apparatus employed at the Bandana works in Glasgow, and we now propose to furnish our readers with an account of Mr. Maudslay's press for a nearly similar purpose. Figs. 1. and 2, plate PRINTING, CA Lico, represent an end and front view of the machine. A, A, are frames of cast-iron, wood, or other strong materials. B, B, are swinging frames of iron or wood; the upper surfaces of which are made flat, to receive engraved copper plates, fastened on and regulated by screws at a a. The screws at b b are to stop and regulate the swinging frames against pieces which project on the insides of the frames A, A, at d d. C, C, are slings or connecting rods of iron or other metal which have round holes at D, in the bottom end, to receive the ends of the strong bolt D, which is connected to the frame BB. The upper part of the connecting rods C are forked, to pass the pivots of wheels, &c., on the ends of the frames A, A, and are screwed in the usual way, have two metal nuts to each, to keep down and regulate the cross pieces of iron or other metal e, which fit on and into the eccentric wheels or cranks E. These are made of iron or other metal, for the purpose of lifting the swinging frame B, by means of the connecting rods C, C, and pressing the copper plates forcibly against the under part of the cylinder or presshead F, which is better seen in figs. 3 or 5. Through the eccentric wheels, &c., are made square or other formed holes, which are well fitted on the spindle G, close on the outsides or insides of the frames A, A; on the outsides of which are fitted the toothed wheel H, which works into and turns the wheel I, which is twice the diameter of H, and has on the rim a piece of metal of the proper curve with three whole teeth and one half tooth, which in their revolution fall into the teeth of the wheel R, fixed on the axis of the roller L; which wheel will be regulated as to its number of teeth by the circumference of the roller L, which must be twice or three times the
length of the engravings on the plate to be printed from ; if twice it must have eight teeth, if three times twelve teeth; or in that proportion. The half of every fourth tooth must be taken away to let the tooth of the segment on I pass; that it may strike fairly on the pitch line of the next tooth. The small roller M may be used or not as occasion may require, as it is only to ease the motion of the blanket which passes over the roller N, which is to tighten the blanket by means of the screws and sockets O. At the opposite end of the spindle G is well fitted a large wheel P, which is turned by the pinion Q on the spindle of the fly-wheel R, and supported by the frame S, of iron or wood. This spindle may be turned by hand or by any other power given. The wheel and pinion may be varied to any power, by altering the sizes of them in the usual way. The plates may be cleaned by a scraper or doctor.
Fig. 3 is a transverse section of the machine, showing a different mode of using it. The frame AA is the same as in fig. 1 and 2, with the addition of two arms and brackets T, T, which support a frame of iron or wood, on which are fixed one, two, or more, copper plates. To print several colors they move to stops, and are regulated as in figs. 1 and 2. The cylinder E is made hollow, for the purpose of admitting steam, which will heat it to any temperature, to dry the color as quick as printed. The mammer of letting in the steam is described in fig. 5. The lifting frame B acts the same as in figs. 1 and 2. Fig. 4 is a lifting frame, which has a cylinder similar to F, and may be used in the place of B, which makes it a hot-press for various, purposes, by letting steam into the bottom as well as the top cylinder; and in case the color should dry in the plates, owing to the heat, cold water may be made to pass through the cylinder, which will always keep it cool. Fig. 5 is a longitudinal section of the cylinder, eccentric wheel, &c., with the manner of admitting steam by a small ipe at f, which may be connected with the !. of a steam-engine, or a small boiler on purpose, which will serve one, two, or more presses, each having stop-cocks at convenient places. g is a pipe in the bottom of the cylinder to let out the condensed water.
Figs. 6 and 7 represent a side view of the upper part of the machine, with the roller L. placed above the cylinder, by which means the blanket is closer, and may if required receive more heat from the cylinder. The roller is moved by the same wheels as in figs. 1 and 2, only differently placed.
We must not close our account of the theory and practice of calico printing without adverting to the great use we have made of Dr. Ure's edition of Berthollet's Elements of the Art of Dyeing, which is decidedly the best work on the subject that has yet appeared.