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CHEMICAL NEWS, 92 College of Physicians.

Aug. 25, 1865. ducible by the act of their recombination or combustion. I latent in the food we eat and the air we breathe respectively. The sun's rays, for instance, falling upon the leaves of But whilst nutrition, or the storing up of force, constitutes the sugar-beet or sugar-cane effect an eventual decompo- the chief action of vegetable life, in animal life it occupies an sition of carbonic acid into oxygen and sugar, thus :- altogether subordinate position. For the prime characteristic Carbonic anhyd. Water.

Sugar. Oxygen.

of animality is activity, the employment of pent-up force

in the production of external acts. Hence, while in the vege12 CO2 + 11 H,O C12(1,01) + 0.24 table and animal organism deoxidising and oxidising proBut the heat and light of the sun absorbed in this pulling cesses,

constructive and destructive actions alike take place, apart of oxygen and carbon, the one discharged into the in the vegetable the destructive are subordinate to the con atmosphere, the other retained in the vegetable juices, structive, whilst in animals the constructive are subordinate are not lost, but rendered latent in the oxygen and sugar

to the destructive acts. The contraction, for instance, of a respectively. Here I have a mixture of sugar with a man's muscle depends entirely upon the oxidation or descompound in which the oxygen of the air has been accu-truction of the substance of that muscle, and the equiva. mulated, namely, chlorate of potassium, and on touching lent of motion produced upon the amount of muscle the mixture with a drop of sulphuric acid-on pulling

destroyed. the trigger of the cross-bow, so to speak—there is pro

Thus we perceive that all actions of the animal body duced a brilliant deflagration, in which the light and heat dead matter there is no creation of force, and that

are traceable to cosmical force, that in living as in of the sun, stored up in the separated sugar and oxygen, are again manifested to you by their combination with one

any explanation of the phenomena of life which recoganother to reproduce carbonic acid. The light and heat nises the agency of vital force is simply no explanation at of this combustion, and, indeed, of every combustion, all. Applying the word force as we now do to certain are nothing more than the light and heat of the sun,

transferable states of actual or potential activity having originally absorbed by the living plant, and rendered quantitative metamorphic correlations, I much question latent in the tissue of the plant, and oxygen of the air whether the expression chemical force is a correct one, respectively. Even the heat evolved by the direct or though it is one of which the meaning is perfectly defiindirect combustion of zinc is no exception ; it is only nite and intelligible. By the chemical force of so much the heat stored up in the metal at the moment of it's oxygen and hydrogen, for instance, we mean the potendeoxidation by means of the coal or charcoal in which tial energy stored up in them at the moment of their sepathe sun's force was intermediately retained.

ration, and reproducible from them in the act of their

combination. Similarly, we might apply the phrase vital We see, then, in this way that the vegetable organism force to the potential energy of so much fat or muscle, is a machine in which the sun's energy is absorbed in the capable by oxidation of being manifested in the form of pulling apart of carbon and hydrogen from oxygen. The external heat or motion. But what the physiologist means light and heat force emanating from the sun is rendered by vital force I have never been able to understand. So latent in the separated oxygen and carbo-hydrogen, just far as I can make out, it seems to be a sort of internal, as human muscular force is rendered latent in the stretched incommunicable, immeasurable, self-originating power, cross-bow. When the separated carbo-hydrogen in the which performs nutritive acts by its absolute will and form of some vegetable product is recombined with the pleasure ; as if it were not abundantly manifest that the evolved oxygen, as in burning a log of wood upon the fire, growth of a plant and incubation of an egg cannot be per. or in consuming bread and oil and wine in the animal formed without a direct supply, and the development of frame, the heat liberated in both instances is nothing more

animal organisms without an indirect supply of extraneous than the heat of the sun which had been stored up in the force. Speaking of the progress of natural science, Mr. carbo-hydrate and oxygen respectively; Conversely, the Mill has pertinently observed that for a long time" fictitious animal frame is a machine in which the sun's energy is entities continued to be imagined as means of accounting set free by the recombination of that exygen and carbo- for the more mysterious phenomena ; above all, in phyhydrate, in the pulling apart of which it had been absorbed siology, where under great varieties of phrase, mysterious or rendered latent. The plant may be regarded as a miser, forces and principles were the explanation, or substitute for or hoarder up, the animal, on the other hand, is a spend- l'explanation, of the phenomena of organised beings.” thrift, or dissipator, of the sun's force; but just as the

Seeing, then, that the enormous number and variety of miser is not a producer, or the spendthrift a destroyer of vegetable compounds are produced out of carbonic acid gold, so neither is the vegetable a producer, nor the animal and water, not by any peculiar vital force, but merely by à destroyer of force. All modern philosophy combines to the light and heat force of the sun acting through vegetable prove that force, like matter, is indestructible. It may be machinery, the question naturally arises whether the accumulated, but not created; be dissipated, but not chemist may not effect in the machinery of his laboratory destroyed. The force of every kind, active or latent, exist

a similar intercombination of deoxidised carbonic acid and ing in the earth, at any given moment, is only the sum of water, either by a direct application of sun-force, or, indithe force received by the earth from the sun in excess of rectly, by the aid of those terrestrial transformations of the force radiated by the earth into space.

sun-force which are so abundantly at his disposal. This Hitherto, in contrasting the functions of animal and question, decided absolutely in the negative so long as the vegetable life with one another, I have had regard to their fiction of vital force held undisputed sway over men's broad general features, looking at each description of life minds, has of late years received a rapid succession or as a whole. A more detailed examination, however, brilliant affirmative replies. Already hundreds of vegetable shows us that oxidising and deoxidising processes are compounds heretofore produced only in living organisms, common to both kingdoms of nature. For instance, the and, as was supposed, put together and held together by germination of seeds and maturation of fruits are strictly vital force, have been formed by the chemist in his labooxidising acts, whilst the conversion of starch or sugar ratory out of carbonic acid, water, and ammonia, or, in into fat in the animal organism, is a strictly deoxidising or other words, out of charcoal, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrovegetative act. It would seem, indeed, that in all purely gen. That a still greater number of compounds have not nutritive processes, whether of vegetable or animal life, been so formed is due more to a deficiency of knowledge there is an absorption or rendering latent of force, and than of power; for as our acquaintance with the constituconsequent necessity for its supply: In highly-developed tion of bodies, and with synthetic processes, is daily advancvegetable life this force is derived directly from the sun. ing, so is the unlimited constructive power of chemistry In highly-developed animal life it is obtained by a liberation becoming daily more and more apparent. within the body of the sun's force which had been rendered

(To be continued.)

CHEMICAL News,
Aug, 25, 1865.'}

Academy of Sciences Notices of Books.

93

sents as

ACADEMY OF SCIENCES.

Bulletin Mensuel de la Société Chimique de Paris. August 14.

August, 1865. M. PASTEUR communicated some “New Observations on the proceedings of the two last meetings of the Parisian the subject of the Preservation of Wines.” The author's Chemical Society offer some papers of considerable interest. recent communications on this subject are within the We give now only the abstracts from the minutes of the memory, of our readers ; but we may as well give M. Society. M. Naquet presented a note relating to Mr. Pasteur's recapitulation. He believes that he has esta- Catton's paper on the synthesis of organic bodies which blished (1) that wine ripens, or, in other words, is im- we published last year. M. Naquet states that he has not proved by age simply by the action of atmospheric succeeded in forming malonic acid by the simultaneous oxygen ; (2) that when wine becomes what is called sick, action of carbonic and acetic acids and sodium, which, acit is in consequence of the presence of parasitic vegeta- cording to Mr. Catton, will produce malonic acid. tion; (3) deposits form in wine either in consequence of A paper « On the Spectrum of Nitrogen" was sent by M. oxidation, or from the presence of parasites, or most fre- Waltenhofen, who states that in an atmosphere of nitrogen quently from the two causes together ; (4) the deposits properly rarefied the violet rays disappear before the blue resulting from oxidation adhere, but parasites render wine and green. The author's observations lead him to believe turbid. Consequently the most important thing for the that nitrogen is a compound body. preservation of wines is to destroy the vitality of the MM. Oppenheim and Pfaundler have produced, by the parasitic germs. The author shows that new wine placed action of cyanide of potassium on dinitrophenic acid, a new in bottles with the air completely excluded gives no deposit, acid, which they propose to call metapurpuric acid, indinever changes colour, and never acquires a bouquet. On cating by the name the analogies with isopurpuric acid. the contrary, the same wine under the influence of M. Schutzenberger described some researches on the atmospheric oxygen becomes muddy, loses the taste of products of the oxidation of morphia, among which he has new wine, does change in colour, and acquires a bouquet, found a new base, Oxymorphine. and he adds that all these effects of ageing may be pro- M. Gautier has studied the Action of Hydriodic Acid duced in the interval of a few weeks. The author's pro- on Hydrocyanic Acid,” which he finds to combine, equivacess is known to our readers. He destroys the parasitic lent for equivalent, forming a white crystalline compound, germs by exposing the wine for a time to a high tempera- which the author regards as an iodide of ammonium, in ture. He states that it is sufficient to raise the wine for a which the triatomic radical CH takes the place of three few minutes to 60° or 70° (C.) to give an extraordinary atoms of hydrogen, and which he consequently reprepower of resisting sickness. His last experiments seem to show that 45° C. may be sufficient. After exposure, it

CH" is said that the wine may be exposed to the air without

N H fear of its becoming acid. As regards the flavour of wine

I treated by the author's process, he relates that a profes- We shall give a longer abstract of this paper. sional taster who made comparative experiments without knowing which had been submitted to treatment and Annalen der Chemie and Pharmacie. August, 1865. which had not, gave a preference to the treated wines The first paper in this number is by Erlenmeyer and seven times out of nine.

Wanklyn On the Action of Hydriodic Acid on Mannite M. P. Schutzenberger presented a memoir" On Some and Melampyrin.” In both instances the authors obtained Derivatives of Indigotine.' Indigotine by oxidation gives isatine, which, by the action of nascent hydrogen from

an iodide of the composition € 1131, which they provizinc and hydrochloric acid, gives isathyde. The author (eu, e) derived from it differs from the hexylic alcohol of

sionally designate iodide of B hexyl since the alcohol speculated on the possibility of regenerating the indigotine Faget. The authors have prepared many other derivaby the action of a more powerful reducing agent on isatine, tives from the iodide, full descriptions of which are given, and with that idea heated isatine with hydriodic acid, theoretical considerations being avoided, the authors not Indigotine was not produced, but the author obtained being in accord on many points. isathyde, and three new bodies--1, a green body, isatochlorine ; 2, a red substance, isatopurpurine ; and 3, a white cylic and Hydrazodracylic Acid.” Nitrodracylic acid is

The next communication is by Bilfinger, “ On Azodrabody, isatone. These bodies, the author states, have some obtained by the action of strong nitric acid on toluol. A analogies with the bodies prepared from sulphuretted concentrated solution of the soda salt isathyde by Laurent, but, nevertheless, are altogether different.

M. Gernez, whose paper " On the Crystallisation of Supersaturated Solutions." we lately published, now makes treated with sodium amalgam gives a deep gold.yellow known an experiment which, to his mind, decides that solution from which hydrochloric acid throws down a sulphate of soda is present everywhere in the air. He flesh-coloured precipitate of azodracylic acid Ci4H.NO, distilled water in a platinum still to avoid suspicion from The author describes the soda, ammonia, baryta, and silver glass, and passed through this water air taken in the park salts of this acid. Azodracylic acid, like its isomer at Talmay at a long distance from any houses. A few azobenzoic acid, gives, on boiling with caustic soda and drops of the water evaporated on a plate of glass showed, protosulphate of iron, another acid --- hydrazodracylic acid under the microscope, crystals of sulphate of soda. C4H N04-an isomer of hydrazobenzoic acid. In a post

script to this paper, Strecker expresses an opinion that

Zinin’s azobenzoic and the author's azodracylic acids are NOTICES OF BOOKS.

probably the same bodies.

In the next paper Dr. Haarhaus describes “ HydrazoResearches on Thallium. By M. S. NICKLÉS. Nancy. 1865. anilin," which he obtains by the action of sodium amalgam Tue eminent Professor of Chemistry at Nancy has in this

on nitraniline. The author writes the formula of the new publication collected the various papers he has published body C24H, N. He also gives the following table, which on the compounds of thallium. With one exception, these will serve to show the relations of the bodies described in papers have already appeared in our pages, and it is un

the previous paper : necessary to notice them again, further than to acknowledge

Aniline C12H, N their great merit. The exception we have named is a short

Nitraniline C2H6 (NON note on the use of chlorothallate of ammonia as a reagent,

Azoaniline C2H2N, (wanting) and this we shall publish in a future number.

Hydrazoaniline CHAN

CH,(N0); } 0,+64q.

94

Notices of Patents-Correspondence.

Aug. 25, 1865.

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Hydrazoaniline is a tolerably strong base, fusing at 160°,

CORRESPONDENCE. subliming for the most part undecomposed at a higher temperature. It forms crystallisable salts with acids. It is obtained in the form of long gold-yellow needles, which on the Cause of Numerical Relations among the Equivalents. are but slightly soluble in water, but freely soluble in

To the Editor of the CHEMICAL NEWS. alcohol and ether.

SIR,_By way of addition to my last letter, I will, with We have another body of the same class described by your permission, endeavour to show that all the numerical Dr. Brigel, in a note entitled “ On a Product of the Reduc- relations among the equivalents pointed out by M. Dumas tion of Nitrosalicylous Acid.” This acid (C14H;(NO)0) and others, including the well-known triads, are merely treated with sodium amalgam loses the oxygen of the arithmetical results flowing from the existence of the group NOx, and becomes hydrazosalicylous acid CH NO“ law of octaves,” taken in connection with the fact of the

The next paper is by Werigo, " On the Action of Sodium equivalents forming a series of numbers approaching to Amalgam on Nitrobenzol," the principal product of which the natural order, as may be observed by an inspection of is azobenzid €12H1Nz. The author describes several deriva- the following table :tives of azobenzid.

Symbol. No. Eq. Eq. No. Symbol. No. Eq. Eq. --No. Several other papers of much interest are contained in

Br

29

80 2758 this number, among which we may point out that by Dr. Li

7
3'5
Rb

30

85 2.833 Erdmann “ On some Derivatives of Benzoin ; " Blomstrand G

3 9

31
87'5

2'823 On Niobium and Tantalum,” in which we read that the Bo

2.75
Zr

32

89'5 20797 author has determined the equivalent of the former metalo

2'4
Ce
33 92

2788 to be about 40; Strecker “ On Some Salts of the so-called N

14

34

2824 Peroxide of Thallium,” to which we shall return; Feld

2*286 | Ro

35

104 2'971 mann “ On Laserpitin," an interesting body obtained from F.

19

• 36
106.5

2-958 the root of Laserpitium latifolium ; and Wickelhaus “ On Na 9 23

2'555 | Ag

37
108

2919 the Action of Perchloride of Phosphorus on some Organic Mg

24 2'4

cd
38

2'947 Acids."

Al
27'S 2'5

Sn

39 118
Si
28

40

3 NOTICES OF PATENTS.

P.
13 31 2'385 Sb

41

2'975 s. 14 32 2.286 1.

42 127 3 '024 Ci 15 35'5 2'367 Te

43 129 3 GRANTS OF PROVISIONAL PROTECTION FOR

K 16

39
2'437 Cs

44 133 3'023
SIX MONTHS.
Ca • 17 40

137 3'044 Ti 18 50 2.778 | Ta

46

138 3 Communicated by Mr. Vaughan, PATENT AGENT, 54, Chancery Cr Lane, W.C.

19
52.5 20763 W

47 184 3'915
Mn
55 275

Nb

48

195 4'062 1905. J. H. Chaudet, Rouen, “An improved system of Fe

56 2.667 ) Au

49 196 4 manufacturing salts, sulphates, and acetates of chrome, Co

58.5 20659 Pt

50 197 3'94 and of applying them as mordants in dyeing and printing Cu 23

2.761 | Os

51 199 3'902 textile substances, both animal and vegetable."-Petition Yt

24
2.667 Hg 52

3.846 recorded, July 21, 1865.

Zn
25
26

53 203 2013. W. Morgans, Brendon Hill, Somerset, “Improve- In

72
2769 Pb

54
207

3.833 ments in coke ovens and in the manufacture of coke." As

75
2.778 Bi

3.818 2015. E. L. Ransome, Ipswich, “Improvements in paints

Se 28

79'5
2.839 | Th

238 425 or preparations for coating surfaces.”-Aug. 3, 1865.

In this table the first column of figures gives the num2019: P. Robertson, Jeffrey Square, London, "Improve-bers of the elements ; the second, their equivalents; and ments in brewing and distilling ; also in drying yeast, and the third, the product obtained by dividing the equivalent in the apparatus employed.”

of an element by its number. It will be seen that the 2023. J. A. Leon, G. Tessimond, and J. Kissack, Liver- number of an element is nearly equal to its equivalent pool, Improvements in apparatus for filtering sugar and divided by a certain sum, which varies, however, as we other liquid solutions."'--Aug. 4, 1865.

ascend the scale, thus2053. J. Buchanan, jun., Barrhead, N.B., and R. Boyd,

From 4 to 17, the No. = Eq. • 2'5 Glasgow, N.B., “Improvements in printing and dyeing

From 18 to 34, the No. = Eq. • 2.75 yarns and fabrics of cotton or other vegetable materials.”

From 35 to 46, the No. =Eq. = 3
-Aug. 8, 1865

From 47 to 56, the No.
NOTICES TO PROCEED.

Now, as the equivalents correspond more or less closely

in their rate of increase to the numbers of the elements, 966. W. Teall, Louis Lefraige, and E. T. Simpson, anything that is true of the latter must, with a certain Wakefield, Yorkshire, "Improvements in the manufacture amount of latitude, be true of the former also ; and, thereof lubricating oil and grease.” A communication from fore, if the number of one element is the mean of those of E. Lepaulle, Paris.

two others (whether belonging to the same group or not), 970. E. Ritherdon, Fenchurch Street, “Improvements its equivalent will also be the mean of their equivalents. in protecting iron ships and other submerged structures Thus the number of Ti, 18, is the mean of those of F, 8, from oxidation and corrosion.”—Petition recorded April 6, and Se, 28, and the equivalent of Ti=50 is also the mean 1865.

of those of F=19 and Se=79'5, thus995. H. Edmonds, Gosport, " Improvements in lighting

19 + 79'5 and ventilating ships, part of which is also applicable for

49'25. producing fresh water at sea.”—April 7, 1865.

This is only one example of many that I might adduce 1023. C. Vaughan, Birmingham, “Improvements in the of elements, whether analogous or not, possessing intermanufacture of iron and steel.”-April 11, 1865.

mediate numbers, and also intermediate equivalents. 1776. J. Jobson, Derby, and J. F. Dickson, Leicester, Now, in conformity with the “law of octaves,” elements “Improvements in the conversion of wrought or malleable belonging to the same group generally have numbers difiron into steel, and in the means or apparatus employed fering by seven or by some multiple of seven—that is to therein.”—July 5, 1865.

say, if we begin with the lowest member of a group, call

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Correspondence-Miscellaneous.

Aug. 25, 1865.

95

ing it 1, the succeeding members will have the numbers easily removed by means of a brush. Sulphurous acid 8, 15, 22, 29, 36, &c., respectively.

or a solution of chloride of lime may be used for But 8 is the mean between 1 and 15; 15 is the mean bleaching them. between 8 and 22 ; 22 is the mean between 15 and 29, The stains of permanganate of potash upon the fingers &c.; and, therefore, as an arithmetical result of the “ Law are, of course, easily washed off by dilute sulphuric acid. of Octaves," the number of an element is often the exact

I am, &c.

H. J. CHURCH. mean of those of two others belonging to the same group, Cambridge, August 22. and consequently its equivalent also approximates to the mean of their equivalents.

MISCELLANEOUS. The real triad exists in the numbers of analogous elements, as a consequence of their differing by some multiple of a regularly recurring number-viz., 7. The North London Exhibition.- If the naked truth triad of M. Dumas is only an approximation to the former, must be told, we are bound to say that the Agricultural and is due to the partial concordance between the equiva- Hall looks very bare, and considering what they have to lents of the elements and their respective numbers.

exhibit it would have been well if the Committee had conA similar train of reasoning will explain why it is that tented themselves with less space. The redeeming point on deducting the equivalent of the lowest member of a is, that, for the most part, what is shown is of great excelgroup from that immediately above it we obtain a constant lence, and this is especially true of the articles which call number (about 16). For we find that if, instead of taking for a notice from us. To commence with the chemical elements of the same group (that is, elements whose num- exhibitors, we may say that the cases shown by Messrs. bers differ by 7,) we perform a similar calculation with Morson and Son, of Southampton Row, and by Mr. How, elements whose numbers differ by 8 or by 9, &c., we of Foster Lane, would attract notice in any exhibition. obtain in each case numbers quite as constant as in the Both exhibitors confine themselves mostly to photographic above. The difference of about 16 merely expresses the chemicals. Those of Messrs. Morson are remarkably fine, average difference for an interval of seven elements in the having, in fact, more the appearance of museum specilower part of the scale of equivalents.

mens than commercial samples. The iodide and bromide The above remarks are merely offered as an attempt to of cadmium, and the gallic and pyrogallic acids are very indicate, in a general manner, the mode in which the beautiful specimens, and there is some well crystallised existence of arithmetical relations among the equivalents iodide of ammonium of an unusually good colour. The may, at any rate, be partially explained.

Messrs. Morson also exhibit one pharmaceutical preparaI am, &c.,

tion, a new remedy for cholera, which we sincerely John A. R. NEWLANDS, F.C.S. hope no one will have an opportunity of trying. Mr. Laboratory, 19, Great St. Helens, E.C., August 15.

How's case also contains some fine samples of photo

graphic chemicals, having what we may call a reasonably Crystallisation of Bromide of Potassium.

commercial look—that is, they appear like the best articles To the Editor of the CHEMICAL NEWS.

that can be bought across the counter. The iodide of

cadmium has a superior look, and so has the pyrogallic SIR,- In the CHEMICAL News of the 4th ult. there appeared acid. Some very pretty specimens of other than photoå report by Mr. Tichborne in reference to the Dublin Inter-graphic chemicals also find a place in this case, among national Exhibition. He therein directs attention to a which is a quantity of that beautiful coloured compound remarkably fine specimen of bromide of potassium, and the sesquichloride of chromium. A very fine looking states :" It is a fact that a small quantity of the iodide specimen of nitrate of uranium is also shown; the whole makes the bromide crystallise in much larger crystals.” contents of the case, indeed, have a very creditable appearIn practice I have found the reverse to be the case, although ance. Messrs. Johnson and Sons have a case containing French and German bromine is rarely or ever quite free very large crystals of nitrate of silver, and also open dishes from iodine, which is really the way in which the iodide of very fine crystals marked respectively chloride of gold is introduced into the bromide. Any excess, however, of and chloride of platinum “for photographic purposes.' iodide contained in the bromide is readily removed ; but, The crystals of chloride of gold are very dry, and are no practically, traces are not easily separated. After the doubt permanent, and they are said tơ be guaranteed to separation of all but traces of iodine, the salt then forms contain the quantity of gold stated on the label, which very sharp and well-defined cubes, far more so than the appears to be seven grains of gold in fifteen grains of the iodide, the opacity, or transparency, and size of the crystal salt. Now, we have no doubt that this is a very useful depending upon the manipulator. In support of this con- salt for toning, but it would be as well to say what it is. clusion, I operated upon a quantity of bromine manufac- Photographers in these days are mostly chemists, and tured in Scotland a few months since as an experiment. understand that a definite chemical compound needs no This bromine did not give the faintest indication of the verbal guarantee for the proportions of its constituents. presence of iodine on the addition of starch acidified with It would be far better to label the salt with its proper hydrochloric acid and nitrite of potassa, but furnished chemical name, and then a photographer can always calcularge cubes of great beauty.

late its composition. We have, however, no objection to I am inclined to think the idea that a well-developed say that, whatever they are, the salts look very beautiful. cube must contain iodide will be found to be altogether we shall notice some of the philosophical apparatus on a erroneous. I am, &c.

future occasion. WILLIAM HUSKISSON, jun. Swinton Street, Gray's Inn Road, August 17.

Explosive Force of Nitro-Glycerine.-Experi

ments have been made in the open workings of the tin mines Skeleton Leaves,

of Altenburg, in Saxony, by M. Nabel, which prove that the To the Editor of the CHEMICAL News.

use of nitro-glycerine for blasting purposes is quite prac

ticable. Its chief advantage is, that it requires a much Sir, -The most expeditious method of removing the smaller hole or chamber than gunpowder does, the strength cellular from the vascular tissue of leares, and thereby of the latter being scarcely one-tenth of the former. If “ skeletonising" them, is not that suggested by your the boring presents fissures, it must first be lined with correspondent a fortnight ago, but the following: - clay to make it watertight; this done, the nitro-glycerine

The leaves are boiled for two minutes, then transferred is poured in, and water after it, which being the lighter to a strong solution of permanganate of potash and gently liquid, remains at the top. A fuse is then applied in the heated. In an hour or two the laxer tissues may be I usual manner. In one of the experiments referred to a 96

Miscellaneous-Answers to Correspondents.

CHEMICAL NEWS,

Arg. 25, 1865.

bore-hole ig-inch in diameter was made perpendicularly thetics. He stated that he had not lately performed any in a dolomitic rock, 60 feet in length, and at a distance serious operation, either in private practice or at the Leeds of 14 feet from its extremity, which was nearly vertical. General Infirmary, without the patient being rendered At a depth of 8 feet a vault filled with clay was found, insensible by one or other of these agents ; each of which in consequence of which the bottom of the hole was he believed to possess important advantages over chlorotamped, leaving a depth of 7 feet. Nearly three pints form. They were amongst the many analogous bodies of the nitro-glycerine was then poured in-it occupied experimented upon by him, and were favourably men5 feet; a match and stopper were then applied, as stated, tioned in his essay upon Anästhesia which was published and the mine sprung. The effect was so enormous as to in the Transactions of the Association for 1849. At that produce a fissure 50 feet in length, and another of 20 feet. time the difficulty and cost of their manufacture were too The total effect has not yet been ascertained, because it great to allow of their being commonly used. This diffiwill require several small blasts to break the blocks that culty had, however, been overcome; and, should their use have been partially detached by this.

become general, they can be made at a cost not exceeding Metallic Tangsten.—We learn that a Swedish that of chloroform, if not at less. They both act speedily, metallurgist has discovered a method of reducing tung. pleasantly, and well. The patient might be kept insensible sten, by which he obtains it at once in a state of fusion, for any length of time, while the most painful and proand that ingots of the pure metal weighing several pounds longed operations were being performed. No disagreeable each are now on exhibition at Stockholm. We are in- symptoms had in any case resulted from their use. formed, too, that the cost of obtaining tungsten by the The Copper Smoke Question.-For many years new method does not exceed a few shillings per pound. past the subject of utilising or neutralising the effects of If really obtainable thus cheaply, a metal which will the obnoxious copper smoke has received much attention bear exposure to so intense a heat without undergoing from practical chemists and the smelters engaged in the either fusion or oxidation must prove of incalculable trade. In the neighbourhood of Swansea, where there value to certain of the arts, provided that the difficulties are large copper works, the effect of the smoke is such in the way of working it are not insuperable. With the that vegetation is completely destroyed for miles around, exception of gold and platinum, tungsten is the heaviest and the result is that the copper smelters have to pay metal yet known. Its specific gravity is about 18, that enormous sums of money as compensation for the land of gold being 19'36, and that of platinum 21.53.— that is thus rendered valueless. Various remedies have Mechanics' Magazine.

been attempted to neutralise the poisonous effects of the Bismuth. This metal has of late years risen consider- smoke, such as high stacks, conductors, condensers, &c., ably in price. Amongst other causes, some journals have but only a limited degree of success has been attained. stated that two or three years ago a company was formed It is well known that the smoke possesses some valuable to work an invention by which gold was to be made by the properties, which, if separated from the other ingredients, transmutation of bismuth into that metal, and that large could be utilised and made profitable, and nearly all the quantities of the former metal had been bought up for this inventions proposed have had these objects in view, but purpose. Whether such an enterprise was or was not hitherto, as already stated, the attempts have ended in entered upon does not appear. The following is a list of failure. Messrs. Vivian and Sons, the extensive copper the prices :

smelters, have recently determined to adopt the patent

of a German chemist, and Mr. H. H. Vivian, M.P., the 1844 Ojo to o per pound.

senior partner, has stated publicly that he believes, after 1845

a careful investigation, that the invention will prove com1846

pletely successful, and that it will enable the firm to 3. 3 1847

make 1000 tons per week of sulphuric acid from the 1848

copper smoke, which is now not only of no value, but a 1849

6

source of great loss, owing to its injurious effects on the 1850-7.

6, 28, 2
6

surrounding vegetation. The completion of the necessary 1858

3
6

works is looked forward to with especial interest by those 1859

3
6

4
6

who are engaged in the copper-smelting trade.— Times. 1860 6 6

[Mr. Spence has already taken out several patents for 6 6

6
6
9

effecting this object, which is successfully carried out

in July 1862

in December. at his works near Manchester. -Ed. C. N.] 1863

6 1864 1865 6

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. Up to 1844, a large quantity of bismuth was produced in this country from cobalt ores in the old way of refining, In publishing letters from our Correspondents we do not thereby but a new way of treating such ores, then introduced, adopt the views of the writers. Our intention to give both sides of a necessitated the loss of much of the bismuth, and since question will frequently oblige us to publish opinions with which we that time we have been chiefly supplied from the Saxon and Bohemian mines. In 1845 there was a large demand

Vol. XI. of the CHEMICAL NEWS, containing a copious Index, is now for a composition to make rollers for calico-printers, raising ready, price lis. od., by post, 11s. 6d., handsomely bound

in cloth, the price for a few months. In 1858 the supply began to gold-lettered. The cases for binding may be obtained at our office, fall off, and in 1861-2 there was a very large extra demand price 18. 6d. Subscribers may have their copies bound for 28. od. it for medicinal preparations, which, to a certain extent, still and II. are out of print. All the others are kept in stock. Vol. XII. continues, but the demand for mechanical use has since commenced on July 7, 1865, and will be complete in 26 numbers. that time been very trifling. New sources of supply are opening, and prices, it is said on good authority, are likely Received, with thanks.-R. C. M. ; C. M. Warren; J. B. to fall. -Journal of the Society of Arts, M. F. 5, viii., 65. Mona.--We cannot understand our correspondent's request, or New Forms of Anästhetics. · Mr. Nunneley

would oblige him if possible. showed to the members of the British Medical Association purpose to which the substanco is to be applied. Either acotic

acid

J. A.-The material to use for preserving would depend upon the two substances, the bromide of ethyl and the chloride of or corrosive sublimate would answer, but the latter is a poison. Carolefiant gas, which for some time past he had used as anæs-bolic acid also would do.

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